creative revolutions that questioned long-held values and approaches to design
• Radically different art took the modern art world by storm. • georges braque and pablo picasso • lived in the montmartre quarter of paris, france
• The main idea: capture the subject by showing it from various angles simultaneously. • Represent multiple-dimensions of a form on a two-dimensional plane. • Caused artists and designers to examine the nature of dimensionality itself. Left: Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife. Jan Van Eyck, 1434 Right: Woman with a guitar. Georges Braque, 1913
• Common Theme: deconstruction and reconstruction • Representing multiple-dimensions of a form on a two-dimensional plane
African Masks • Lege African mask from what is now the republic of Congo, undated • Cubism is said to have been influenced by what was known at the time as primitivism — included African tribal masks, Iberian sculpture, and Egyptian bas-reliefs. • Some have argued that graphic design itself has its roots in the tribal art of Africa. Paul Cezanne • Still life with fruit basket (1888-90) oil on canvas. • Paul Cézanne also considered a great influence on Cubism. • In his later work, began to experiment with dimensionality and spatial relationships—questioning the accepted ideas of geometry and focusing on the cylinder, sphere and cone as nature’s basic forms.
• Two types of cubism: analytical cubism and synthetic cubism
• non-existent color • studied the planes of a subject from different vantage points • fractured them • visually pulled planes forward towards the canvas surface • focused on cylinder, sphere and cone forms to represent the natural world
• A focus on the essence of the object , its basic characteristics was important, outward appearance was not relevant
• In Synthetic Cubism , artists used pieces of newspaper, cloth and other collage materials to create texture in their paintings. It was the first time that collage became a part of fine arts, and Juan was at the forefront of the movement. • Gris: Spanish painter and sculptor who lived and worked in France and studied mechanical drawing. • Golden Section: At least since the Renaissance, many artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio— in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio—believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. • One way to immerse yourself in three-dimensional shapes is to observe architecture. As an experiment, choose a structure and then enter it. Compare your observations of shapes within and outside the structure. This will help you think in terms of dimensionality.
Left • Flat planes of color , urban motifs, and the hard-edged precision of Léger’s machine forms defined the modern design sensibility after WW I Right • Typography is illustrated by using a pinwheel effect spelling out “accelerated slow motion cinema”
• One of the functional aspects of graphic design has been to express socio-political messages (commentators of our time). • The futurist art movement was a sociopolitical movement. It was a progressive art movement that represented a backlash against the 19th century traditional art movements. • Futurism was associated with a "new" 20 th century progressive art which was distinctly different from the "old" 19 th century art it was rejecting. • Technological advances such as the automobile, plane, and factories were considered to be progressive Futurist ideals. • shocked the public
Since gutenberg’s moveable type, most graphic designs were horizontal and vertical in structure. Futurist poets threw (h and v) constraints aside by pasting words and letters in place. • Futurism has had a large influence on graphic design. Before this movement, graphic designers focused more on the traditional ideals of harmony and aesthetics. Futurism allowed for experimentation: the disharmonious and the unexpected! • Futurist designers animated their layouts with dynamic, nonlinear composition. • Harmony was rejected as a design element. • Defied correct syntax and grammar
• Typographic legibility and texture and generous margins • Illuminator added the red and blue headers, initials, and text by hand
Demonstrates painterly typographic design called parole in libertá (words in freedom) • Journey which included war front (lower left) france (upper left) a visit to léger (top right)
Demonstrates painterly typographic design called parole in libertá (words in freedom) On a page, three or four ink colors and twenty typefaces (italics for quick impressions, boldface for violent noises and sounds) could redouble words’ expressive power. Free, dynamic, and piercing words could be given the velocity of stars, clouds, airplanes, trains, waves, explosives, molecules, and atoms. A new and painterly typographic design, called parole in libertá or “words in freedom,” was born on the page
• Book bound by massive chrome bolts helps to express it is a physical object
