Chapter 05


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Chapter 05

  1. 1. Chapter Five Fire-Resistive Construction Elements
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the difference between specification codes and performance codes </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a rated assembly must be maintained as a unit </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe origin of STTC and its significance </li></ul><ul><li>List three nationally recognized testing labs </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why labeling is mandated </li></ul>
  4. 4. Specification Code <ul><li>A code provision that specifies a type of construction or materials to be used </li></ul>
  5. 5. Specification Code <ul><li>“The protection on all floor and roof beams shall be at least one inch thick of concrete or porous terra-cotta or brick set in cement.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1916 Boston Building Code </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Performance Codes <ul><li>Identify a performance feature rather than specific construction elements </li></ul><ul><li>Fire resistance in hours </li></ul><ul><li>Load bearing ability in pounds per ft ² </li></ul>
  7. 7. Performance Code <ul><li>“Vertical exit enclosures four stories or more shall be 2-hour fire-resistance rated.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 International Building Code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Code  Performance Based Design </li></ul>
  8. 8. “Fire Resistance Rating of One Hour” <ul><li>One hour of what? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tests for Fire Endurance of Building Materials <ul><li>Based on tests developed in early 1900s </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Time-Temperature Curve </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM E119 </li></ul><ul><li>UL 263 </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 251 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Standard Time-Temperature Curve <ul><li>Reproducible test fire </li></ul><ul><li>Under laboratory conditions </li></ul><ul><li>By ASTM in 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Based on fire tests in “Ordinary construction” </li></ul><ul><li>8,000 BTUs/lb </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tests of a Rated Assembly <ul><li>Specified in specific standards and include </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to support a specified load </li></ul><ul><li>Limit heat transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent passage of heat </li></ul><ul><li>Withstand hose stream test </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fire Walls versus Fire Barriers <ul><li>Fire walls </li></ul><ul><li>Separate buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to withstand collapse of structures on either side during fire conditions </li></ul>
  13. 14. Fire Walls versus Fire Barriers <ul><li>Fire barriers or fire separation walls </li></ul><ul><li>Separate fire areas </li></ul><ul><li>Rated assemblies constructed within the building </li></ul><ul><li>Extend from floor to floor above or to the roof </li></ul>
  14. 15. Opening Protectives <ul><li>Fire doors </li></ul><ul><li>Fire windows </li></ul><ul><li>Fire shutters </li></ul><ul><li>Rated glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Fire dampers </li></ul><ul><li>Through penetration firestop </li></ul>
  15. 16. Structural Ratings <ul><li>Provided by encasement </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete or masonry </li></ul><ul><li>Gypsum </li></ul><ul><li>Approved spray on material </li></ul><ul><li>Asbestos was widely used </li></ul><ul><li>Impact protection must be provided </li></ul>
  16. 17. Fire Blocking <ul><li>Method of controlling fire spread through small concealed spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly called “fire stopping” </li></ul><ul><li>Not a rated assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Fire blocking requirements are prescriptive not performance requirements </li></ul>
  17. 18. Draft Stopping <ul><li>Method of controlling fire spread through large concealed spaces in combustible construction </li></ul><ul><li>Attics, floor, ceilings </li></ul><ul><li>Not a rated assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Draft stopping requirements are prescriptive not performance requirements </li></ul>
  18. 19. Draft Stopping <ul><li>Typically, 3,000 ft ² for attics in apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Attics must have access for maintenance and inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Openings in draft stops self closing and latching </li></ul><ul><li>Often damaged by tradesmen </li></ul>
  19. 20. Summary <ul><li>Building code requirements are generally performance versus specification </li></ul><ul><li>Specify ratings in hours for structural elements </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblies are tested in accordance with the STTC tests </li></ul><ul><li>Approved assemblies are listed </li></ul>