KULIAH 1<br />GEOCHEMISTRY<br />Vegetation Surveys<br />
FACULTY OF AGRO INDUSTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES<br />DEPARTEMENT GEOSCIENCE<br />Geoscience = Earth Science<br />Nature, or...
Geoscientists follow paths of exploration and discovery in quest of solutions to some of society's most challenging proble...
Range of typical starting salaries: £30,000 (146,400 RM) - £35,000 (170,800 RM) pa depending on level of qualification on ...
The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth chemical processes and reactions that go...
Most geoscientists spend a lot of time in the field! <br />Geoscience is one of the few careers where you can guarantee at...
FACULTY OF AGRO INDUSTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES<br />DEPARTEMENT GEOSCIENCE<br />Pangea<br />http://www.radford.edu/~swoodw...
Vegetation Survey (Exploration Method)<br />The uptake of elements (trace element) by plants reflected geobotanical and bi...
FACULTY OF AGRO INDUSTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES<br />DEPARTEMENT GEOSCIENCE<br />Geobotany = Biogeography = Phytogeography(...
Karpinsky 1841;…..different plant can be indicators of the rocks and rock formations on which they grow. From this not onl...
Geobotanical prospecting refers to prospecting based on the analysis of the vegetation. ( Used in China since in the 5th c...
FACULTY OF AGRO INDUSTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES<br />DEPARTEMENT GEOSCIENCE<br />Elemental contents in the ash of some indi...
Astragalus<br />uranium<br />Aster venusta<br />uranium<br />Equisetum Arvense<br /> Gold<br />Berkheyacoddii<br />Nickel<...
Loniceraconfusa<br />Silver<br />Hyptis Suaveolens<br />Copper<br />Alyssum Bertolonii<br />Nickel<br />Eschscholtzia mexi...
Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological...
The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity ;<br />The burnin...
Excesses (and deficiencies) of trace elements in soils in which plant grow can cause a wide variety of visible morphologic...
Isthmus of Panama - GB<br />Wallacea Line – GB  <br />Vicariance and dispersal - GB<br />Acid Rain - BC<br />Fossil Burnin...
Arham - 0142640215<br />
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Kuliah geokimia 1

