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Basics of Cataloging


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Basics of Cataloging

  1. 1. Used extensively in Library Thing and other websites, clouds allow users to view the importance of the subject codings they have assigned toresources. Many online library catalogs have adopted the use of clouds.
  2. 2. • Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is a standard for describing collections held by archives and special collections• EAD tag set has 146 elements and is used both to describe a collection as a whole, and also to encode a detailed multi-level inventory of the collection• Output is XML
  3. 3.  •ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.85-2001 •ISO Standard 15836-2003 •Developed by OCLC in 1995 to allow quick cataloging of web resources by non-catalogers •15 elements: Title; Creator; Subject; Description; Publisher; Contributor; Date; Type; Format; Identifier; Source; Language; Relation; Coverage; Rights
  4. 4. Anglo-American Cataloging Rules Version 2 Revised
  5. 5. •“Rule of three” in AACR2 is discarded, i.e. if there are twenty-fiveauthors, the first author is the main entry, and the additional twenty-four are traced in the 700 MARC field (subject to cataloger’s judgment);this parallels the arrangement in periodical databases, e.g. PubMed•Subfield e ($e = Relator term) will be used when appropriate, e.g. Smith, Jane, $e editor Jones, Jim, $e compiler Day, Doris, $e illustrator ($e author is okay per RDA, but test libraries mostly didn’t use it)•Abbreviations will no longer be used, unless they appear as-is in theitem being cataloged•Latin terminology, used in AACR2 (e.g. s.l. or s.n. i.e. sine loco or sinenomine, will no longer be used, replaced by common English words, e.g.[Place of publication not identified] and [Publisher not identified]•Some terms will change, e.g. main entry (AACR2) becomes primaryaccess point (RDA); uniform title (AACR2) becomes preferred title(RDA)
  6. 6. Prescribed punctuation for descriptive cataloging
  7. 7. • ISBD is a set of rules produced by theInternational Federation of LibraryAssociations (IFLA) to describe a widerange of library materials within thecontext of an online catalog.• The consolidated edition of the ISBDwas published in 2007. It supersededearlier separate ISBDs that werepublished for monographs, oldermonographs, cartographic materials,serials and other continuing resources,electronic resources, nonbook materialsand printed music.
  8. 8. • Tags• Fields• Indicators• Subfields
  9. 9. • For an evaluation of the problems involved with using MARC in the bibliographic universe, see:• MARC has served the cataloging community well over the past thirty years, but some participants in the RDA test group said they thought we should adopt a different standard, e.g. XML or SQL• OCLC and other bibliographic utilities are geared toward MARC, so conversion to another computer format would be problematic
  10. 10. $a, $b, $c, $d,$q, $h, $v, $u
  11. 11. Fixed fields: Limitednumber of numbers or letters permitted
  12. 12. 008900802s1990 nyu b 00110 eng  
  13. 13. • ISBN (International Standard Book Number)• Last digit a calculated check number, used to detect typographical errors• May have two subfields after $a:• $c = Cost• $z = Invalid ISBN• OCLC can produce ISBN-10 or ISBN-13 if either is lacking
  14. 14. • ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)• Last digit a calculated check number, used to detect typographical errors• Besides $a, 022 can use $y = Invalid ISSN or $z = Canceled ISSN
  15. 15. • Indicates information about translationand different languages• 041 1# eng $h chi would mean some-thing in English translated from Chinese• 041 0# eng $b spa would meansomething in English with a Spanish summary
  16. 16. 042
  17. 17. • Indicates geographicalemphasis/emphases of item, e.g.:• 043 ## n-us--- means this isabout the U.S.• 043 ## n-us--- $a a-ja--- meansthis is about the U.S. and Japan• Each 043 set must contain seven(no more; no fewer) characters• Don’t use 043 to indicate wheresomething is published; the 043 hasonly to do with with the subject of theitem!