tristan tzara • dada’s guiding spirit • a paris-based romanian poet and editor of the periodical DADA • explored sound poetry, nonsense poetry, and chance poetry • Dadaism evolved through the works of a group of artists and writers living in exile in Zurich, Switzerland. This group often congregated at Cabaret Voltaire—a performance venue. • Cabaret Voltaire became a haven for those who wished to speak their minds about political issues through “performance art”—and many expressed their disdain for the war and anything associated with it. • T he movement primarily involved visual arts, literature (mainly poetry) , theatre, and graphic design • Rebelled against: the barbarism of WWI the decadence of european society blind faith in technology inadequacy of religion + conventional moral codes Dada Activities • public gatherings • demonstrations • publication of art/literary journals • passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture filled their publications
• It is ironic that dada became an influential movement in modern art • Dada became a commentary on art and the world, and thus became art itself
• Cubism influenced his analysis of subject and plane • Futurism inspired him to convey time and motion • Believed art and life were processes of random chance and willful choice
• Observe how Duchamp fused Cubism and Futurism by providing several simultaneous perspectives while also illustrating successive movements of the subject. Discuss how he offended the cubists The Armory show was the first international exhibition of modern art in America, New York 1913. The audience was encouraged by the layout of the Armory to move from Gallery A to the east or west side, where many of the American paintings and sculpture were shown. However, by the second week of the show, many visitors reportedly rushed to the "Chamber of Horrors," Gallery I By the third week, the painting had gained such notoriety that it was bought sight unseen by Frederic Torrey, an art dealer from California. Duchamp's painting was punned to death—a work entitled "Food Descending a Staircase" was shown at an exhibition parodying the most outrageous works at the Armory Duchamp first submitted the work to appear in a Cubist show at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris, but jurist Albert Gleizes asked Duchamp's brothers, Jacques Villon and Raymond Duchamp-Villon , to have him voluntarily withdraw the painting, or paint over the title that he had painted on the work and rename it something else. Of the incident he recalled, I said nothing to my brothers. But I went immediately to the show and took my painting home in a taxi. It was really a turning point in my life, I can assure you. I saw that I would not be very much interested in groups after that.
ready-made sculpture: a bicycle wheel mounted on a wooden stool
Was intended as an assault on tradition and a public that had lost the humanistic spirit of the renaissance
• Exhaustive research of items like snow shovels and bottle racks in use at the time has failed to turn up any identical matches • The urinal, upon close inspection, is non-functional Forces people to walk into a gallery and look at every day objects as though they were art.
• When questioned after the sale the buyer said that he had purchased the piece because “it represents the origins of contemporary art
Material gathered from the streets, alleys, and garbage cans was washed and cataloged according to size and color for use as the raw material of art. • Photomontage : the technique of manipulating found photographic images to create jarring juxtapositions and chance associations • Schwitters from hanover, germany • Schwitters wrote and designed poetry, which he defined as the interaction of elements: letters, syllables, words, and sentences • his merz collages were design compositions based on nonsense, surprise, and chance made by combining printed material, rubbish, and found materials from the streets, alleys, garbage cans • Between 1923 and 1932, he published 24 issues of the periodical merz
• Headline “adolf, the superman: swallows gold and talks tin ” • Photomontage: an effective propaganda weapon aimed at the growing Nazi party
• Under the headline “oh tannenbaum in germany, how crooked are your branches,” a sickly tree symbolizes the third reich
• Like Dada, Surrealists also focused on bringing about social and artistic change by rejecting traditional aesthetics, meaning, and sensibility. • Surrealism shared Dada’s emphasis on “nonsense”—but, more specifically, “unexpected juxtapositions*. • Not surprising that surrealism too had its own manifesto. Written in an “absurdist” tone, inspired by Dadaist humor. Andre breton , the founder of surrealism, wrote the surrealist manifesto in 1924 Describes surrealism in terms of the juxtaposition of 2 distant realities brought together to create an uncanny union One of the elements of surrealism involves the visual expression of the “unconscious mind” READ LAST • Breton illustrates this idea through a description of his own “hypnologic state”—an experience occurring as one is falling asleep or immediately upon waking up—in which a phrase appeared in his mind: “There is a man cut in two by the window.” • Searching for uninhibited truth in the world of intuition, dreams, and the unconscious realm explored by sigmund freud
• Utilized frottage , where he used rubbings to compose directly on paper, • Also used decal-co-mania , a process of transferring images from printed matter to a drawing and incorporating them in unexpected ways
READ FIRST: Expressionism was another major contemporary art style that had a significant impact on graphic design. Focus on the inner workings of the mind. The Expressionists moved away from realism, yet were able to illustrate human emotions.
