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SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE
GEOM 406

Course Instructor :Mr. Shashish Maharjan
Presented By: Group 1
Ruby Adhikari (01)
Tina Baidar (02)
Arun Bhandari (03)
Biplov Bhandari (04)
Bhanu Bhakta Bhatta (05)
Friday, January 10, 2014

1
Introduction
 International Standardization : for the exchange of

goods and services aimed without technical barriers.
 3 main organizations responsible for standardizations:
 ISO(International Organization for Standardization) –

responsible for all aspects – excludes Electrotechnical.
 IEC(International Electrotechnical Committee) –
responsible for Electrotechnical aspects.
 ITU(International Telecommunication Union) –
responsible for telecommunication technologies.

Friday, January 10, 2014

2
Role of ISO
 ISO TC (Technical Committee) – for protecting all

other committees and Specification.
 Global openness and transparency, consensus and
technical coherence.
 ISO offers ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS), the
ISO Public Available Specification (ISO/PAS) and the
ISO Technical Report (ISO/TR) as solutions to market
needs.
 Also offers Industry Technical Agreement (ITA) to
support the proper synchronization and
standardization between the ISO format and its
member nations.
Benefits of ISO Standards
 Business
 Wide acceptance of products and services
 Free to compete in broader market
 Government
 Provides technical and scientific underpinnings for
health, safety, environmental legislation
 Consumers
 Conformance of products and services provide
assurance about quality, safety, & reliability
According to Henry Tom
Co-Chair,
ISO/TC 211 Advisory Group on Outreach
 The ISO/TC 211 Advisory Group on Outreach – to raise

awareness, promote the use and adaption of ISO/TC
211 standards.
 Standardization – previously: for supporting the
existing geo-technologies and their consequences –
now: for define the requirements and implementation
of new geo-technology, but not interfere or bias
development.
 Strategic directions- viewed in terms of development,
deployment, and the coordination and consensus
process that integrates both these phases for successful
standardization.
Challenges
 Challenges for geographical standardization – internal

and external.
 Internal – the perception of both geographic and nongeographic community be perceived by geographic
community towards the use of geospatial technology.
 External – almost every business industry use LBS
today. Proper standardization to challenges that
prevail and may prevail.
 Tom suggests interoperable geographical datasets to
overcome the challenges.
Interoperability ...
As defined by ISO TC 211

 the ability to find information and processing

tools, when they are needed, no matter where they are
physically located
 the ability to understand and employ the discovered
information and tools, no matter what platform
supports them, whether local or remote
 the ability to participate in a healthy
marketplace, where goods and services are responsive to
the needs of consumers
The Need for Interoperability
 Geographic analysis
 Multiple sources, multiple organizations
 Distributed within a community
 GIS is unique in merging diverse information

 Enterprise GIS
 GIS evolving beyond isolated communities
 GIS merging with broader IT infrastructures

 Web Services
 Enabled by distributed networks

 E-Government
 Within government (G2G)
 Between citizens and government (G2C)

 Between business and government (B2G)

 Spatial Data Infrastructures
Interoperability Enablers
 Infrastructure

 Compatible Technology

 Metadata

 Security

 Authorization

 Privacy

 Business

 Information Assurance

Agreements/MOUs
 Copyright
 Pricing/commerce/
Business Model

 Certification
 Quality
 Standards
LOCATION BASED SERVICES AND
SPATIALENABLEMENT

that access, provide or otherwise act upon location
information
 Since 2000 AD
 integrating Internet

web services into their
operational
environment
 most “high profile” of
the emerging
technologies to utilize
geographic information
 enormous market

 location-based services (LBS)

industry is predicated upon
the financial support of
corporate
telecommunications
 “who pays for location-based
services?” is very important
 Price of LBS
Some Relevant Examples:
 The renewed location-based