  18. 18. • 050 = LC call number• 060 = NLM call number• 082 = Dewey Decimal number• 086 = Superintendent of Docs number• 090 = Locally-assigned LC call number• 092 = Locally-assigned Dewey number• 096 = Locally-assigned NLM call number• 050, 060, 082 and 086 use different indicators; see ; ;
  19. 19. • Blank: National library-level cataloging (LC, NLM, British Library, Libraries and Archives Canada, National Library of Australia)• I: full-level cataloging• 4: full-level cataloging• 8: full-level cataloging (CIP)• K: minimal-level cataloging• M: minimal-level cataloging, machine-generated
  20. 20. • Owned by Innovative Interfaces,SkyRiver appeared about two yearsago, marketing itself as an alternativeto OCLC• SkyRiver purports to be cheaper thanOCLC with higher quality-controlstandards• SkyRiver has filed an antitrust actionagainst OCLC, alleging monopolisticand punitive practices
  21. 21. • In RDA, even if something has many authors, the first author is the item’s primary access point• If there are 25 authors, unlike AACR2, the first author is the primary access point, and 24 added title entries will be entered (subject to cataloger’s judgment)• This parallels practice in periodical databases, e.g. PubMed
  22. 22. • Personal author as main entry 110• Corporate author as main entry
  23. 23. Although AACR2R permits GMDs to beused with any kind of material, LC hasdecided to restrict their use toelectronic resources (webpages, CD-ROMs, DVDs), sound recordings,videorecordings (includingvideocassettes and DVDs), kits,filmstrips, graphics, motion pictures,slides and transparencies
  24. 24. 245 04 The talented Mr. Ripley / $c an Anthony Minghella film.336 ## two-dimensional moving image $2 rdacontent337 ## video $2 rdamedia338 ## videodisc $2 rdacarrier110 2# Society of American Archivists.245 10 Describing archives : $b a content standard / $c Society ofAmerican Archivists.336 ## text $2 rdacontent337 ## unmediated $2 rdamedia338 ## volume $2 rdacarrier100 1# Nelson, Willie, $d 1933-, $e performer.245 10 Here we go again : $b celebrating the genius of Ray Charles / $cWillie Nelson, Wynton Marsalis ; featuring Norah Jones.336 ## performed music $2 rdacontent337 ## audio $2 rdacontent338 ## audio disc $2 rdacarrier
  25. 25. • Gives an edition statement• Do not give an edition unless there is one stated explicitly on the piece!
  26. 26. • Gives physical description of the item, sometimes called the collation• Not used for electronic manifestations, i.e. web pages• xi, 126 p. : $b ill. (some col.) ; $c 26 cm. (AACR2)• xi, 126 pages : $b illustrations (some color) ; $c 26 cm (RDA)
  27. 27. Person added as subjecttracing, e.g.Ginsberg, Allen, $d 1927-1997
  28. 28. • Used for topical headings, e.g.:• World War, 1939-1945 $x Campaigns $z Adriatic Sea• Motion pictures $x Religious aspects $x Catholic Church• Wine and wine making $z California $z Napa Valley• Genocide $x History $y 20th century
  29. 29. 651
  30. 30. • Genre heading: what something is, rather than what it is about, e.g.:• Tourist maps• Beach party films• Fantasy films• Jazz radio programs• LC is working on phasing out $v in 650 and substituting the appropriate 655; this process is called desuperimposition
  31. 31. ° Class number: i.e. number describing the subject, e.g. 616.4 (Dewey), RA645.D5 (LC) or WK 810 (NLM)° Cutter number, i.e. number corresponding to author’s name and sometimes subject, e.g. F485 (LC and NLM call numbers may have two cutters)° Workmark, corresponding to resource’s title, e.g. F485b (Only some libraries, e.g. NLM, employ workmarks). If the workmark is l, capitalize it (i.e. L) to avoid confusion with the number one. If an item has a title main entry (RDA: primary access point), don’t add a workmark; it’s redundant!
