What is solid waste


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There is significant increase in solid waste generation over the last decade in Jamaica; this is largely as a result of population growth and to an extent economic growth within the country. The per capita municipal solid waste generation is approximately 1 kg across the island. Municipal solid waste generation on the island has increased from 240,748 tons in 2011 to 290,501 tons in 2012. This can be ascribed to changing lifestyles, food habits and change in living standards.

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What is solid waste

  1. 1. The Growing Complexities and Challenges of Sol!d Wa$te Management in Jamaica- Searching for a Sol!d Wa$te Management Solution. MR. PERCIVAL STEWART PE, MJIE, MSc Civil Engineering, MSc Environmental Science, Dipl. Solid Waste Management. DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS, THE NATIONAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
  2. 2. OVERVIEW What is solid waste and solid waste management?  History of solid waste management in Jamaica.  Collection systems and methodologies.  How is solid waste financed?  The Parks and Markets Limited.  Act of 2001- functions and responsibilities of the NSWMA.  Challenges to Solid Waste Management.  Components of Integrated Solid Waste Management.  The economics of solid waste management  Searching for a Renewable Energy Solution 
  3. 3. WHAT IS SOLID WASTE?  Solid Waste means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste water treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi solid or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, agricultural and mining operations and from community activities but does not include solid or dissolved materials in domestic sewage or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation returns flow or industrial discharges.
  4. 4. WHAT IS SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT? o o o Solid Waste Management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. Currently, Jamaica generates approximately 778,471.5 tons of wastes per year, 2012. This is projected to reach xxxx by 2013 and xxxx by 2020. Future projections estimate that the world’s waste production could reach up to 27 billion tons by 2050.
  5. 5. HISTORY THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAMAICA  The Ministry of Local Government and Community Development, then the Ministry of Local Government, Youth and Community Development, had the responsibility for the formulation of a Solid Waste Management Policy.  The Parish Councils/Local Authorities by law had the responsibility for Solid Waste Management at the parish/local level.  As a result of this, for many years the Parish Council and the Kingston & St Andrew Corporation (KSAC) had the responsibility of solid waste management at the parish level.
  6. 6. HISTORY CONT’D o Since colonial days, solid waste in Jamaica has been collected by the Public Cleansing Departments of the parish councils - a very expensive and inefficient process.  In the 1980’s five (5) Parks & Markets Companies were created to carry out solid waste management functions, which includes collection, transportation and disposal.  Until 1985, Solid Waste Management was controlled by public cleansing departments of the Parish Councils  In 1986 & 1987 the government divested local government of its responsibility of solid waste management.  These companies were also responsible for the maintenance of markets and public parks.
  7. 7. TRANSFER OF RESPONSIBILITY  The legislation for transfer of responsibility from the Parish Councils to the Parks and Markets Agencies was never established and the 1990’s saw the responsibility reverting to the Parish Councils with the Parks and Markets operating as their agents. Company Parishes Served Metropolitan Parks St Catherine, & Markets Kingston & St Andrew, St Thomas Southern Parks & Markets Manchester, St Elizabeth, Westmoreland Western Parks & Markets Hanover, St James, Trelawny North Eastern Parks & Markets St Ann, St Mary, Portland
  8. 8. DISPOSAL SITES IN JAMAICA  Jamaica has no sanitary landfills but unofficially small dumpsites across the island and over the years there has been a reduction from twenty-six (26).  The number of such sites have been reduced to as little as eight (8), this was due to sanitation and environmental problems.  Also, these dumps did not had the benefit of appropriate equipment or sufficient funding for adequate management to be sustained.
  9. 9. COLLECTION SYSTEMS & METHODOLOGIES Then Dumping locations at Curbside Collection Yard Collection Recent designated Skip Containers Shared Containers Presently House-to-House collection Skip/Community Containers Shared Containers Curbside Pick-Up Self Delivered Contracted Service
  10. 10. HOW IS SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FINANCED?? Funding for solid waste management has primarily come from property taxes and from Central Government Grants.
