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artificial intelligence


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artificial intelligence

  2. 2. ABSTRACT:This paper explains theincorparation of thinking ability to amachine “CAN A MACHINE ACTINTELLIGENTLY”.
  3. 3. ContentsIntroductionWhy Artificial Intelligence?• MotivationHow does Artificial Intelligence work?• Planning• Pattern Recognition• Ontology• Robotics• Artificial Life• EpistemologyWho uses Artificial Intelligence?• Medicine• Artificial Nose• Military• Game AI• Natural Language Processing• Expert SystemsFuture of AI Technology• Telephone Translator• A Greater Use of Expert Systems• Passing the Turing TestArtificial IntelligenceIntroduction:
  4. 4. Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines find solutions to complexproblems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from humanintelligence, and applying them as algorithm in human friendly way. It is basically the ability of amachine to think for itself. It aims at getting computers to do tasks which require human intelligence. Inshort it can be described as:Simple things turn out to be the hardest to automate:*Recognizing a face.*Navigating a busy street.*Understanding what someone says.Why Artificial Intelligence?Motivation...Computers are fundamentally well suited to performing mechanical computations, using fixedprogrammed rules. This allows artificial machines to perform monotonous tasks efficiently and reliably,which humans are ill - suited to. For more complex problems, things get more difficult. Unlike humans,computers have trouble understanding specific situations, and adapting to new situations. ArtificialIntelligence aims to improve machine behaviour in tackling such complex tasks.How does Artificial Intelligence work?Technology...Over the past five decades, AI research has mostly been focusing on solving specific problems.Numerous solutions have been devised and improved to do so efficiently and reliably. This explains whythe field of Artificial Intelligence is split into many branches. Some of the branches have been explainedbelow:Planning:Planning programs start with general facts about the world (especially facts about the effects of actions),facts about the particular situation and a statement of a goal. From these, they generate a strategy forachieving the goal. In the most common cases, the strategy is just the sequence of actions.Pattern recognition:The main focus in AI today is getting a computer to recognize, make senses and recreate in what it seesand hears.The two major divisions of pattern recognition are machine vision and sound.Pattern-Recognition-Vision:Its goal is to get a computer to recognize pictures so that it can recognize objects in its surroundingsthat would be helpful in robotics.Pattern-Recognition-Sound:It wants to achieve a similar goal but is a primary concern with companies that want to produce a new
  5. 5. means in which a person interacts with a computer by talking.Ontology:Ontology is the study of what objects are and what are they made of. It is the study of kinds ofthings that exist. In AI, the programs and sentences deal with various kinds of objects, and we studywhat these kinds are and what their basic properties are.Robotics:Robotics is the study of how to design, build, use, and work with robots. Robots are mechanical devicesthat can move and react to sensory input giving them some degree of autonomous control.Robots are widely used in the industrial sector performing high-precision jobs such as painting andwielding. They are used in laboratories for repetitive tasks in chemistry and biology, and in situations,which would be dangerous for humans such as cleaning toxic waste or defusing bombs.Three laws of robotics:1. A robot may not injure or harm a human being or allow a human being to come to harm.2. 2. A robot must follow the instructions given to it by a human being without violating Rule 13. 3. A robot must protect itself as long as such protection does not violate Rules 1 and 2.Artificial life:Artificial life is a field of scientific study that attempts to model living biological systems throughcomplex algorithms. Scientists use these models to test and experiment with a multitude of factors onthe behaviour of the systems.Artificial life: From robot dreams to realityIt is a diverse field of research, but a common theme is testing out the fundamental principles of life bybuilding detailed working models. One of the most ambitious goals of artificial-life research is theconstruction of living systems out of non-living parts. Artificial life is a blanket term used to refer tohuman attempts at setting up systems with lifelike properties all biological organisms possess, such asself-reproduction, homeostasis, adaptability, mutational variation, optimization of external states, andso on.Epistemology:Epistemology is a study of knowledge that are required for solving problems in the world.Who uses Artificial Intelligence?Applications...To be useful, a system has to be able to do more than just correctly perform some task.
