Viruses in reptiles Summarized by  Piret Metsamäe 2011
Article information <ul><li>Author: Ellen Ariel
Published in: Veterinary Research 2011, 42:100 </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses accross differe...
The focus points in the studies into reptile viruses have changed over time.
During the last decade, there has been more emphasis put on the issue of reptiles, specially crocodiles and alligators.  <...
Introduction (2) <ul><li>Due to the low commercial value of reptiles, the low availability of animals and difficulties get...
The importance of reptiles is increasing as well as the need for research into their diseases.
With the current trend and affordable sequencing costs, researchers will keep looking for and finding viruses in reptiles ...
Aim <ul><li>To introduce reptile viruses and their characteristics.
To bring focus on the issue of reptile viruses.  </li></ul>
Methods of working with reptilian viruses <ul><li>Generally, diagnosis of reptilian viruses can be approached like all oth...
Histopathology can give the initial indication of a viral infection and most infections are described alongside the pathol...
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Viruses in reptiles

  1. 1. Viruses in reptiles Summarized by Piret Metsamäe 2011
  2. 2. Article information <ul><li>Author: Ellen Ariel
  3. 3. Published in: Veterinary Research 2011, 42:100 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses accross different genera and families.
  5. 5. The focus points in the studies into reptile viruses have changed over time.
  6. 6. During the last decade, there has been more emphasis put on the issue of reptiles, specially crocodiles and alligators. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction (2) <ul><li>Due to the low commercial value of reptiles, the low availability of animals and difficulties getting permits, the studies and resources are still scarce.
  8. 8. The importance of reptiles is increasing as well as the need for research into their diseases.
  9. 9. With the current trend and affordable sequencing costs, researchers will keep looking for and finding viruses in reptiles at a great rate. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Aim <ul><li>To introduce reptile viruses and their characteristics.
  11. 11. To bring focus on the issue of reptile viruses. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methods of working with reptilian viruses <ul><li>Generally, diagnosis of reptilian viruses can be approached like all other viruses.
  13. 13. Histopathology can give the initial indication of a viral infection and most infections are described alongside the pathological changes they induce.
  14. 14. Electron microscopy used to be the ultimate diagnostic tool for viruses, but polymerase chain reaction has revolutionized our ability to identify infectious agents. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reptilian viruses described by virus families <ul><li>Herpesviridae </li><ul><li>Manifests as acute signs which may turn latent and be unnoticeable for the rest of the animal’s life, or until the host becomes sufficiently stressed for the virus to reappear as a disease. </li></ul><li>Paramyxovirida </li><ul><li>Target organ- respiratory tract.
  16. 16. Lesions in the lungs and occasionally in the brain. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Reptilian viruses described by virus families (2) <ul><li>Poxviridae </li><ul><li>On reptiles manifests as skin lesions on the ventral skin, head region or in the oral cavity.
  18. 18. Morbidity high but mortality low. </li></ul><li>Adenoviridae </li><ul><li>They cause respiratory infections in many vertebrate species.
  19. 19. Infections in reptiles can be accompanied by lethargy, neurological disorder, esophagitis, hepatitis, splenitis or gastroenteritis. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Reptilian viruses described by virus families (3) <ul><li>Papillomaviridae </li><ul><li>Indentified by electron microscopy. </li></ul><li>Reoviridae </li><ul><li>Can cause severe and often fatal disease in reptiles typically presenting as pneumonia and neurological disorder.
  21. 21. Identification by PCR. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Reptilian viruses described by virus families (4) <ul><li>Arboviruses </li><ul><li>Arthropod-borne viruses.
  23. 23. Many are pathogenic to humans, but reptiles and amphibians can represent an alternative host (reservoir). </li></ul><li>Picornavirida </li><ul><li>Loss of appetite, abnormal faeces and regurgitation.
  24. 24. Identified via electron microscopy. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>A multitude of viruses exists in reptiles, some of which are described above, and no doubt many more will be described in the future.
  26. 26. Transmission may in some cases be via vectors such as arthropods or leeches, whereas others by direct contact presumably, but most transmission routes are unknown.
  27. 27. Due to the lack of commercial value, very little is known about reptilian viruses. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Source <ul><li>http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/1297-9716-42-100.pdf
  29. 29. Pictures:
  30. 30. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/reptile
  31. 31. http://www.public-domain-image.com/animals/reptiles/snake/slides/snake-reptile.html
  32. 32. http://www.zastavki.com/eng/Animals/Reptiles/wallpaper-19497.htm l
  33. 33. http://www.africa-nature-photography.com/nile-crocodile-2.html
  34. 34. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Two_american_alligators.jpg
  35. 35. http://madaerah.org/ </li></ul>
  36. 36. Thank you for your attention!

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