mobile services (LBMS) is
again on the rise

 inclusion of GPS chips in

wireless phones
 Personal Navigation Devices
(PND)
 provision of web based
maps, location directions,
satellite imagery has been
quite a revelation to the
geospatial sector (Microsoft,
Yahoo, and Google)
INTERNET, GPS & MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS
IMPACTS ON GEO‐SPATIAL APPLICATIONS
 Consumers are becoming more “spatially-aware” and

sophisticated in their expectations of how the basic
question of “where” is answered.
 reinforced by an open source software development
movement
 exposure of an open application program interface (API) to
Google Maps
 Standards and specifications developed by ISO/TC 211 and
the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), with a name
change from the Open GIS Consortium
 Open Source Geospatial Foundation
GLOBAL SPATIAL DATA
INFRASTRUCTURE (GSDI)
 The Global Spatial Data

Infrastructure (GSDI) was
defined at the 5th GSDI
Conference in May 2001

 50 nations developing national spatial

data infrastructures.
 recognizes ISO standards as a
foundation
 GSDI is also working closely with the
United Nations.

“The Global Spatial Data Infrastructure is co ordinated actions of nations
and organizations that promotes awareness and implementation of
complementary policies, common standards and effective mechanisms for
the development and availability of interoperable digital geographic data
and technologies to support decision making at all scales for multiple
purposes.”
UN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION WORK
ING GROUP (UNGIWG)
 33 UN organizations

collaborates with ISO/TC 211 and
uses ISO standards

for the needs of peacekeeping actions, sustainable
development and the eradication of
poverty

 30 national bodies in the

European Union.

 recognizes ISO standards as a

foundation

to make harmonized and high quality geographic data and information
readily available for formulating, implementing, monitoring and
evaluating Community policy and for the citizen to access information
about the environment, whether local, regional, national or international
NEED FOR ADVOCACY
 ISO/ TC 211 has initiated

its outreach activity to user
communities to enable
them to take advantage of
the considerable
international investment
 there is a need for
advocacy – to establish
agreements between
ISO/TC 211 and global
organizations
PUBLISHED ISO/TC 211 STANDARDS
 Standards that specify the infrastructure for geospatial

standardization
 Standards that describe data models for geographic
information
 Standards for geographic information management
 Standards for geographic information services
 Standards for encoding of geographic information
 Standards for specific thematic areas.

Friday, January 10, 2014

16
INFRASTUCTURE STANDARDS
 This set of standards was developed in order to provide

an infrastructure for the further standardization of
geographic information.
 Standards that specify the infrastructure for geospatial
standardization
 ISO 19101 Geographic information-Reference Model
 ISOTS

19103 Geographic information-Conceptual
schema language
 ISOTS 19104 Geographic information-Terminology
 ISO Geographic information-Conformance and testing
 ISO 19106-Geographic information-Profiles
Friday, January 10, 2014

17
ISO 19101:2002 GEOGRAPHIC
INFORMATION- REFERENCE MODEL
 It is a guide to structuring geographic standards in a

way that will enable the universal usage of digital
geographic information.
 This reference model provides a vision of
standardization in which geographic information can
be integrated with existing and emerging digital
information technologies and applications.
 It uses the concepts obtained from ISO/IEC Open
System Environment (OSE) approach for determining
standardization requirements.
Friday, January 10, 2014

18
Main Focus
 The main focus of this family of standards is to:

1. define the basic semantics and structure of geographic
information for data management and data
interchange purposes and
2. define geographic information service components
and their behavior for data processing purposes.
 Thus, the two major components of the reference

model are the Domain Reference Model and the
Architecture Reference Model
Friday, January 10, 2014

19
Domain Reference Model
 It provides a high-level representation and description of the

structure and content of geographic information.

 Its key elements are:
 Dataset : It contains features, spatial objects and descriptions

of position of spatial objects in space and time

 Application schema: It provides a description of the semantic

structure of the dataset and also identifies the spatial object
types and reference systems required to provide a complete
description of geographic information in the dataset

 Metadata

dataset : It allows users to search
for, evaluate, compare and order geographic data . It describes
the administration, organization, contents and quality of
geographic information in datasets.

