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PROTECTION SYSTEMS
IN BUILDINGS
- TO PREVENT FIRE AND SAVE OUR LIFE AND BUILDING
PRESENTED BY
K.P.BALAJI
BE CIVIL II YEAR
INTRODUCTION
What is fire?
Fire is the visible effect of
the process of combustion.
It occurs between oxygen in
the air and some sort of fuel
The reaction will keep going
as long as there is
enough heat, fuel and oxygen.
This is known as the fire
triangle.
CAUSES OF FIRE
 SMOKING
 ELECTRICAL WIRING
 HEATING AND COOKING EQUIPMENT
 CHILDREN PLAYING WITH MATHCHES
 OPEN FLAMES AND SPARKS
 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
FIRE RESISTING MATERIALS
USED IN BUILDING
THE VARIOUS FIRE RESISTING MATERIALS USED
IN A COMMON BUILDING ARE :
 STONE
 BRICKS
 TIMBER
 GLASS
 CONCRETE
 CAST-IRON
 ASBESTOS CEMENT
 DOOR
 WALL
 FLOOR
 PAINTS
 ETC.,
FIRE RESISTING PROPERTIES
OF A COMMON
BUILDING MATERIAL
1.STONE
 Stone is a bad conductor of heat and it is
also a non –combustible building material.
 It suffers appreciably under the effect of
heat.
 The stone also disintegrate into
small pieces when heated and suddenly
cooled.
2. BRICKS
A fire brick is a block
of refractory ceramic material
used in lining furnaces, klins,
fireboxes and fireplaces.
It is a poor conductor of heat.
It can withstand a temperature of
about 1200C to 1300C.
3. TIMBER
 As a general rule, the structural elements
like TIMBER, ignite & get rapidly
destroyed in case of fire.
 To make timber more fire- resistant , the
surfaces of timber are coated with
chemicals like ammonium phosphate &
sulphate, borax & boric acid etc.
4. GLASS
 Glass expansion due to heat is small.
When heated cracks are formed and then
suddenly cooled.
 Reinforced glass with steel wire is more
efficient than ordinary glass.
5. CONCRETE
The actual behaviour of concrete in case
of fire depends on the quality of cement.
 In case of reinforced concrete structure it
also depends on the position of steel.
 Reinforced concrete structure can resist
fire for hours with temperature 1000C
THESE MATERIALS IN BUILDINGS
FIRE RESISTANT DOORS & WALLS
A fire door & Walls is a door & wall with a fire-resistance rating.
These are used to reduce the spread
of fire or smoke between compartment.
Fire protection system
in buildings
The various types of fire protection system are :
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM
CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEM
HYDRANTS SYSTEM
DRY CHEMICAL SYSTEM
HALON SYSTEM
WATER SPRAY SYSTEM
1. AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM
The automatic sprinkler system involves automatic sprinklers attached
to a piping system containing water under pressure.
These are connected a water supply so that water discharges
immediately from the sprinklers opened by a fire.
The flow switch will allow the water to the affected area.
2. CARBON DIOXIDE SUPPRESION
SYSTEM
 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a clean, non combustible
& non corrosive gas.
 It extinguishes fire primarily by lowering
the level of oxygen.
 Carbon dioxide may be stored in either high
pressure spun steel cylinder or low pressure
light wall.
They are adopted in areas like computer rooms,
areas containing flammable liquids etc.
3. HYDRANT SYSTEM
In this system the hydrants are located at suitable points and they can be
operated automatically or manually.
In manual operation, the pump has to be started manually after opening the
hydrant valve, in automatic operation the pump is opened automatically
when the hydrant valve is opened manually.
It is the backbone of all fire protection system.
It can be installed in airports, textile mills, paper mills, hospitals etc.
EMERGENCY EXIT ARRANGEMENT
IN BUILDINGS
An emergency exit in a building is a special exit for
emergencies such as a fire.
The combined use of regular and special exits allows
for faster evacuation, while it also provides an
alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by
fire, etc.
These are mainly provided in theatres, hospitals etc.
TYPES OF EXIT:
 HORIZONTAL – It may be a door – way corridor or a
passage to a stairway or to a verandah or a terrace.
VERTICAL – It may be a staircase or ramp but not a
lift.
EXIT REQUIREMENTS AS PER NBC OF INDIA :
 Every building should be provided with sufficient exit
to permit safe escape in the case of fire.
All exits should be free of obstruction.
 Adequate illumination ( lighting).
Alarm devices should be installed.
Sprinklers to be provided.
MAJOR FIRE ACCIDENT
KUMBAKONAM FIRE ACCIDENT
CONCLUSION
Now a days the technologies are developing towards
many field and lots of preventing measures from fire has
been established.
