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  1. 1. seizuresBobby Abraham
  2. 2.  Itmeans seizure or a ‘state’ A sudden episode of neurologic symptoms such as involuntary muscle movements, sensory disturbances and altered consciousness level. A seizure is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which is often diagnosed on an electroencephalogram
  3. 3. Partial seizures (Focal seizures): Partial seizures may be divided into simple and complex seizures.This refers to the effect of such a seizure on consciousness;simple seizures cause no interruption to consciousness, whereas complex seizures interrupt consciousness to varying degrees
  4. 4.  Generalized seizures: Primarily generalized seizures can be sub-classified into a number of categories, depending on their behavioural effects Absence seizures (Petit mal): involve an interruption to consciousness where the person experiencing the seizure seems to become vacant and unresponsive for a short period of time (usually up to 30 seconds). Slight muscle twitching may occur. It is classified as: 1 Typical absence seizures 2 Atypical absence seizures
  5. 5.  Myoclonic seizures: involve an extremely brief (< 0.1 second) muscle contraction and can result in jerky movements of muscles or muscle groups. Clonic seizures: are myoclonus that are regularly repeating at a rate typically of 2-3 per second Tonic–clonic seizures (Grand mal): involve an initial contraction of the muscles (tonic phase) which may involve tongue biting, urinary incontinence and the absence of breathing. This is followed by rhythmic muscle contractions (clonic phase). Atonic seizures: involve the loss of muscle tone, causing the person to fall to the ground. These are sometimes called drop attacks but should be distinguished from similar looking attacks that may occur in narcolepsy or cataplexy.
  6. 6.  Birth injuries that occurs to the baby during labor or childbirth Infections Trauma Genetic factors Fever (particularly in young children) Sometimes no cause can be identified. This is called idiopathic seizures. They usually are seen in children and young adults but can occur at any age. There may be due to family history of epilepsy or seizures
  7. 7.  Epilepsyor seizures is largely a disease of younger people, approximately,three fourths of the sufferers have occurred seizures before 20 years of age
  8. 8.  Anorexia Hypoxia Drugs Alcohols CNS tumours CNS infection Family history Mental retardation Head trauma
  9. 9.  Loss of speech and hemiplegia Weight loss and edema Anorexia and insomnia Increased ICP Nausea and vomitting Drowsiness,depresssion and memory loss Nystagnous Ataxia and lethargy Pallor and cyanosis Loss of conciousness
  10. 10.  Tachycardia Bladder incontinence Cardiac arrest Fluid and electrolyte imbalance Hypoglycemia haemorhhage
  11. 11.  Health history Physical examination CT scan MRI X-ray Blood routines Urine analysis EEG
  12. 12. TheElectroencephalograph(EEG)This device measureselectrical activity (brain"waves") that can bedetected at the surfaceof the scalp. It is usefulin diagnosing braindisorders such asseizures
  13. 13.  Anticonvulsants;phenytoin sodium Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy. Lorazepam Diazepam Sodium valporate
  14. 14.  Difficulty learning Breathing in food or saliva into the lungs during a seizure, which can cause aspiration pneumonia Permanent brain damage (stroke or other damage) Injury from falls, bumps, self-inflicted bites, driving or operating machinery during a seizure
  15. 15.  Generally, there is no known way to prevent epilepsy. However, proper diet and sleep, and staying away from illegal drugs and alcohol, may decrease the chance of seizures in people with epilepsy. Reduce the risk of head injury by wearing helmets during risky activities; this can help to lessen the chance of developing epilepsy. Persons with uncontrolled seizures should not drive. Patients having seizures,should also avoid activities such as climbing to high places, biking, and swimming alone.