Friday, January 10, 2014

20
High-level view of the ISO 19101 Domain
reference model

Friday, January 10, 2014

21
Architectural Reference Model
 This model defines a structure for geographic

information services and a method for identifying
standardization requirements for those services .
 It provides an understanding of what types of services
are defined in the different standards in the ISO 19100
series of standards and distinguishes these services
from other information technology services.

Friday, January 10, 2014

22
The ISO 19101 Architectural reference
model
Key
API
HTI
ISI
CSI

NNI
G
IT
HS
MS
WS
SS
PS
CS

Friday, January 10, 2014

Application Programming
Interface
Human Technology Interface
Information Services Interface
Communications Services Interface
Services
Network to Network Interface
Geographic
Information Technology
Human Interaction Services
Model Management Services
Workflow/Task Services
System Management Services
Processing Services
Communication Services

23
ISO/TS 19103:2005 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
-CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LANGUAGE
 Two aspects of this technical specification
 It identifies the combination of the Unified Modeling
Language (UML) static structure diagram with its
associated Object Constraint Language (OCL) and a set
of basic type definitions as the conceptual schema
language for specification of geographic information.
 It provides guidelines on how UML should be used to
create geographic information and service models that
are a basis for achieving the goal of interoperability.

Friday, January 10, 2014

24
Technical Content
 Its main technical content is found in Clause 6:
 An introduction to the general usage of UML- 6.1 & 6.2
 Description of classes and attributes based on general
rules for UML -6.3 & 6.4
 specification of data types -6.5
 More information on the use of UML models for
describing geographic information - 6.6, 6.7 and 6.8.
 The conventions for defining optional attributes and
associations are described in 6.9.
 Naming rules are described in 6.10.
Friday, January 10, 2014

25
Data Types
 The basic data types defined in this technical specification

are:
1. Primitive types: Fundamental types for representing values,
examples are Character String, Integer, Boolean, Date, Time, etc.
2. Implementation and collection types: Types for
implementation and representation structures, examples
are Names and Records, and types for representing
multiple occurrences of other types, examples are Set, Bag
and Sequence.
3. Derived types: Measure types and units of measurement.

Friday, January 10, 2014

26
ISO/TS 19104:2008 Geographic
Information -Terminology







Is a Technical specification
Guides for collection and maintenance in field of
Geographic information
Defines the criteria for including concepts in
vocabulary
Describes the structures of entries and types of
terminological data to be recorded
Includes principles for definition writing
Contd…
 Serves for maintenance of Terminological Repository
 Freely available for use by all interested people and

organization
 Propose: Encourage consistency in use and interpretation of

geospatial terms
ISO 19105:2000 Geographic
Information –Conformance and Testing
 Specifies the framework, concepts and methodology for

testing
 Claims conformance to the family of ISO geographic

information standards
 Claiming is done for data or software, specifications

,products/services
Contd…
 Conformance testing is done in abstract sense rather

than Physical(robustness, acceptance, performance)
 Purpose: provides a framework of an abstract test suite
(ATS)
 ATS requires International definition and acceptance
of common testing methods and procedures
ISO 19106:2004 Geographic
Information –Profiles
 Defines the concept of a profile of ISO geographic

information standards
 Guides for the creation of such profiles that meet the
definition of ISO/TC 211 i.e. being Standardized
 Profile standardization requires conformance
 Considers mainly two classes of conformance
Contd…
 Class 1: is satisfied when a profile is established as pure

as subset of the ISO geographic information standards,
together possibly with other ISO standards
 Class 2: allows profiles to include extensions within the
context permitted in the base standard and permits
the profiling of non-ISO geographic information
standards as profiles.
Contd…
 Conformance to profile implies conformance to the set

of base standards to which it refers
 Conformance to that set of base standards doesn’t

necessarily imply conformance to the profile
Conclusion
 The ISO geographic information standards define a

variety of models for describing, managing, and
processing of geospatial data.
 The ISO geographic information standards define a
variety of models for describing, managing, and
processing of geospatial data.
 Different user communities have different
requirements for the extent they want to use or
implement these elements and rules.