These are to be utilised by everyone and to be
established in all the buildings to protect the life from
fire.
FIRE RESISTING BUILDINGS

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FIRE RESISTING BUILDINGS

  • 1. PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS - TO PREVENT FIRE AND SAVE OUR LIFE AND BUILDING PRESENTED BY K.P.BALAJI BE CIVIL II YEAR
  • 2. INTRODUCTION What is fire? Fire is the visible effect of the process of combustion. It occurs between oxygen in the air and some sort of fuel The reaction will keep going as long as there is enough heat, fuel and oxygen. This is known as the fire triangle.
  • 3. CAUSES OF FIRE  SMOKING  ELECTRICAL WIRING  HEATING AND COOKING EQUIPMENT  CHILDREN PLAYING WITH MATHCHES  OPEN FLAMES AND SPARKS  FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
  • 5. THE VARIOUS FIRE RESISTING MATERIALS USED IN A COMMON BUILDING ARE :  STONE  BRICKS  TIMBER  GLASS  CONCRETE  CAST-IRON  ASBESTOS CEMENT  DOOR  WALL  FLOOR  PAINTS  ETC.,
  • 6. FIRE RESISTING PROPERTIES OF A COMMON BUILDING MATERIAL
  • 7. 1.STONE  Stone is a bad conductor of heat and it is also a non –combustible building material.  It suffers appreciably under the effect of heat.  The stone also disintegrate into small pieces when heated and suddenly cooled.
  • 8. 2. BRICKS A fire brick is a block of refractory ceramic material used in lining furnaces, klins, fireboxes and fireplaces. It is a poor conductor of heat. It can withstand a temperature of about 1200C to 1300C.
  • 9. 3. TIMBER  As a general rule, the structural elements like TIMBER, ignite & get rapidly destroyed in case of fire.  To make timber more fire- resistant , the surfaces of timber are coated with chemicals like ammonium phosphate & sulphate, borax & boric acid etc.
  • 10. 4. GLASS  Glass expansion due to heat is small. When heated cracks are formed and then suddenly cooled.  Reinforced glass with steel wire is more efficient than ordinary glass.
  • 11. 5. CONCRETE The actual behaviour of concrete in case of fire depends on the quality of cement.  In case of reinforced concrete structure it also depends on the position of steel.  Reinforced concrete structure can resist fire for hours with temperature 1000C
  • 12. THESE MATERIALS IN BUILDINGS
  • 13. FIRE RESISTANT DOORS & WALLS A fire door & Walls is a door & wall with a fire-resistance rating. These are used to reduce the spread of fire or smoke between compartment.
  • 15. The various types of fire protection system are : AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEM HYDRANTS SYSTEM DRY CHEMICAL SYSTEM HALON SYSTEM WATER SPRAY SYSTEM
  • 16. 1. AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM The automatic sprinkler system involves automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing water under pressure. These are connected a water supply so that water discharges immediately from the sprinklers opened by a fire. The flow switch will allow the water to the affected area.
  • 17. 2. CARBON DIOXIDE SUPPRESION SYSTEM  Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a clean, non combustible & non corrosive gas.  It extinguishes fire primarily by lowering the level of oxygen.  Carbon dioxide may be stored in either high pressure spun steel cylinder or low pressure light wall. They are adopted in areas like computer rooms, areas containing flammable liquids etc.
  • 18. 3. HYDRANT SYSTEM In this system the hydrants are located at suitable points and they can be operated automatically or manually. In manual operation, the pump has to be started manually after opening the hydrant valve, in automatic operation the pump is opened automatically when the hydrant valve is opened manually. It is the backbone of all fire protection system. It can be installed in airports, textile mills, paper mills, hospitals etc.
  • 20. An emergency exit in a building is a special exit for emergencies such as a fire. The combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster evacuation, while it also provides an alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by fire, etc. These are mainly provided in theatres, hospitals etc.
  • 21. TYPES OF EXIT:  HORIZONTAL – It may be a door – way corridor or a passage to a stairway or to a verandah or a terrace. VERTICAL – It may be a staircase or ramp but not a lift.
  • 22. EXIT REQUIREMENTS AS PER NBC OF INDIA :  Every building should be provided with sufficient exit to permit safe escape in the case of fire. All exits should be free of obstruction.  Adequate illumination ( lighting). Alarm devices should be installed. Sprinklers to be provided.
  • 25. CONCLUSION Now a days the technologies are developing towards many field and lots of preventing measures from fire has been established. These are to be utilised by everyone and to be established in all the buildings to protect the life from fire.