  11. 11. THE PARKS AND MARKETS LTD.  The largest of these Parks and Gardens companies is MPM, 50 per cent of the solid waste generated in the country is attributed to the Kingston Metropolitan Area (KMA).  Having solid-waste collection and management under five separate entities was inefficient and fragmented, in 2001, the National Solid Waste Management Act was passed. It replaced the Anti-Litter Act of 1985. The new act established an agency of the same name - the National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA) - as the primary body responsible for solid waste management in Jamaica.
  12. 12. THE NATIONAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT OF 2001  The National Solid Waste Management Act 2001, has led to the establishment of a new entity called the National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA) as a statutory body, to manage the collection, treatment and disposal of solid waste in Jamaica.  This Agency subsumes all the Parks and Markets Companies that were previously existed namely:      Metropolitan Parks and Markets Ltd Southern Parks and Markets Ltd North-Eastern Parks and Markets Ltd Western Parks and Markets Ltd. Central Parks and Markets
  13. 13. FUNCTIONS OF THE NSWMA      To safeguard public health and the environment Ensuring solid waste is collected, stored, transported, recycled, reused or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. Enforcing the National Solid Waste Management Act 2001, to guarantee full compliance. To effectively manage solid waste in all ways and forms throughout the entire island on an everyday basis, the Authority also acts in times of national disasters or emergencies. Promote public awareness through public education.
  14. 14. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE NSWMA 1. Establishing the standards and criteria that must be attained by operators in the solid waste sector. 2. Licensing of solid waste companies, collection vehicles and disposal site operators. 3. Contracting solid waste collectors for municipal garbage collection. 4. Establishing collection zones in collaboration with the Parish Councils, the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC) and the Town Planning Authority.
  15. 15. RESPONSIBILITIES CONT’D 5. Establishing tipping fees structures and rates for industrial and large commercial entities disposing of waste at the approved disposal sites, and 6. Operating solid waste disposal sites in the medium term while preparing them for divestment to the private sector. 7. Any other matter under the Act required to be prescribed
  16. 16. THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK  Licensing of companies to collect and transport types of waste. all  Licensing trucks to collect and transport waste.  Tipping fees structures and rates.  Standards for storage containers, collection vehicles, disposal site and transfer stations operations and recycling.  Developing fines for illegal dumping and littering.
  17. 17. THEN AND NOW……SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT  At Independence, Jamaica's solid waste was piled on the surface of garbage dumps.  Today, we speak of landfills because its the new approach to tip some garbage, spread, compact, cover it with soil, add compact again.  Landfills are a vast improvement over dumps, but they are not without their own problems. They are expensive to operate properly: hundreds of truckloads of soil have to be brought in, and heavy earth-moving equipment has to be bought, or hired, to move it around.
  18. 18. BEST PRACTICES IN WASTE MANAGEMENT      Compacting of wastes Recycling/Recovery Composting Transfer Stations House to house collection
  19. 19. CHALLENGES TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Due to financial constraints the Authority finds it difficult to:  Adequately and effectively manage its disposal sites.  To frequently undertake covering of landfills.  Maintain landfill equipment to reduce downtime.  One of the major challenges of waste management is created by the ever increasing volume of waste that is generated and the new varieties of goods that are discarded.  Dumps poorly located around the country;  Uncontrolled scavenging;
  20. 20. CHALLENGES TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT CONT’D Inadequate budgetary allocation by Central Government to the responsible line ministry  Inappropriate and inadequate vehicular equipment  Inadequate management of hazardous waste  Low public education and awareness of SWM issues  Populations underserved with collection service Other problems on the landfill includes but not limited to  Frequent Landfill Fires. 
