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Technical Prospects of Floating LNG

Describe the various technical intricacies in the FLNG Business

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Technical Prospects of Floating LNG

  1. 1. Akhil Saraswat (20151001) Dhaivat Acharya (20151012) Raj Vadukul (20151034) Ronak Sani (20151039) A Revolution & Evolution for the Global Industry
  2. 2.  Different technologies used across LNG Value chain  Technologies adopted within our defined scope  Various Advancements across the LNG Value Chain.  Gas Production  Gas Liquefaction  Storage  Regassification  Transportation
  3. 3.  A Potential Breakthrough - FLNG  FLNG Field Development  FLNG Process and Technology  Operational Constraints  Challenges  Risk and Safety  Environmental Impact
  4. 4. Conventional approach to producing LNG is to pipe the gas from the gas field to an onshore plant to be processed and liquefied. The gas is then stored on site before being offloaded to a LNG tanker to be taken to market. Due to the limited scope of conventional method of natural gas extraction and the technological advances and economic feasibility made FLNG a commercial reality. FLNG, describes a method for developing offshore natural gas in which gas will be extracted from the seabed, then processed, liquefied and stored on a floating facility that will be permanently moored over the field. The LNG will then be offloaded to a tanker and taken directly to market. A Brief Introduction
  5. 5. Objective • To justify why FLNG can bring a revolution in the gas markets across the world • To study and analyze the emerging technology of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas and its water-based operations • To determine the key challenges involved in implementing FLNG technology successfully • To assess the Future scope of FLNG method- can it really survive ?
  6. 6. Floating-LNG: The Design • FLNG design uses the Dual mixed refrigerant (DMR) process for liquefaction • Process safety is the single most important guiding principle for developing the layout. It is managed by adherence to the relevant process safety standards and evaluation of the layout through quantative risk assessments (QRAs), performed at different design phases of the project. • Product tanks and the (relatively) non-hazardous equipment like most utilities, the power generation and marine facilities are installed ’below deck’. • The process units are located on the ’barge deck’. If space is limited on the deck, the equipment for Monoethyleneglycol (MEG) regeneration and local equipment rooms (LER) an also be placed inside the hull.
  7. 7. most process units of the FLNG facility are located as modules on the vessels topside. Modules containing the process equipment are placed on stools above the barge deck. The main process deck, some 6 to 8 meters above the barge deck, interconnects the process deck of all modules. The four main modules are split into smaller sub-5 modules for lifting and constructability purposes. • The more safety sensitive areas such as the turret, the flare and the process units with a large liquid hydrocarbon inventory are separated from the accommodation block by placing the relatively low risk equipment and utilities in between
  8. 8. Gas Processing and LNG Production The Major steps involved are: 1) Reception 2) -Flash Vaporization -Stabilization by fractionation 3) Acid Gas Removal 4) Dehydration and Mercury Removal 5) Removal of LPG 6) Liquefaction
  9. 9. • steel construction designed to support the production facilities, provide storage for the inventory of LNG and hydrocarbon condensate and refrigerant at ambient pressure. • The substructure will provide facilities for mooring and offloading to vessels for export to market.
  10. 10. Turrets & Moorings The turret supports the mooring system and all risers and umbilicals. It contains a fluid transfer system to safely and reliably convey well stream products, gas for exportation, injection chemicals, water for reinjection, CO2 for injection and signals/power between the vessel and subsea facilities.
  11. 11. Technologies Across LNG Value Chain
  12. 12.  3D Seismic Imaging  Generates an 3 dimensional picture of the Underground formations and geological features  3-D seismic is estimated to increase the life of the reservoir  Can be used in Conjunction with other techniques  4D Seismic Imaging  Extension of 3-D imaging technology  The 3-D images are taken at various times and fed into a computer  The hydrocarbon recovery rates from a reservoir are the highest at around 70%
  13. 13.  Logging while Drilling/ Measurement while Drilling  Helps to locate target layer during drilling  Satisfies the criteria for safe drilling and accurate formation evaluation  MWD tools enhance drilling performance and safety  Reduce RAT hole expenses  Hydraulic Fracturing  Fracturing of rock by a pressurized Liquid  Create fractures and conduit's along which fluids such as gas, petroleum and groundwater migrate well  fracturing fluid contains 90% of water, 9.5% sand and chemical additive about 0.5%
  14. 14.  Hydrostatic Testing of Pipelines  Existing flaws in the material,  Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) and actual mechanical properties of the pipe,  Active corrosion cells  SCADA Systems  Work in real time so has a very little time lag  Status of the equipment every 60 to 90 seconds  SCADA systems play a very important role in leak detection
  15. 15. 3. Liquefaction • Contaminants in the produced gas are removed • Liquefaction process designed to purify LNG to almost 100 percent methane • Natural gas liquefied at approximately -256 Fahrenheit • Volume is reduced by a factor of 600 LNG FPSO • Used for the processing of hydrocarbons and storage of Liquefied gas • The above processes are done at the close proximity of the gas field • FPSO’s eliminate the need to lay long pipelines • Once the field is depleted FPSO’s can be moved to a new location
  16. 16. 4.LNG REGASIFICATION • Regasification units form an important part of the LNG terminal • LNG is pumped first to a double-walled storage tank Floating Storage Regasification Units • An FSRU resembles an oversized LNG carrier • Storage capacities between 250,000 and 350,000 cubic meters of LNG, • This is over twice the capacity of most typical LNG carriers • An FSRU is permanently moored to an offshore platform or floating buoy • LNG carriers then berth alongside it to accomplish of their LNG cargoes.
  17. 17.  Capable of handling large slug volume and sand.  Pressure drop of the system is minimal.  The gas phase internals do not come into direct contact with the bulk liquids.  Online cleaning facilities can be provided so that production downtime is minimize.  Reduces the size of the three phase separator as it need not make space for the gas outlet internals and gas handling capacity is reduced with gas bypassed at the slug handling device.  Smaller Scrubber as it need not have to cater for any liquid hold-up and surge volume.  Compact high efficiency separation resulting in space and weight savings and with minimal control. Features
  18. 18. LPPU With Compressor  Compact  Light weight  Self-contained system – no external utilities required except for HP gas source for motive gas  No pumps and power generation  Slug handling capabilities  Sand removal capabilities  Reduction of CAPEX  Enables independent and unmanned operation
  19. 19.  Compact  Light weight  Self-contained system – no external utilities required except for HP gas source for motive gas  No pumps and power generation  Slug handling capabilities  Sand removal capabilities  Reduction of CAPEX  Enables independent and unmanned operation Features
  20. 20. GROUP 7