COPD

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COPD

  1. 1. COPD
  2. 2. DEFINITION  It is a umbrella term used to describe chronic lung diseases in which airflow is obstructed by emphysema,chronic bronchitis,asthma and severe bronchitis
  3. 3. COPD (AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION);;;;It includes 1. Chronic bronchitis ; excessive accumulation of mucous and secreations block the airways 2. Emphysema ; impaired gas exchanges results from destruction of walls of over distended alveoli 3. Asthma; inflamed and constricted airway obstructs the airflow
  4. 4. ETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS  Genetic factors  Family history  RTI  Cigratte smoking  Passive smoking  Occupational exposure  Air pollution
  5. 5. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 1) Due to etiological factors 2) Affects ciliary cleaning mechanism 3) Airflow is obstructed 4) Alveoli distends 5) Decreases lung capacity 6) Increases mucous secreations 7) Infection and irritation occurs 8) Damage to the lungs occurs
  6. 6. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Excessive cough with sputum  Shortness of breath  RTI  Weight loss  Anxiety  Diaphoresis  Haemoptysis  Anemia  Tachypnea  Wheezing Chest tightness Fatigue Cyanosis
  7. 7. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION  History collection  Physical examination  Chest x-ray  Chest CT- scan  PFT  ABG  Pulse oximetry
  8. 8. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT  Goals 1. To prevent the further damage of lung function 2. To allevate symptoms 3. To improve the quality of life and control complications
  9. 9. PHARMACOLOGIC MANAGEMENTS  Smoking cessation by nicotine replacement therapy  Brocho dilators  Cortico steroids  Mucolytics  Antibiotics  Vaccinations
  10. 10. NON PHARMACOLOGIC  Oxygen therapy  Nebulisation  Deep breathing excercises  Coughing excercises  Spirometric excercises
  11. 11. NURSING MANAGEMENT  Asess the respiratory condition  Check vital signs  Monitor pulse oximetry  Assess lung sounds  Monitor ABG  Assess skin colour,temperature  Provide fowlers position  Administer medicine as per doctors order
  12. 12. COMPLICATIONS  Respiratory failure  Pneumonia  Death  Depression

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