  21. 21. SOLID WASTE AND CLIMATE CHANGE…  Landfills provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis.  Solid waste affects climate change through the emission of landfill gas – methane, which is well known to be a powerful greenhouse gas and so contributes towards climate change.  The source of manmade methane gas is from landfills which occurs when organic waste is left to decay anareobically.  Significant landfill gas production starts 1-2 years after waste disposal and continues for up to 10-60 years or longer (EPA)
  22. 22. LANDFILL GASES - PRODUCTION PHASES Figure 1. Production phases of a Landfill Source: EPA
  23. 23. LANDFILL FIRES Landfill bacteria breaks down trash in the absence of oxygen. A byproduct of this breakdown is landfill gas, containing mainly methane and CO2 o This presents a fire hazard as methane can explode/ burn. If this gas remains in the landfill it can easily be set ablaze. o o Also, there are persons who will deliberately set landfill fires. Over the years, the most dominant landfill to be set ablaze is the Riverton landfill. o
  24. 24. STORM WATER CALCULATION Engineering calculations justifying the size of the proposed storm water drainage works: Percolation equivalent = 100mm per month -3 Hydraulic conductivity of KD=10 m/s Bottom of landfill slope 1:50 distance between pipes = 100m 2 h max = L/2 [(tan a +N/KD) 0.5 – tan a]
  25. 25. STORM WATER CALCULATION CON’T Where : KD = 1.10-3 m/s N= 100mm/month, i.e. 3.86 x10-8 m 3/(m2 x s) L=100m Tan a= 0.02 hmax=100/2x[ (0.022 x 3.86x10-8) 0.5 -0.02] hmax=0.05
  26. 26. RATIONAL METHOD FOR LEACHATE PRODUCTION Assumption: Average precipitation (I) = 272 mm/year Average transpiration (E) = 136mm/year Calculation: Q=Q1+ Q2= I/1000x(C1xA1=C2xA2) Q= the leachate production (m3/year) Q1=the leachate production from the part of the landfill still in use (m3/year)
  27. 27. LEACHATE PRODUCTION CONT’D Q2= the leachate production from the part of the landfill not in use (m3/year) A1= the area of the part of the landfill still in use (m2/year) A2= the area of the part of the landfill not in use (m2/year)
  28. 28. LEACHATE COLLECTION FOR RIVERTON Calculation of the leachate coefficient for the uncovered part of the landfill: C1= 1-E/I= 1-136/272=1-0.5=0.5 Calculation of the leachate coefficient for the covered part of the landfill: C2=0.6xC1=0.6x0.5=0.3 Leachate production: Q=Q1+ Q2= I/1000x (C1xA1=C2xA2) Q= 272/1000x (0.5x28+0.3x0) Q=0.272 (0.5x280, 000 + 0.3x0) Q= 0.272 (140,000) Q= 38,080 (m3/year)
  30. 30. WHAT IS INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT?  Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a comprehensive waste prevention, recycling, composting, and disposal program.  An effective ISWM system considers how to prevent, recycle, and manage solid waste in ways that most effectively protect human health and the environment.  It involves evaluating local needs and conditions, and then selecting and combining the most appropriate waste management activities for those conditions.  The major ISWM activities are waste prevention, recycling and composting, and combustion and disposal in properly designed, constructed, and managed landfills.
  31. 31. RECYCLING, A GREAT POSSIBILITY Four problems that would be solved: 1. Less money will be spent cleaning the streets and other public places of plastic waste. 2. Less money would be spent on contracting garbage trucks to transport plastic waste. 3.Less solid waste would end up at landfills, requiring less soil to cover it, and fewer tractors would be needed and millions of dollars would be saved in the process. 4. There would be an opportunity for the private sector to get involved in solid-waste processing and management. Charging a refundable deposit on plastics can reduce the tonnage of garbage trucked to the landfill.
  32. 32. WASTE PREVENTION  Waste prevention is often called source reduction which means reducing waste by not producing it.  Waste prevention actually avoids waste generation, it is the preferred waste management activity.  Overall, waste prevention conserves resources, protects the environment, and prevents the formation of greenhouse gases.
  33. 33. COMPOSTING    This is the controlled aerobic biological decomposition of organic matter, such as food scraps and plant matter, into humus, a soil-like material. Compost acts as a natural fertilizer by providing nutrients to the soil, increasing beneficial soil organisms, and suppressing certain plant diseases, thereby reducing the need for chemical fertilizers and pesticides in landscaping and agricultural activities. Organic materials often comprise a large portion of the solid waste stream. Composting can be particularly helpful to communities managing their waste.
  34. 34. COMBUSTION  Combustion is the controlled burning of waste in a designated facility to reduce its volume and, in some cases, to generate electricity.  Combustion is an ISWM option for wastes that cannot be recycled or composted, useful where landfill space is limited. While the combustion process can generate toxic air emissions, these can be controlled by installing control equipments.  Combustion of solid waste can help reduce amount of waste going to landfills.