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Kuliah geokimia 1

  1. 1. KULIAH 1<br />GEOCHEMISTRY<br />Vegetation Surveys<br />
  2. 2. FACULTY OF AGRO INDUSTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES<br />DEPARTEMENT GEOSCIENCE<br />Geoscience = Earth Science<br />Nature, origin, evolution and behavior of the earth<br />Lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere<br />Typically Earth scientists will use tools from physic, chemistry, biology, chronology and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state<br />Geology (petrology, sedimentology, geochemistry etc), Geophysics, Geodesy, Atmospheric sciences etc<br />
  3. 3. Geoscientists follow paths of exploration and discovery in quest of solutions to some of society's most challenging problems. Predicting the behavior of Earth systems and the universe. <br />Finding adequate supplies of natural resources, such as ground water, petroleum, and minerals. <br />Conserving soils and maintaining agricultural productivity. <br />Developing natural resources in ways that safeguard the environment. <br />Maintaining quality of water supplies. <br />Reducing human suffering and property loss from natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, landslides, hurricanes, and tsunamis. <br />Determining geological controls on natural environments and habitats and predicting the impact of human activities on them. <br />Defining the balance between society's demand for natural resources and the need to sustain healthy ecosystems. <br />Understanding global climate patterns. <br />
  4. 4. Range of typical starting salaries: £30,000 (146,400 RM) - £35,000 (170,800 RM) pa depending on level of qualification on entry (salary data collected Jun 09). This usually increases significantly following completion of necessary training.<br />Range of typical salaries at senior level: £50,000 - £70,000 rising to £60,000 - £120,000 at management level with over ten years’ experience (salary data collected Jun 09)<br />Bachelors geoscience graduates, generally employed in the environmental and hydrology industry, earned an average of $31,366 p.a. - USA<br />
  5. 5. The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks, water, and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earth's chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with the hydrosphere and the atmosphere.<br />Some subsets of geochemistry are:<br />Isotope geochemistry:Determination of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in the earth and on earth's surface.<br />Examination of the distribution and movements of elements in different parts of the earth (crust, mantle, hydrosphere etc.) and in minerals with the goal to determine the underlying system of distribution and movement.<br />Cosmochemistry: Analysis of the distribution of elements and their isotopes in the cosmos.<br />Biogeochemistry: Field of study focusing on the effect of life on the chemistry of the earth.<br />Organic geochemistry: A study of the role of processes and compounds that are derived from living or once-living organisms.<br />Water Geochemistry: Understanding the role of various elements in watersheds, including Cu, S, Hg, and how elemental fluxes are exchanged through atmospheric-terrestrial-aquatic interactions.<br />Regional, environmental and exploration geochemistry: Applications to environmental, hydrological and mineral exploration studies<br />
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  11. 11. Most geoscientists spend a lot of time in the field! <br />Geoscience is one of the few careers where you can guarantee at least some of your time is not spent in an office or behind a computer.<br />
  12. 12. FACULTY OF AGRO INDUSTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES<br />DEPARTEMENT GEOSCIENCE<br />Pangea<br />http://www.radford.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biogeog.html<br />
  13. 13. Vegetation Survey (Exploration Method)<br />The uptake of elements (trace element) by plants reflected geobotanical and biogeochemical anomalys<br />Uptake of of trace elements can vary from species to species ……(Mitchel,1972)<br />
  14. 14. FACULTY OF AGRO INDUSTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES<br />DEPARTEMENT GEOSCIENCE<br />Geobotany = Biogeography = Phytogeography(from greek words phyto = plant and geography meaning also distribution) are concerned with;<br />the geographic distribution of plant species.<br />all aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the distribution of individual species ranges to the factors that govern the composition of entire communities and floras.<br />Visual Identification, requires the use of human eyes<br />
  15. 15. Karpinsky 1841;…..different plant can be indicators of the rocks and rock formations on which they grow. From this not only was it natural to conclude that plants and plant asscociations could be used to the geologic environment.<br />Indicator plant (or geobotanical indicator) has been used for a plant that shows, by its presence, the occurrence of an element in the soil upon which it grows.<br />
  16. 16. Geobotanical prospecting refers to prospecting based on the analysis of the vegetation. ( Used in China since in the 5th century BC)<br />The Viscaria Mine in Sweden was named after the flower ViscariaAlpina that was used by prospecters to discover the ore deposits.<br />The technique has been used a connection between vegetation and the minerals located underground. <br />There were particular plants that thrived on and indicated areas rich in copper, nickel, zinc, and allegedly gold, agricultural interest concerning soil compositions.<br />While the process was known to the Chinese region since antiquity, it was not written about and studied in the west until Italy in the 18th century.<br />
  17. 17. FACULTY OF AGRO INDUSTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES<br />DEPARTEMENT GEOSCIENCE<br />Elemental contents in the ash of some indicator plants (ppm)<br /> (Cannon, 1960; Brooks, 1972) <br />
  18. 18. Astragalus<br />uranium<br />Aster venusta<br />uranium<br />Equisetum Arvense<br /> Gold<br />Berkheyacoddii<br />Nickel<br />Crotalaria cobalticola<br />Cobalt<br />Alyssum Bertolonii<br />Nickel<br />Viola calaminaria<br />Zinc<br />
  19. 19. Loniceraconfusa<br />Silver<br />Hyptis Suaveolens<br />Copper<br />Alyssum Bertolonii<br />Nickel<br />Eschscholtzia mexicana<br />Copper<br />Eriogonum ovalifolium<br />Silver<br />Thlaspi Arvense<br />Nickel<br />Fucus vesiculosus<br />Manganese<br />
  20. 20. Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment.<br />The chemical either can be taken up by organism and use for growth and synthesis of living matter or can be process to obtain energy. <br />In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles) of chemical elements. <br />Two major processes biogeochemistry are photosynthesis and respiration.<br />
  21. 21. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity ;<br />The burning of fossil fuel<br />Cutting and burning of tropical rain forest<br />The use of fertilizer<br />The Wastes to lake, rivers, estuaries, and oceans<br />Acid Rain<br />Biogeochemical surveys are based upon the analysis of material which has accumulated trace elements without producing any visible morphological or physiological effects.<br />
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  23. 23. Excesses (and deficiencies) of trace elements in soils in which plant grow can cause a wide variety of visible morphological and mutational changes (dwarfism, gigantism, abnormal shape, changes in color in the flower :<br />dwarfisme – serpentine<br />Yellowing leaves – clorosis- zinc rich<br />Changes in color of flower - molybdenum<br />
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  25. 25. Isthmus of Panama - GB<br />Wallacea Line – GB <br />Vicariance and dispersal - GB<br />Acid Rain - BC<br />Fossil Burning - BC<br />Tropical rain forest Burning-BC<br />Waste to water body-BC<br />The use of fertilizer-BC<br />Volcanic Eruption-BC<br />Mining Activity - BC<br />
  26. 26. Arham - 0142640215<br />

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