  32. 32. • Cutter-Sanborn table (Must be purchased; not available free; part of Cataloger’s Desktop)• Two Cutter-Sanborn tables available: two- digit and three-digit• Shelflist: Check one’s shelflist and construct a number that fits into preexisting structure in the proper order (e.g. existing cutter for Smith is .S65; establish a cutter for Snively at .S655 or .S66)
  33. 33.  •Unabridged DDC in its 23rd edition •Abridged DDC in its 15th edition • Whether Abridged or Unabridged indicated in the 082 MARC field by the first indicator: [blank] = No information recorded; 0 = Unabridged; 1= Abridged • Edition indicated in the $2 field following the class number in the 082 MARC field, e.g. $2 14; $2 22
  34. 34. 000-099 Generalities; computer science; librarianship100-199 Philosophy and Psychology200-299 Religion300-399 Social Sciences400-499 Language500-599 Natural Sciences and Mathematics600-699 Technology (Applied Sciences)700-799 The Arts800-899 Literature and Rhetoric900-999 Geography and History
  35. 35. Tables never used alone, but may be used with any number in the schedulesT1 = Standard subdivision -- 01 Philosophy and theory -- 02 Miscellany -- 03 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances -- 04 Special topics -- 05 Serial publications -- 06 Organizations and management -- 07 Education, research, related topics -- 08 History and description with respect to kinds of persons -- 09 Historical, geographic, persons treatment -- 092 Biography; autobiography
  36. 36. T2 = Geographic areas and persons -1 Areas, regions, places in general; oceans -2 Persons -3 Ancient world -4 Europe -5 Asia; Orient; Far East -6 Africa -7 North America -8 South America -9 Other parts of world and extraterrestrial
  37. 37. DDC is divided into ten main classes (100 numbers), which together cover the entire world of knowledge. Each main class is further divided into ten divisions (10 numbers), and each division into ten sections (single whole numbers; not all the numbers for the divisions and sections have been used).
  38. 38. Class500 = Natural sciences andmathematics Division590 = Animals Section592 = Invertebrates
  39. 39. ° Unlike DDC, LC classification is enumerative (i.e. no overarching philosophy or organization)° Designed to classify a single library’s collection° Overwhelming emphasis on the U.S.; all the rest of the world comes after the U.S.
  42. 42. ° Start with descriptive cataloging: What access points should you create for your users?° Go to controlled vocabulary: Select a minimum of one and up to six (or more) appropriate headings, being as specific to the piece as possible° Finish with classification: Assign the most specific call number for the piece as possible (with some exceptions)
  43. 43. • Always validate your record when done; this will let you know if something is wrong in your MARC coding• Always attempt to control all controllable headings in your record
  44. 44. ° May or may not have personal author(s)° Always will need one or more government agencies traced° May need SuDocs (Superintendent of Documents) call number if federal° May need one or more 5XX notes (e.g. 513, 522, 536)
  45. 45. ° Continuing° Sequential designations ° Usually lack personal authors°Often related to other serials°May have supplements, indexes, reprints,special issues, etc.° Prone to change
  46. 46. ° Cataloging record must represent the entire serial° Description should be based on the first or earliest available issue° Successive entry cataloging° Successive entry relationships shown through linked entry fields
  47. 47. ° To differentiate one serial from another° Employ title plus qualifier° 130 = Uniform title (preferred title) main entry sometimes required if necessary to distinguish one common title from another
  48. 48. ° Earlier titles, later titles, other editions, splits, etc.° 760-787: MARC21 fields to provide access to earlier titles, later titles, other editions, splits, etc.
  49. 49.  What is the serial’s chief source? What is the title? If there is more than one issue, does the title change? Are there other changes evident on later issues? Is there a sequential designation (number or date) that identifies the issue? Is this the first issue? Are there corporate bodies given on the serial? Is a relationship to other serials or an earlier title indicated? What is the serial’s subject matter?
  50. 50.  Title proper (MARC field 245) Sequential designation of the first issue or a "Description based on" note (MARC field 362 (if known) and 500 Place of publication (MARC field 260) Name of publisher (MARC field 260) Date of publication when first/last issue is in hand (MARC field 362) Physical description (extent of the item) (MARC field 300)
  51. 51. ISSN: International Standard Serial Number (MARC field 022)Uniform/Preferred title (MARC field 130; added if necessary to differentiate one common title from another)Parallel titles (i.e. inclusion of titles in languages other than the designated “main” language of the serial)Statement of responsibility (245 $c; when appropriate)Illustration statement and size of publication (MARC field 300)Frequency of publication (MARC field 310)Former publication frequency (MARC field 321)Date of publication and sequential designation of the issue cataloged (MARC field 362, if known, or 500)Series statementNotes (MARC fields 500, 515, 525, 530, 550, 555, 580)Links to related records
  52. 52. ° Approved entry for a personal, corporate, conference/meeting or subject entry which differentiates it from entries with identical or similar form° If you don’t have access to OCLC’s authority file, you can go to: to see if LC has established an approved entry for an author (free to the public)
  53. 53. Has approved entry plus use for: entriesfor entries the user may be likely to searchunder, e.g. United States. Federal Bureau ofInvestigation Use for: FBI
  54. 54. Buzz Haughton 1861 Pebblewood DriveSacramento, CA 95833-2661 (916) 468-9027