  35. 35. LANDFILLING: LAST RESORT  Presently, most of Jamaica’s waste is landfilled.  Uncontrolled dumping of waste can contaminate groundwater and soil, attract disease carrying rats and insects, and even cause fires.  This method can have problems however, properly designed, constructed, and managed landfills provide a safe alternative to uncontrolled dumping.
  36. 36. STRATEGIC PLANS        Upgrading disposal sites islandwide. Designing a series of Regional Landfills & a network of Transfer Stations. Improving Service Delivery islandwide. Developing ways to reduce waste generation. Public Education Programme. Training of Landfill personnel. Increasing fines and breaches     Reviewed existing collection systems islandwide and establishing new collection system The establishment and operation of regional transfer stations to reduce fuel costs. Taking all necessary enforcement steps to guarantee compliance adherence to all established systems. Taking initiative for proposals for solid waste management.
  37. 37. THE ECONOMICS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT  Scrap metal exports from Jamaica moved from US$13.3 million in 2005 to US$99.58 million in 2006, registering an increase of over 600% in one year. (Jamaica Exporters' Association)  US$14M was registered for 2010 but the growth rate accelerated in the first half of 2011, with US$14M worth of exports from January to May alone.
  38. 38. SCRAP METAL EXPORTS IN JAMAICA Scrap Metal Export, Jamaica Figure xx displays the monthly trend from January 2009 to May 2011
  39. 39. ECONOMICS OF RECYCLING PLASTICS IN JAMAICA  Jamaica currently has no recycling plant, however, the newly formed Jamaica Recycles, hopes to grow capacity by 50 per cent over the next two to three years, which would push the capacity from the current 60,000 tons of recyclable material per annum.  This would divert 20,000 tons of garbage per year from the Riverton landfill.  The current cost is US$100 per ton of material.  In less than 8 months since December 2009, more than 32,500 plastic bottles from Caribbean Estates have been recycled!
  40. 40. LANDFILLS: EXCEEDING THEIR LIFE SPANS  The Riverton waste shed receives the largest volume of waste and has currently exceeded its life span/cycle.  Therefore, its of utmost importance that other efficient waste management solutions be explored to minimize the volumes of wastes entering the landfill.  Non-sanitary landfills cause land degradation as a result of leachates.
  41. 41. A SEARCH FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES  The Government of Jamaica has invited relevant persons to submit requests for proposal via the Office of Utilities Regulations, in search of finding renewable energy sources.  The Authority, is currently in the process of accepting proposals to convert waste to energy thus, reducing the amount of wastes entering into landfills  The OUR has made several changes to its Requests for Proposals for the supply of up to 115 MW of electricity generation from Renewable Energy Based Generation facilities on a Build , Own, Operate (BOO) basis.
  42. 42. WASTE TO ENERGY PROPOSALS  The NSWMA, has approximately twenty (20) unsolicited proposals for Waste to Energy.  This is an attempt to manage the amount of solid waste generated daily.  These include technologies such as bio-fuels, managed recycling facility, refuse derived fuel, gasification, waste rubber and plastic fuel conversion plants, mass burn and pyrolysis.
  44. 44. WTE & MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE  The long-term availability of a cost-effective, reliable and sustainable solid waste management system is an important component of the infrastructure needed by a local community to spur economic development.  In this regard, municipal solid waste management (MSW) systems that utilize wasteto-energy (WTE) facilities to process nonrecycled waste for energy recovery provide a number of noteworthy economic development benefits.
  45. 45. GASIFICATION  It is a manufacturing process that converts any material containing carbon such as coal, petroleum coke (petcoke), or biomass into synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas can be burned to produce electricity or further processed to manufacture chemicals, fertilizers, liquid fuels, substitute natural gas (SNG), or hydrogen.  Gasification helps reduce our dependence on foreign oil and natural gas, and can provide a clean alternative source of base load electricity, fertilizers, fuels, and chemicals.
