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Introduction to soil science

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Introduction to soil science,
Fields of application in soil science
Soil
Function of Soil and
Major environmental issues
Scope of soil science,
Pedological and edaphological concepts,

Published in: Science
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Introduction to soil science

  1. 1. Introduction to Soil Science SC-111 3(2+1) Prepared by Professor Dr. B.K. Pany
  2. 2. Course Details Module-1 (15 classes) • Soilscience and its scope • Pedological and edaphological concepts, • Origin of the earth, • Earth’s crust: Composition: • Rocks and minerals, • Weathering, soil formation factors and processes, • Components of soils, • Soil profile, • Soil physical properties, like • Soil texture, textural classes, particle size analysis, • Soil structure, classification, soil aggregates, significance, soil consistency, soil crusting, • Dencities of soil:Bulk density and particle density of soils , porosity, their significance and manipulation, • Soil compaction, soil colour, • Elementary knowledge of soil classification and soils of India;
  3. 3. Course Details... Module-1I (9 classes) • Soil water, • Retention and potentials of soil water, • Soil moisture constants, • Movement of soil water, Infiltration, Percolation, Permeability, Drainage, • Methods of determination of soil moisture. • Thermal properties of soil, soil temperature, • Soil air, Gaseous exchange, • Influence of soil temperature and air on plant growth; • Soil colloids, • Properties, nature, Types & significance; • Layer silicate clays, their genesis and sources of charges,
  4. 4. Course Details... Module-1II (8 classes) • Adsorption of ions, • Ion exchange, CEC and AEC , • Factors influencing ion exchange and its significance. • Soil organic matter, composition, decomposability, • Humus, Fractionation of organic matter, • Carbon cycle, C:N ratio, • Soil biology, Biomass, • Soil Organisms & their beneficial & harmful roles.
  5. 5. Practical Module-1 (10 classes) • Determination of Bulk density • Determination of Particle density, • Aggregate analysis, • Soil strength, • Soil moisture determination, • Soil moisture constants-Field capacity, • Infiltration rate, • Water holding capacity, • Soil Texture : Mechanical analysis- • Soil temperature, • Analytical chemistry-Basic concepts, Techniques & calculations- Module-1I (6 classes) • Collection & processing of soil for analysis- • Organic carbon, • pH and EC, • Soluble cations and anions- • Study of a soil profile- • Identification of rocks and minerals.
  6. 6. L-1 • Introduction to soil science, • Fields of application in soil science • Soil • Function of Soil and • Major environmental issues • Scope of soil science, • Pedological and edaphological concepts,
  7. 7. Soil •Man is dependent on soils and • To certain extent good soils are dependent upon man and the use he makes of them
  8. 8. Soil Science Soil science • Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils for crop production.
  9. 9. Fields of application in soil science 1.Soil survey 2.Soil management 3.Standard methods of analysis 4.Soil fertility / Nutrient management 5.Ecosystem studies 6.Climate change 7.Watershed and wetland studies 8.Pedotransfer function
  10. 10. Soil • Soil is a dynamic natural body developed as a result of pedogenic processes during and after weathering of rocks, consisting of mineral and organic constituents, possessing definite chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological properties, having a variable depth over the surface of the earth and providing a medium for plant growth for land plants
  11. 11. SOIL... • Soils lie at the interface of Earth's , atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithos phere and interact with the hydrosphere and atmosphere. • To understand soil requires some knowledge of metrology, climatology, ecology, biology, Hydrology, geomorphology, geology and many other earth sciences and natural sciences • Soils play a vital role in the quality of our environment. • For example, soil impact the quality and quantity of our food, and serve as foundations of our structures,
  12. 12. SOIL... • Soil can be a source, a sink, or an interacting medium for many nutrients, as well as contaminants that impact humans, plants, wildlife, and other organisms. • An understanding of soil properties and processes is therefore critical to evaluate soil management processes. • The word “Soil” is derived from Latin word ‘Solum’ means ‘Floor’ or ‘Ground’ “With out life, there is no soil and without soil, there is no life on the earth planet”
  13. 13. Function of Soil Soils perform six key functions in the global ecosystem. Soil serves as a • Medium for plant growth (provides nutrients), it store and supply nutrients to plants. • As an anchor for plant roots enabling plants to stand erect • Regulator of water supplies (water holding tank, it absorb and store the moisture for later use), • Recycler of raw materials ( Decomposition) • Habitat for soil organisms • Landscaping and engineering medium (Soils are the base material for roads, homes, buildings, and other structures) and , • It provide space for air which creates healthy environment)