Friday, January 10, 2014

34

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Infrastructure Standards For Geospatial Standarization

  • 1. SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE GEOM 406 Course Instructor :Mr. Shashish Maharjan Presented By: Group 1 Ruby Adhikari (01) Tina Baidar (02) Arun Bhandari (03) Biplov Bhandari (04) Bhanu Bhakta Bhatta (05) Friday, January 10, 2014 1
  • 2. Introduction  International Standardization : for the exchange of goods and services aimed without technical barriers.  3 main organizations responsible for standardizations:  ISO(International Organization for Standardization) – responsible for all aspects – excludes Electrotechnical.  IEC(International Electrotechnical Committee) – responsible for Electrotechnical aspects.  ITU(International Telecommunication Union) – responsible for telecommunication technologies. Friday, January 10, 2014 2
  • 3. Role of ISO  ISO TC (Technical Committee) – for protecting all other committees and Specification.  Global openness and transparency, consensus and technical coherence.  ISO offers ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS), the ISO Public Available Specification (ISO/PAS) and the ISO Technical Report (ISO/TR) as solutions to market needs.  Also offers Industry Technical Agreement (ITA) to support the proper synchronization and standardization between the ISO format and its member nations.
  • 4. Benefits of ISO Standards  Business  Wide acceptance of products and services  Free to compete in broader market  Government  Provides technical and scientific underpinnings for health, safety, environmental legislation  Consumers  Conformance of products and services provide assurance about quality, safety, & reliability
  • 5. According to Henry Tom Co-Chair, ISO/TC 211 Advisory Group on Outreach  The ISO/TC 211 Advisory Group on Outreach – to raise awareness, promote the use and adaption of ISO/TC 211 standards.  Standardization – previously: for supporting the existing geo-technologies and their consequences – now: for define the requirements and implementation of new geo-technology, but not interfere or bias development.  Strategic directions- viewed in terms of development, deployment, and the coordination and consensus process that integrates both these phases for successful standardization.
  • 6. Challenges  Challenges for geographical standardization – internal and external.  Internal – the perception of both geographic and nongeographic community be perceived by geographic community towards the use of geospatial technology.  External – almost every business industry use LBS today. Proper standardization to challenges that prevail and may prevail.  Tom suggests interoperable geographical datasets to overcome the challenges.
  • 7. Interoperability ... As defined by ISO TC 211  the ability to find information and processing tools, when they are needed, no matter where they are physically located  the ability to understand and employ the discovered information and tools, no matter what platform supports them, whether local or remote  the ability to participate in a healthy marketplace, where goods and services are responsive to the needs of consumers
  • 8. The Need for Interoperability  Geographic analysis  Multiple sources, multiple organizations  Distributed within a community  GIS is unique in merging diverse information  Enterprise GIS  GIS evolving beyond isolated communities  GIS merging with broader IT infrastructures  Web Services  Enabled by distributed networks  E-Government  Within government (G2G)  Between citizens and government (G2C)  Between business and government (B2G)  Spatial Data Infrastructures
  • 9. Interoperability Enablers  Infrastructure  Compatible Technology  Metadata  Security  Authorization  Privacy  Business  Information Assurance Agreements/MOUs  Copyright  Pricing/commerce/ Business Model  Certification  Quality  Standards
  • 10. LOCATION BASED SERVICES AND SPATIALENABLEMENT that access, provide or otherwise act upon location information  Since 2000 AD  integrating Internet web services into their operational environment  most “high profile” of the emerging technologies to utilize geographic information  enormous market  location-based services (LBS) industry is predicated upon the financial support of corporate telecommunications  “who pays for location-based services?” is very important  Price of LBS
  • 11. Some Relevant Examples:  The renewed location-based mobile services (LBMS) is again on the rise  inclusion of GPS chips in wireless phones  Personal Navigation Devices (PND)  provision of web based maps, location directions, satellite imagery has been quite a revelation to the geospatial sector (Microsoft, Yahoo, and Google)
  • 12. INTERNET, GPS & MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS IMPACTS ON GEO‐SPATIAL APPLICATIONS  Consumers are becoming more “spatially-aware” and sophisticated in their expectations of how the basic question of “where” is answered.  reinforced by an open source software development movement  exposure of an open application program interface (API) to Google Maps  Standards and specifications developed by ISO/TC 211 and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), with a name change from the Open GIS Consortium  Open Source Geospatial Foundation