  47. 47. HOW DOES IT WORK?   Feedstock :Gasifers capture the values from a low-grade hydrocarbon materials. Gasifers can be design to use one or more of the following feed stocks-solid, liquid, gas. Oxygen Plant: Most gasification systems use oxygen to facilitate the reaction in the gasifer. The oxygen is then sent into the gasifer.
  48. 48. HOW DOES IT WORK? CONT’D  Gasifer: Before entering the gasifer solid feedstock are ground into smaller particles, while liquid and gasses are fed directly.  Then a controlled amount of steam or air enters the gasifer, temperatures within ranges from 1,400-2,8000 F. The heat and pressure break apart the chemical bonds of the feedstock forming syngas.  Currently gasifers are capable of processing up to 3,000 tons of feed stock per day, converting 70-85% into syngas.
  49. 49. HOW DOES IT WORK? CONT’D  Gas Clean-up : trace minerals such as sulpur and mercury are and unconverted carbon are removed to very low levels using processes common to chemical and refining industries.  Clean Syngas: Before being used to create power syngas is cleaned to remove sulfur, mercury and trace minerals.
  50. 50. SIGNIFICANT ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS  Gasification plants produce significantly lower quantities of criteria air pollutants.  Gasification can reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal Gasification plants use significantly less water than traditional coal-based power generation, and can be designed so they recycle their process water, discharging none into the surrounding environment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be captured from an industrial gasification plant using commercially proven technologies.    Gasification offers the cleanest, most efficient means of producing electricity and the lowest cost option for capturing CO2 from power generation  Gasification's byproducts are non-hazardous and are readily marketable
  51. 51. REFUSE DERIVED FUEL  Refuse Derived Fuel is a fuel produced by shredding and dehydrating municipal solid waste with a waste converter technology. RDF consists largely of combustible components of municipal waste such as plastics and biodegradable.  Non-combustible materials such as glass and metals are removed during the post-treatment processing cycle.  RDF can be used in a variety of ways to produce electricity.
  52. 52. THE PROCESS     Crushing Process -refuse is crushed to the appropriate size for drying. Drying Process -high temperature blast dries and deodorizes refuse Sorting and Crushing - Process-unsuitable substances for fuel such as iron and stone are removed, refuse is then crushed to the appropriate size for forming RDF. Solidifying Process -additive is supplied to prevent corruption. Substances are formed to produced high-density and high strength RDF that is suitable for transportation, storage and combustion.
  54. 54. MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY This is a specialized plant that receives, separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers. There are two different types: clean and dirty MRFs.  A clean MRF accepts recyclable commingled materials that have already been separated at the source from municipal solid waste generated by either residential or commercial sources.  A dirty MRF accepts a mixed solid waste stream and then proceeds to separate out designated recyclable materials through a combination of manual and mechanical sorting. 
  56. 56. MASS BURN  Mass Burn plants generate electricity and/or steam from waste by feeding mixed municipal waste into large furnaces dedicated solely to burning trash and producing power.  This waste management method avoids the expensive and unpleasant task of sorting through the garbage for unburnable materials.  All waste received at the facility is shredded into small pieces and fed into the incinerator.  Steam produced in the incinerator's boiler can be used to generate electricity or to heat nearby buildings.
  57. 57. MASS BURN CONT’D The residual ash and unburnable materials, representing about 10-20 percent of the original volume of waste, are taken to a landfill for disposal. Advantages  Approximately 90% reduction Mass burn incineration also has in trash volumes several drawbacks. Since the waste is unsorted, it often generates more polluting emissions than sorted waste.  Power generation Disadvantages    It is more likely to corrode burner grates and chimneys. The residual ash and unburned materials may be toxic and require special treatment.  Pollution control
  59. 59. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS  The Agency is in the process of drafting regulations and standards for operations.  There is also a draft regulation waiting to be promulgated.  Standards  Waste currently being drafted are: Haulers  Waste to Energy  Containerization  Maritime Waste Haulers  Hazardous Waste Haulers
  60. 60. CONCLUSIONS The principles of sustainable MSW management strategies are to: (i) minimize MSW generation (ii) maximize waste recycling and reuse, and (iii)ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of MSW. With limited land space for continuous disposal, the search is on.
  61. 61. The End…. Thanks you for your attention.