  14. 14. Major environmental issues Major environmental issues addressed will be: • Soil stability and erosion • Soil hydrology • Biodiversity of soils • Plant nutrition • Quality of agricultural crops • Pollution by trace elements and nutrients in excess • Climate change and global warming • Water quality • Role of micro and meso faune in soil
  15. 15. Scope of Soil Science • Soil Science has several well defined and developed disciplines. Scope of soil Science is reflected through these disciplines. 1. Soil physics: Involves the study of physical properties of soils as well as the measurements and control of physical processes that takes place in and through the soil 2. Soil chemistry: Chemical constituents, chemical properties and the chemical reactions 3. Soil biology: Soil biology deals with soil ecology - micro organisms, its population, classification, its role in transformations
  16. 16. Scope of Soil Science…. 4. Soil mineralogy: Soil mineralogy deals with the minerals (primary rock minerals and secondary minerals present in soil and their contribution to the chemistry, physics, biology and fertility of soil and their relation to genesis of soil 5.Soil fertility: Soil fertility deals with the nutrient status or ability of soil to supply nutrients for plant growth under favorable environmental conditions such as light, temperature and physical conditions of soil. (Nutrient supplying properties of soil)
  17. 17. Scope of Soil Science…. 6. Soil genesis and classification (Pedology): It deals with weathering of rocks and minerals, factors and processes of soil formation, and classification of soils in a recognized system 7. Soil survey: It is the systematic examination of soil in the field and laboratories, their description and classification, the mapping of kinds of an area, and also interpretation of soils according to adaptability to various crops and their productivity under different management systems.
  18. 18. Scope of Soil Science…. 8. Soil Technology: It is an applied science and deals with the principles and practices of soil erosion and conservation, and management of problem soils, viz. saline, sodic (alkali), acid, waterlogged and other degraded soils 9. Soil conservation: Dealing with protection of soil against physical loss by erosion or against chemical deterioration i.e. excessive loss of nutrients either natural or artificial means.
  19. 19. Pedological and edaphological concepts • Approaches of Soil Study: Two approaches (Concepts) • There are two main branches/ divisions of soil science, • Pedology • Edaphology
  20. 20. (a) Pedology (a) Pedology (From Greek word pedon, means soil or earth). • Pedology is a branch of soil science that focusing soil as a natural body on the formation (pedogenesis-soil genesis), morphology, classification (or studies the soil profile or solum in its natural setting) and distribution patterns of soils worldwide that have developed along with broader landforms, biogeochemical environments, and habitats of living organisms of soils as bodies within the natural landscape. • A soil: A soil (means- pedology) is studied as a natural body from the point of view of pedology (formation, chemistry, morphology and classification of soil), and as a part of the landscape
  21. 21. (a) Pedology... • Pedogenic (soil-forming) processes act to both create and destroy order within soils; these processes can proceed simultaneously. • The resulting soil profile reflects the balance of these processes, present and past. Pedological Approach • The origin of the soil, its classification and its description are examined in Pedology. • Pedology is the study of soil as a natural body and does not focus on the soil’s immediate practical use. • A pedologist studies, examines and classifies soil as they occur in their natural environment.
  22. 22. (b) Edaphology (b) Edaphology(from Greek word edaphos, means soil or ground and logia means science or study) • Edaphology is concerned with the influence of soils as a medium of growth for living things, particularly plants, fungi, and other living things • The term Edaphology is also applied to the study of how the soil influences human’s use of the land for growing plants and overall use of the land of the man. • General subfields within edaphology are agricultural soil science and environmental soil science. • Soil: ( Sudy of soil means edaphology) Soil is a material who’s chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological characteristics are studied in relation to plant growth or to any other use (edaphology)
  23. 23. Edaphological Approach • Edaphology, studies the soil from the standpoint of crop production of higher plants. • Edaphologists examin and consider the various properties of soil in relation to plant production (food, fiber and timber crops) • Edaphologists also studies the causes of the variation in soil productivity and find means of conserving and improving this productivity. • From the edaphological viewpoint, the soil has certain functions in relation to plant life and these are: – It serves as a medium in which seeds can germinate or tubers and cuttings can start to take roots; – It provides support for vertically growing plants; – It serves as an absorber of moisture for the use of plants; and – It furnishes most of the nutrients which sustain plant life.

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