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Introduction to    Artificial  Intelligence:Human VS Machine
Memory is at the Core (Literally)• Memory is at the core of our being (and a  computer’s)• ...but our memories look very d...
Overview• What is AI? (and why is it so cool?)• AI: Past and Present  – History of AI  – AI Today• Computational vs. Biolo...
What is AI?
AI: A Vision• Could an intelligent agent living on your home  computer manage your email, coordinate your work  and social...
Main Goals of AI• Represent and store knowledge• Retrieve and reason about knowledge• Behave intelligently in complex envi...
Foundations of AI                     Computer                     Science &                    Engineering     Mathematic...
Big Questions•   Can machines think?•   If so, how?•   If not, why not?•   What does this say about human beings?•   What ...
History of AI
History CMSC 100 - Fall 2008   11
What’s Easy aNd What’s                Hard?• It’s been easier to mechanize many of the high-level tasks we  usually associ...
AI Today
Who Does AI?• Academic researchers (perhaps the most Ph.D.-  generating area of computer science in recent  years)  – Some...
Applications• A sample from the 2008 International Conference  on Innovative Applications of AI:   – Event management (for...
What Can AI Systems Do Now?Here are some example applications:•   Computer vision: face recognition from a large set•   Ro...
Robotics           17
Driving: Adaptive Cruise            Control• Adaptive cruise control and pre-  crash safety system (ACC/PCS)• Determines a...
AxonX• Smoke and fire monitoring system                   CMSC 100 - Fall 2008   19
What CaN’t aI systEMs dO        (Yet)?• Understand natural language robustly (e.g.,  read and understand articles in a new...
Computational vs. Biological          Memory
How Does It Work? (Humans)• Basic idea:  – Chemical traces in the neurons of the brain• Types of memory:  – Primary (short...
How Does It Work?               (Computers)• Basic idea:   – Store information as “bits” using physical processes (stable ...
MOOrE’s LaW• Computer memory (and processing speed,  resolution, and just about everything else)  increases exponentially ...
It’s NOt Just What yOu                 “KNOW”•   Storage•   Indexing•   Retrieval•   Inference•   Semantics•   Synthesis• ...
The Skeptics Speak
Mind and Consciousness• Many philosophers have wrestled with the question:   – Is Artificial Intelligence possible?• John ...
What Searle Argues• People have beliefs; computers and machines don’t.• People have “intentionality”; computers and machin...
LEt’s INtrOsPECt FOr a              Moment...• Have you ever learned something by rote that you didn’t really  understand?...
Just You Wait...      CMSC 100 - Fall 2008   32
ANYQUESTIONS?
Thank you for giving yourprecious time
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Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence

  1. 1. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence:Human VS Machine
  2. 2. Memory is at the Core (Literally)• Memory is at the core of our being (and a computer’s)• ...but our memories look very different! 2
  3. 3. Overview• What is AI? (and why is it so cool?)• AI: Past and Present – History of AI – AI Today• Computational vs. Biological Memory• The Skeptics Speak CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 3
  4. 4. What is AI?
  5. 5. AI: A Vision• Could an intelligent agent living on your home computer manage your email, coordinate your work and social activities, help plan your vacations…… even watch your house while you take those well planned vacations? 5
  6. 6. Main Goals of AI• Represent and store knowledge• Retrieve and reason about knowledge• Behave intelligently in complex environments• Develop interesting and useful applications• Interact with people, agents, and the environment 6
  7. 7. Foundations of AI Computer Science & Engineering Mathematics PhilosophyEconomics AI Biology Psychology Cognitive Linguistics Science CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 7
  8. 8. Big Questions• Can machines think?• If so, how?• If not, why not?• What does this say about human beings?• What does this say about the mind?• And if we can make machines think, can we? CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 8
  9. 9. History of AI
  10. 10. History CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 11
  11. 11. What’s Easy aNd What’s Hard?• It’s been easier to mechanize many of the high-level tasks we usually associate with “intelligence” in people – e.g., symbolic integration, proving theorems, playing chess, medical diagnosis• It’s been very hard to mechanize tasks that lots of animals can do – walking around without running into things – catching prey and avoiding predators – interpreting complex sensory information (e.g., visual, aural, …) – modeling the internal states of other animals from their behavior – working as a team (e.g., with pack animals)• Is there a fundamental difference between the two categories? CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 12
  12. 12. AI Today
