Daguerreotype - Photograph of Confederate Dead 1862
Example of an Ambrotype - UnidentifiedFlorida SoldierPeriod of Use 1851 - 1880sPopularity of thedaguerreotypedeclined in thelate 1850s whenthe ambrotype, afaster and lessexpensivephotographicprocess, becameavailable.
Calotype, 1835 The oldest photographic negative in existenceThe inventor of thefirst negative from which multiple positive prints were made was Henry Fox Talbot.
• Talbot sensitized paper to light with a silver salt solution. He then exposed the paper to light. The background became black, and the subject was rendered in gradations of grey. This was a negative image, and from the paper negative, photographers could duplicate the image as many times as they wanted.
Tintype Photography - The tintype photograpy process was patented in 1856 by Hamilton Smith.• Daguerreotypes and tintypes were one of a kind images and the image was almost always reversed left to right.• A thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielding a positive image. Tintypes are a variation of the collodion wet plate process. The emulsion is painted onto a japanned (varnished) iron plate, which is exposed in the camera. The low cost and durability of tintypes, coupled with the growing number of traveling photographers, enhanced the tintype’s popularity.
Tintype Photograph of Members ofthe 75th Ohio Infantry in Jacksonville
Terms to know Daguerrotype• Landscape photography• Photojournalism• Pure photography• Which camera put photography into the hands of everyday people?• What was the first american conflict to be recorded in photographs?• Match camera artists to their type of photography- – Ansel adams, alfred steiglitz, dorothea lange, julia margaret cameron
Things to know• Origin of all types of graphic design• Industrial revolution contributed greatly to graphic design applications• Symbols• Typography• Layout• Graphic design• Illustration• Match artists to work : rockwell, toulouse -lautrec
• Graphic design – Visual presentation of information – the goal is communication of a specific message – Usually trying to sell something or give directions• Sometimes called commercial art – At SIU they call the degree a communications design
Examples of things that are designed before production• Books • Book jackets• Newspapers • Magazines• Advertisements • Packaging• Websites • CD covers• Road signs • Logos• Television & film credits
How old is graphic design art?• Since the beginning of civilization • Written languages • Symbols• Today’s graphic design is rooted in – Invention of the printing press, 15th century • Reproduction and distribution – Industrial Revolution, 18th-19th centuries Increased commercial applications – Prior, most products were local – After, mass manufacturing
symbols• Most basic level of communication• Letters are symbols Ω Ж Φ Ш М• Even arrows had to be developed → Δ
yin yang – dynamic balance of opposites, explains existencefemale/malebeing/nonbeinglight/darkaction/inactionopposites aremutuallyinterdependentboth arenecessary tomake the whole
Symbols have no meaning in themselves, they are given meaning by society.The swastika dates backto Neolithic Europe,up to 5,700 yrs ago. Svastika = Sanskrit for good luck. India
US Dept ofTransportation, 1974 developed to communicate tointernational travelers by Cook and Shanosky Associates
typography• The arrangement and appearance of letters• Calligraphy • Font, typeface• People began to pay special attention to this with the invention of movable type, 1450• Sometimes designers will create their own lettering• Sometimes designers use a combination of typefaces
Joan Dobkin,leaflet for Amnesty International, 1991 Textbook, pg 243
layout• Blueprint for how an extended work such as a book or magazine should look – The way a page or a pair of pages are balanced • Using smaller and larger shapes • Using darker and lighter colors • Generally asymmetrical • Looking for a visual appeal
posters/ads• Color lithography (19th century) brought about eye-catching posters – Color wasn’t practical in magazines or newspapers• Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Flat simplified forms influenced by Japanese prints – Immediately collector’s items
Constructivism – a graphicdesign art movement after the Russian Revolution of 1917They had high hopes to create a new society, wanted to makeart for the masses, not the elite. They used bold compositions. During the 1930s, the Sovietgov’t abolished independent artist groups, the gov’t demanded all art to be clear,easy to understand & realistic. Poster for the 1930 film "Earth" by the Stenberg brothers
illustration• An image created to accompany words – Books - Poems – Magazines - Newspapers• Illustration is a different kind of environment for artists – Tight deadlines – The work is usually thrown away • Illustrators usually find ways to work quickly but still create striking images
Norman Rockwell did about 6 covers a year forThe Saturday evening Post for over 40 yrs. He did 322 covers for TSEP