  • 13. GLOBAL SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE (GSDI)  The Global Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI) was defined at the 5th GSDI Conference in May 2001  50 nations developing national spatial data infrastructures.  recognizes ISO standards as a foundation  GSDI is also working closely with the United Nations. “The Global Spatial Data Infrastructure is co ordinated actions of nations and organizations that promotes awareness and implementation of complementary policies, common standards and effective mechanisms for the development and availability of interoperable digital geographic data and technologies to support decision making at all scales for multiple purposes.”
  • 14. UN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION WORK ING GROUP (UNGIWG)  33 UN organizations collaborates with ISO/TC 211 and uses ISO standards for the needs of peacekeeping actions, sustainable development and the eradication of poverty  30 national bodies in the European Union.  recognizes ISO standards as a foundation to make harmonized and high quality geographic data and information readily available for formulating, implementing, monitoring and evaluating Community policy and for the citizen to access information about the environment, whether local, regional, national or international
  • 15. NEED FOR ADVOCACY  ISO/ TC 211 has initiated its outreach activity to user communities to enable them to take advantage of the considerable international investment  there is a need for advocacy – to establish agreements between ISO/TC 211 and global organizations
  • 16. PUBLISHED ISO/TC 211 STANDARDS  Standards that specify the infrastructure for geospatial standardization  Standards that describe data models for geographic information  Standards for geographic information management  Standards for geographic information services  Standards for encoding of geographic information  Standards for specific thematic areas. Friday, January 10, 2014 16
  • 17. INFRASTUCTURE STANDARDS  This set of standards was developed in order to provide an infrastructure for the further standardization of geographic information.  Standards that specify the infrastructure for geospatial standardization  ISO 19101 Geographic information-Reference Model  ISOTS 19103 Geographic information-Conceptual schema language  ISOTS 19104 Geographic information-Terminology  ISO Geographic information-Conformance and testing  ISO 19106-Geographic information-Profiles Friday, January 10, 2014 17
  • 18. ISO 19101:2002 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION- REFERENCE MODEL  It is a guide to structuring geographic standards in a way that will enable the universal usage of digital geographic information.  This reference model provides a vision of standardization in which geographic information can be integrated with existing and emerging digital information technologies and applications.  It uses the concepts obtained from ISO/IEC Open System Environment (OSE) approach for determining standardization requirements. Friday, January 10, 2014 18
  • 19. Main Focus  The main focus of this family of standards is to: 1. define the basic semantics and structure of geographic information for data management and data interchange purposes and 2. define geographic information service components and their behavior for data processing purposes.  Thus, the two major components of the reference model are the Domain Reference Model and the Architecture Reference Model Friday, January 10, 2014 19
  • 20. Domain Reference Model  It provides a high-level representation and description of the structure and content of geographic information.  Its key elements are:  Dataset : It contains features, spatial objects and descriptions of position of spatial objects in space and time  Application schema: It provides a description of the semantic structure of the dataset and also identifies the spatial object types and reference systems required to provide a complete description of geographic information in the dataset  Metadata dataset : It allows users to search for, evaluate, compare and order geographic data . It describes the administration, organization, contents and quality of geographic information in datasets. Friday, January 10, 2014 20
  • 21. High-level view of the ISO 19101 Domain reference model Friday, January 10, 2014 21
  • 22. Architectural Reference Model  This model defines a structure for geographic information services and a method for identifying standardization requirements for those services .  It provides an understanding of what types of services are defined in the different standards in the ISO 19100 series of standards and distinguishes these services from other information technology services. Friday, January 10, 2014 22