• Her posters express her concern for social outcasts and the poor • great emotional power • Her figurative paintings and woodblock prints were forged with thick, raw strokes, often becoming bold statements about alienation, anxiety and despair.
• founding member of der blaue reiter (the blue rider) • he explored problems of form and color
cubism influenced by cubism influenced by lege african masks paul cézanne• Abstracted geometric • French post-impressionist forms showed European painter. artists a different • Viewed cylinder, sphere and approach to art and cone as nature’s basic forms. design.
synthetic cubism • 13-4 Juan Gris, Fruit Bowl, 1916. • Cubist planes move forward and backward in shallow space. • Vertical/diagonal geometry of a grid imposes order. • Tight structure using golden section proportions.
cubism inspires type + image• 13-6 and 13-7 Pages from La Fin Du Monde, 1919.• (L) The world is destroyed when the angel on Notre Dame blows her trumpet.• (C) Letterforms illustrate the chaos that ensues.• (R) The re-creation of earth after the fall of man.
filippo marinetti • 13-14 Page from Parole in libertá futuriste (Futurist Words- in-Freedom), 1932. • Example of expressive type: • Italics for quick impressions • Boldface for violent noises and sounds • Redouble words’ expressive power
fortunato depero • 13-23 and 13-24 Cover and page from Depero Futurista, 1927. • A catalogue of his graphic work. • Applied Futurist philosophy to graphic/advertising design. • Produced kinetic energy through: • flat planes of vibrant color • diagonal composition • angular repetitive forms
marcell duchamp • 13-27 The Fountain, by Marcel Duchamp, 191 7. • Forces people to walk into a gallery and look at every day objects as though they were art. • Research published in 1997 by art historian Rhonda Roland Rhearer indicates that Duchamps found objects may actually have been created by him.
kurt schwitters • 13-31 untitled (Grune Zugabe), probably 1920. • Dadaists claim to have invented photomontage. • Schwitters created a nonpolitical offshoot of Dada called Merz taken from the word kommerz (commerce).
john heartfield • 13-38 Anti-Nazi propaganda poster, 1935. • Created photomontage visuals raising public awareness and promoting social change: • powerful posters • book/magazine covers • political illustrations • cartoons • Photomontage x-ray of Hitler with an esophagus of gold coins.
john heartfield• 13-41 AIZ 13, no. 52, page 848, December, 1934.
max ernst• 13-45 Collage from Une Semaine de Bonte (A week of kindness), 1934.• Novel of collages published by Ernst.• Inspired during a 3 week stay in Italy at the time of Hitler’s rise to power.• Photomechanical printing techniques remove cut edges, unifying the image.• Fascinated by the wood engravings in 19th century novels.
käthe schmidt kollwitz • 13-49 “The survivors make war on the war!” poster, 1923. • Die Brücke (the bridge) artist. • Had great empathy for the suffering of women and children. • Antiwar statement commissioned by the International Association of Labor Unions in Amsterdam.
wassily kandinsky • 13-50 Improvisation No. 29, 1929. • Der Blaue Reiter (the blue rider) artist. • Sought a spiritual reality beyond the outward appearances of nature. • Not into showing the agony of the human condition.