  13. 13. Who Does AI?• Academic researchers (perhaps the most Ph.D.- generating area of computer science in recent years) – Some of the top AI schools: CMU, Stanford, Berkeley, MIT, UIUC, UMd, U Alberta, UT Austin, ... (and, of course, UMBC!)• Government and private research labs – NASA, NRL, NIST, IBM, AT&T, SRI, ISI, MERL, ...• Lots of companies! 14
  14. 14. Applications• A sample from the 2008 International Conference on Innovative Applications of AI: – Event management (for Olympic equestrian competition) – Language and culture instruction – Public school choice (for parents) – Turbulence prediction (for air traffic safety) – Heart wall abnormality diagnosis – Epilepsy treatment planning – Personalization of telecommunications services – Earth observation flight planning (for science data) – Crop selection (for optimal soil planning) CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 15
  15. 15. What Can AI Systems Do Now?Here are some example applications:• Computer vision: face recognition from a large set• Robotics: autonomous (mostly) automobile• Natural language processing: simple machine translation• Expert systems: medical diagnosis in a narrow domain• Spoken language systems: ~2000 word continuous speech• Planning and scheduling: Hubble Telescope experiments• Learning: text categorization into ~1000 topics• User modeling: Bayesian reasoning in Windows help (the infamous paper clip…)• Games: Grand Master level in chess (world champion), checkers, backgammon, etc. CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 16
  16. 16. Robotics 17
  17. 17. Driving: Adaptive Cruise Control• Adaptive cruise control and pre- crash safety system (ACC/PCS)• Determines appropriate speed for traffic conditions• Senses impending collisions and reacts (brakes, seatbelts)• Latest AI technology: automatic parallel parking!
  18. 18. AxonX• Smoke and fire monitoring system CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 19
  19. 19. What CaN’t aI systEMs dO (Yet)?• Understand natural language robustly (e.g., read and understand articles in a newspaper)• Surf the web (or a wave)• Interpret an arbitrary visual scene• Learn a natural language• Play Go well• Construct plans in dynamic real-time domains• Refocus attention in complex environments• Perform life-long learning 20
  20. 20. Computational vs. Biological Memory
  21. 21. How Does It Work? (Humans)• Basic idea: – Chemical traces in the neurons of the brain• Types of memory: – Primary (short-term) – Secondary (long-term)• Factors in memory quality: – Distractions – Emotional cues – Repetition CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 22
  22. 22. How Does It Work? (Computers)• Basic idea: – Store information as “bits” using physical processes (stable electronic states, capacitors, magnetic polarity, ...) – One bit = “yes or no”• Types of computer storage: Size Speed – Primary storage (RAM or just “memory”) – Secondary storage (hard disks) – Tertiary storage (optical jukeboxes) – Off-line storage (flash drives)• Factors in memory quality: – Power source (for RAM) – Avoiding extreme temperatures 23
  23. 23. MOOrE’s LaW• Computer memory (and processing speed, resolution, and just about everything else) increases exponentially 26
  24. 24. It’s NOt Just What yOu “KNOW”• Storage• Indexing• Retrieval• Inference• Semantics• Synthesis• ...So far, computers are good at storage, OK at indexing and retrieval, and humans win on pretty much all of the other dimensions• ...but we’re just getting started – Electronic computers were only invented 60 years ago! – Homo sapiens has had a few hundred thousand years to evolve... CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 27
  25. 25. The Skeptics Speak
  26. 26. Mind and Consciousness• Many philosophers have wrestled with the question: – Is Artificial Intelligence possible?• John Searle: most famous AI skeptic – Chinese Room argument ? !• Is this really intelligence? CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 29
  27. 27. What Searle Argues• People have beliefs; computers and machines don’t.• People have “intentionality”; computers and machines don’t.• Brains have “causal properties”; computers and machines don’t.• Brains have a particular biological and chemical structure; computers and machines don’t.• (Philosophers can make claims like “People have intentionality” without ever really saying what “intentionality” is, except (in effect) “the stuff that people have and computers don’t.”) 30
  28. 28. LEt’s INtrOsPECt FOr a Moment...• Have you ever learned something by rote that you didn’t really understand?• Were you able to get a good grade on an essay where you didn’t really know what you were talking about?• Have you ever convinced somebody you know a lot about something you really don’t?• Are you a Chinese room??• What does “understanding” really mean?• What is intentionality? Are human beings the only entities that can ever have it?• What is consciousness? Why do we have it and other animals and inanimate objects don’t? (Or do they?) CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 31
  29. 29. Just You Wait... CMSC 100 - Fall 2008 32
  30. 30. ANYQUESTIONS?
  31. 31. Thank you for giving yourprecious time

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