  6. 6. -- Johan McDermottArtificial Intelligence is helping people in every field to make better use of information to work hardernot smarter. The potential applications of Artificial Intelligence are abundant. However, some of theapplications of AI have been listed below:Medicine:NEW BLOOD TEST SPOTS CANCER:In one of the biggest advances in cancer research in years, scientists have developed a blood test thatcan detect cancer with a greater than 90% accuracy. This artificial intelligence --already tested forcancers of the breast, ovary, and lung--could one day be used to detect many types cancer. All thatsneeded is a single drop of blood’… The computer does the rest....In tests on several hundred bloodsamples, some taken from women with ovarian cancer and others from healthy women, the test provedan astonishing 100% accurate in detecting cancer, even at the earliest stages.Artificial nose:Scientists have endowed computers with eyes to see, thanks to digital cameras, and ears to hear, viamicrophones and sophisticated recognition software. Now theyre taking computers further into therealm of the senses with the development of an artificial nose.E-NOSE TO SNIFF OUT HOSPITAL SUPERBUGS:"E-nose analyses gas samples by passing the gas over an array of electrodes coated with differentconducting polymers. Each electrode reacts to particular substance by changing its electrical resistancein a characteristic way. Combining the signals from all the electrodes gives a smell-print of thechemicals in the mixture that neural network software built into the e-nose can learn to recognize. As aresult, it can be detected from the smell alone that what the bacterial infections are.Military:A NEW MODEL OF ARMY SOLDIER ROLLS CLOSER TO THE BATTLEFIELD:The American military is working on a new generation of soldier, far different from the army it has. Theydont feel hungry, said Gordon Johnson of the Joint Forces Command at the Pentagon. They are notafraid. They dont forget their orders. They dont care if the guy next to them has just been shot. Willthey do a better job than humans? Yes. The robot soldier is coming. The Pentagon predicts that robotswill be a major fighting force in American military in less than a decade, hunting and killing enemies incombat. Robots are a crucial part of the Armys effort to rebuild itself as a 21st-century fighting force,and a $127 billion project called Future Combat Systems is the biggest military contract in Americanhistory.Game AI:
  7. 7. ONLY A PAWN IN ITS GAME:Hydra is the latest chess supercomputer to lay down the gauntlet to the worlds top players. Itsarchitects say it is the greatest ever built, but dont expect it to rejoice in victory or get the post-matchdrinks in.It is a behemoth of a machine that pits 32-linked processor against its flesh-and-blood opponents.Hydras backers claim it can analyze 200 million chess moves in a second and project the game up to 40moves ahead.Natural Language processing:The goal of the Natural Language Processing (NLP) group is to design and build software that willanalyze, understand, and generate languages that humans use naturally, so that eventually you will beable to address your computer as though you were addressing another person.This goal is not easy to reach. "Understanding" language means, among other things, knowing whatconcepts a word or phrase stands for and knowing how to link those concepts together in a meaningfulway. Its ironic that natural language, the symbol system that is easiest for humans to learn and use, ishardest for a computer to master. Long after machines have proven capable of inverting large matriceswith speed and grace, they still fail to master the basics of our spoken and written languages.Expert Systems:The primary goal of expert systems research is to make expertise available to decision makers andtechnicians who need answers quickly. There is never enough expertise to go around--certainly it is notalways available at the right place and the right time. Portable with computers loaded with in-depthknowledge of specific subjects can bring decades worth of knowledge to a problem.EXPERT SYSTEMS - MAKE A DIAGNOSIS:Intution may seem like a human trick, but machines can be pretty good at it too. Underlying a hunch aredozens of tiny, subconscious rules-truths we that have learned from experience. Add them up and youget instinct: a doctors sense that a patients stomach-ache might really be appendicitis, for example.Program those rules into a computer and you get an expert system- one of many that can screen labtests, diagnose blood infections, and identify tumors on a mammogram.Future of AI Technology:Artificial Intelligence and robotics are likely to creep into our lives without us really noticing. However,AI has spawned some useful applications like expert systems and game AI, but the truly pervasive use ofAI is still to come as more research and improved technology surfaces in the future. Here are a fewapplied innovations that AI promises in the future and the technologies behind them.
  8. 8. Telephone Translators:One of the common cliches when one talks about the future is how the world is shrinking every day.Distance used to be a barrier in travel and the invention of the airplane changed all that. Time used tobe a factor in communication since the mail system took months to deliver a letter across the UnitedStates, but the telephone dissolved such a hurdle. The combinations of travel and communications hasbrought whole nations together except now the last barrier in international relationship is language.This is where telephone translators will change all that.Essentially, a person from the United States says some things in English into his telephone. Almostinstantaneously, a computer intercepts the voice, translates what was said, and synthetically generatethe appropriate Japanese words to the person on the other line. Of Course, the translator would needadvanced voice recognition, natural language processing and inferencing to extract what was meant bythe English-speaker, and then synthesize a human-sounding Japanese persons voice in conversationalJapanese.A Greater Use of Expert Systems:With such success as a diagnostic in medic and mechanics presently, expert systems will be moreprevalent in other applications that require an expert with whom people can consult with. Need toidentify the perfect pet for a friend? A pet expert system could ask some questions related to thepersons personality so that it can conclude the types of animals that would be suited for them. Whatkinds of dishes can one make tonight with the food in the refrigerator? Input the foods into a cookexpert system and find out. The possibilities for expert systems are almost endless. If expert systems aredesigned and built correctly, users should be able to easily program their own expert and should makebetter decisions in their lives.Passing the Turing Test:The idea behind the test is that if a machine could make a person think he/she was interacting with anintelligent person, why not consider the machine intelligent in its own right? The controversy over theTuring Test will probably continue into the future, but once a computer convincingly passes the test andbecomes more and more integrated with society, this test would be at least the best approximation ofintelligence possible.Research Assistants:The world is moving from the Industrial Age to the Information Age where the phrase "knowledge ispower" is becoming a reality. With so much information out there, it has become harder and harder tofind what is really relevant. This is where a research assistant powered by AI can help. Not only can theassistant understand what one is looking for, which requires natural language processing, it is smartenough to know where to look and compare what it finds to what it is looking for to see how relevantthe information is, so the person doesnt have to do the dirty work. Research assistants will be animportant tool in the future by keeping the world of information from exploding into an infinite chaos ofunorganized facts and figures.
  9. 9. REFERNCES: 1. The Boundaries of Humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines by J. Sheehan, M. Sosna - University of California Press , 1991 2. Fault Detection by Wei Zhang - InTech , 2010 3. Artificial Intelligence - Agent Behaviour by William John Teahan - BookBoon , 2010 4. IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM
  10. 10. 5.