Artist: Joseph Paxton Title: Crystal Palace Medium: Iron, glass, and wood Size: n/a Date: 1850–51 Source/ Museum: London
Artist: n/a Title: Grand Staircase, the Opéra Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/ Museum: n/a
Artist: Jacob Riis Title: Tenement Interior in Poverty Gap: An English Coal-Heaver ’ s Home Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: c. 1889 Source/ Museum: Museum of the City of New York. The Jacob A. Riis Collection
Realism in Art and Architecture
Mid 19th Century Art & Architecture:Realism, Photography, and Iron Iron Opens Doors…
Industrial Revolution - EconomyTime Frame of Realism: 1848-late 1860s – beginning: conclusion of Napoleonic Wars – trains – transport raw materials to factories in city – effect: class system • capitalists --> gained centralized economic control • laboring class --> lack of education & poor living • middle class --> adopted “laissez-faire” policy
Industrial Revolution: Technology• Photography• Trains• Iron – steel in building!
Crystal Palace, Sir John Paxton, London, iron and glass, 1850This building used new IRON technology in an ironic way... WhatFIRSTS were made by this building?
Grand Staircase, the Opera,1861-74, Paris, CharlesGarnier(IRON structure)Historicism style-differentperiods combinedUrban redevelopment planfor Paris by Napoleon IIIBased on Baroque styleGarnier: “to hear, to see,and above all, to be seen”Mirrors on columns forladies to check their hair
Eiffel Tower, Gustav Eiffel,Paris, 1889, iron.Taller than Notre Dame andother buildings in Paris.Created for 1889 Worlds Fair
Brooklyn BridgeJohn Augustus and WashingtonAugustus Roebling, NY, 1867-1883•Greatest constructionachievement of era.•Designer +11 workerskilled in its construction.•Carries millions of peopleeach day.•Roebling, GermanImmigrant, had majorbreakthrough insuspension bridgetechnology (web truss).
Realism: Social & Political Equality• political context: Marxism• Communist Manifesto (c. 1850) – thesis: all history was history of class struggles – humanity’s relationship to material wealth• Darwin theory of evolution• Comte: positivism…all knowledge comes from tested scientific proof
Tenement Interior in Poverty Gap, an English Coal Heaver’s Home, Jacob Riis, 1889. Published study in NY called How the Other Half Lives http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZl4KXsaKVE
Realism – Cultural Context– Role of Artist: • no longer to simply reveal beautiful & sublime • aimed to tell the truth • not beholden to higher, idealized reality (i.e., God)– Subjects: • ordinary events and objects • working class & broad panorama of society • psychological motivation of characters
Realism in France: Courbet The Stonebreakers, 1850Miserable job; socialist ideals; Monumentality of everyday -Self educated artist, SALON REJECT …“Show me an angel, and I’ll paint you one.” - hugely influential to Impressionists and Modern Art Painting was destroyed in WWII so that is why image quality is so poor
Courbet’s The Burial at Ornans (c. 1850) Huge scale = monumental, but not glorified. Earth tones,everyday people. S curve composition. Unflattering pics of provincial officials, dog and people are distracted.
Realism- Jean Francois Millet• Millet (1814-75) – theme: class distinction • Peasantry v. urban middle class – allegory: religious – Wanted to “make the trivial seem sublime.” – portrayal of nature: • atmospheric qualities • golden glow of sunlight
Millet’s The Gleaners (c. 1857) •Barbizon School of French painting •Poorest of the poor, picking up scraps of grain •Figures become part of landscape •Haystacks and wagon reflect shapes of gleaners •Seen as socialist painting
Rosa Bonheur’s Plowing on the Ninverais (c. 1850)Influenced by Positivism.. Large canvas, virtues of simple country living in asweeping panorama… noted animal painter who fought for women’s rights
French Realism- Honore Daumier• Soldiers killed everyone in a workers apt. complex• Illustrates 3 generations murdered in surprise attack• Lithograph (print) used to mass produce image• French government tried to suppress Rue Transomonain, Daumier, lithograph, 1834
Daumier’s Third Class Carriage (c. 1865) Influence of William Hogarth Daumier was jailed for satirizing king political cartoon Dignity of working class, even though crammed together in mass transportation 1st piece showing dehumanizing mass transport
American Realism- Eakins the Anatomist• Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) – teacher: Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts • taught anatomy to medical students & figure drawing to art students • disapproved of academic technique of drawing from plaster casts – used nude model – allowed female students to study male nude • Critics called him a “butcher” and “degrading”
Eakins’ Gross Clinic (c. 1875) Triangular composition with Baroque lighting Eakins worked from photograph of Dr. Gross (medical professor) Celebrates advances in medical science Eakins was noted anatomist who taught anatomy & figure drawing, pioneered letting black and female students study and draw nudes
Henry O. Tanner’s The Banjo Lesson, 1893 •American realist taught by Eakins •1st noted black painter •Painterly brushwork, monumental forms •Dignity of exchange between generations; answers ugly stereotypes of African Americans •Unsentimental yet affectionate
US Realism: Winslow Homer’s The Lifeline •Homer began as freelance illustrator Spent a year on N. Sea Coast of England •Sketches of an actual event
Central Park, Frederick Las Olmstead and Calvert Vaux, 1858-80, New York City• 1st public park in US; contest held in late 1850s• NYC population had tripled in recent years• Designers created Romantic English landscape on swamps and bluffs• Provided recreation and nature for city workers and immigrants
John Singer Sargent’s Madame X, 1988 •American portrait artist much sought after in US and Europe •This portrait caused a scandal in the Paris salon of 1888 •Sargent moved to England and painted quasi impressionist •Captured personality of his subjects •Painterly brushwork, outstanding capture of clothing/fashions
English – Pre-Raphaelites: the anti-Realists• Dante Gabriel Rosetti - poet & painter• Returned to more Venetian styles; influenced Symbolism• Medieval stories & spirituality“I have been here before, But when or how I cannot tell: I know the grass beyond the door, The sweet keen smell, The sighing sound, the lights around the shore.” The Roman Widow, Rosetti, 1848
English Realism/Romanticism – John Ruskin• Published Modern Painters In 1843– noted art critic• Helped establish the career of J.M.W. Turner and launch the Pre-Raphaelite painters.• Foreshadowed the Green Movement: predicted damage to environment from Industrial Revolution.• Art professor, critic, social reformer, philosopher, writer He believed that all great art should communicate an understanding and appreciation of nature.
English Realism – Arts and Crafts• Ruskin - loss of fine craft through Industrialization• Movement leader: Morris, ardent socialist, poet, artist• Dehumanized factory labor; loss of pride in work… search for nature• Female artisans in metal working, textile arts, etc.• Morris worked w/PRB artists like Rosetti and Burne-Jones Flora Tapestry, 1885, William Morris
US Arts and Crafts Movement• In US,: home design, furniture, and ceramics – still in use today• Stickley furniture (Mission Style) -buy today !• Home Depot Authentic Mission Style Lighting Collection• Simplicity, Honesty, Truth• Emphasizing wood grain Mission Media Cabinet, Walnut, Target, Assembly Required, $159.99
Realism co- existed with other art movements like the Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood and the tail end of Romanticism.NADAR, Eugène Delacroix, ca. 1855. 30
Edouard Manet - Realism• Manet - Realist movement• However, exhibited with Impressionists• Luncheon on the Grass caused a scandal although inspired by Giorgione• Salon de les Refusés Exhibition• Olympia scandalized Paris Salon
ÉDOUARD MANET, Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. 32