  • 23. The ISO 19101 Architectural reference model Key API HTI ISI CSI NNI G IT HS MS WS SS PS CS Friday, January 10, 2014 Application Programming Interface Human Technology Interface Information Services Interface Communications Services Interface Services Network to Network Interface Geographic Information Technology Human Interaction Services Model Management Services Workflow/Task Services System Management Services Processing Services Communication Services 23
  • 24. ISO/TS 19103:2005 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION -CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LANGUAGE  Two aspects of this technical specification  It identifies the combination of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) static structure diagram with its associated Object Constraint Language (OCL) and a set of basic type definitions as the conceptual schema language for specification of geographic information.  It provides guidelines on how UML should be used to create geographic information and service models that are a basis for achieving the goal of interoperability. Friday, January 10, 2014 24
  • 25. Technical Content  Its main technical content is found in Clause 6:  An introduction to the general usage of UML- 6.1 & 6.2  Description of classes and attributes based on general rules for UML -6.3 & 6.4  specification of data types -6.5  More information on the use of UML models for describing geographic information - 6.6, 6.7 and 6.8.  The conventions for defining optional attributes and associations are described in 6.9.  Naming rules are described in 6.10. Friday, January 10, 2014 25
  • 26. Data Types  The basic data types defined in this technical specification are: 1. Primitive types: Fundamental types for representing values, examples are Character String, Integer, Boolean, Date, Time, etc. 2. Implementation and collection types: Types for implementation and representation structures, examples are Names and Records, and types for representing multiple occurrences of other types, examples are Set, Bag and Sequence. 3. Derived types: Measure types and units of measurement. Friday, January 10, 2014 26
  • 27. ISO/TS 19104:2008 Geographic Information -Terminology      Is a Technical specification Guides for collection and maintenance in field of Geographic information Defines the criteria for including concepts in vocabulary Describes the structures of entries and types of terminological data to be recorded Includes principles for definition writing
  • 28. Contd…  Serves for maintenance of Terminological Repository  Freely available for use by all interested people and organization  Propose: Encourage consistency in use and interpretation of geospatial terms
  • 29. ISO 19105:2000 Geographic Information –Conformance and Testing  Specifies the framework, concepts and methodology for testing  Claims conformance to the family of ISO geographic information standards  Claiming is done for data or software, specifications ,products/services
  • 30. Contd…  Conformance testing is done in abstract sense rather than Physical(robustness, acceptance, performance)  Purpose: provides a framework of an abstract test suite (ATS)  ATS requires International definition and acceptance of common testing methods and procedures
  • 31. ISO 19106:2004 Geographic Information –Profiles  Defines the concept of a profile of ISO geographic information standards  Guides for the creation of such profiles that meet the definition of ISO/TC 211 i.e. being Standardized  Profile standardization requires conformance  Considers mainly two classes of conformance
  • 32. Contd…  Class 1: is satisfied when a profile is established as pure as subset of the ISO geographic information standards, together possibly with other ISO standards  Class 2: allows profiles to include extensions within the context permitted in the base standard and permits the profiling of non-ISO geographic information standards as profiles.
  • 33. Contd…  Conformance to profile implies conformance to the set of base standards to which it refers  Conformance to that set of base standards doesn’t necessarily imply conformance to the profile
  • 34. Conclusion  The ISO geographic information standards define a variety of models for describing, managing, and processing of geospatial data.  The ISO geographic information standards define a variety of models for describing, managing, and processing of geospatial data.  Different user communities have different requirements for the extent they want to use or implement these elements and rules. Friday, January 10, 2014 34

Editor's Notes

  1. For development, the major issues include: standards technical development, organizations developing geographic or related standards, priorities of standards, standards and interoperability testing, and speed of developing and approving technical specifications. For deployment, the key issues are: implementation of standards, standards education / training, and user communities supporting ISO/TC 211 standards. 
  2. global economic downturn during the first two years of the new Millenniumpricewho pays for location-based services is a very important