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FIRE RESISTING BUILDINGS

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FIRE RESISTING BUILDINGS

  1. 1. PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS - TO PREVENT FIRE AND SAVE OUR LIFE AND BUILDING PRESENTED BY K.P.BALAJI BE CIVIL II YEAR
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION What is fire? Fire is the visible effect of the process of combustion. It occurs between oxygen in the air and some sort of fuel The reaction will keep going as long as there is enough heat, fuel and oxygen. This is known as the fire triangle.
  3. 3. CAUSES OF FIRE  SMOKING  ELECTRICAL WIRING  HEATING AND COOKING EQUIPMENT  CHILDREN PLAYING WITH MATHCHES  OPEN FLAMES AND SPARKS  FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
  4. 4. FIRE RESISTING MATERIALS USED IN BUILDING
  5. 5. THE VARIOUS FIRE RESISTING MATERIALS USED IN A COMMON BUILDING ARE :  STONE  BRICKS  TIMBER  GLASS  CONCRETE  CAST-IRON  ASBESTOS CEMENT  DOOR  WALL  FLOOR  PAINTS  ETC.,
  6. 6. FIRE RESISTING PROPERTIES OF A COMMON BUILDING MATERIAL
  7. 7. 1.STONE  Stone is a bad conductor of heat and it is also a non –combustible building material.  It suffers appreciably under the effect of heat.  The stone also disintegrate into small pieces when heated and suddenly cooled.
  8. 8. 2. BRICKS A fire brick is a block of refractory ceramic material used in lining furnaces, klins, fireboxes and fireplaces. It is a poor conductor of heat. It can withstand a temperature of about 1200C to 1300C.
  9. 9. 3. TIMBER  As a general rule, the structural elements like TIMBER, ignite & get rapidly destroyed in case of fire.  To make timber more fire- resistant , the surfaces of timber are coated with chemicals like ammonium phosphate & sulphate, borax & boric acid etc.
  10. 10. 4. GLASS  Glass expansion due to heat is small. When heated cracks are formed and then suddenly cooled.  Reinforced glass with steel wire is more efficient than ordinary glass.
  11. 11. 5. CONCRETE The actual behaviour of concrete in case of fire depends on the quality of cement.  In case of reinforced concrete structure it also depends on the position of steel.  Reinforced concrete structure can resist fire for hours with temperature 1000C
  12. 12. THESE MATERIALS IN BUILDINGS
  13. 13. FIRE RESISTANT DOORS & WALLS A fire door & Walls is a door & wall with a fire-resistance rating. These are used to reduce the spread of fire or smoke between compartment.
  14. 14. Fire protection system in buildings
  15. 15. The various types of fire protection system are : AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEM HYDRANTS SYSTEM DRY CHEMICAL SYSTEM HALON SYSTEM WATER SPRAY SYSTEM
  16. 16. 1. AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM The automatic sprinkler system involves automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing water under pressure. These are connected a water supply so that water discharges immediately from the sprinklers opened by a fire. The flow switch will allow the water to the affected area.
  17. 17. 2. CARBON DIOXIDE SUPPRESION SYSTEM  Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a clean, non combustible & non corrosive gas.  It extinguishes fire primarily by lowering the level of oxygen.  Carbon dioxide may be stored in either high pressure spun steel cylinder or low pressure light wall. They are adopted in areas like computer rooms, areas containing flammable liquids etc.
  18. 18. 3. HYDRANT SYSTEM In this system the hydrants are located at suitable points and they can be operated automatically or manually. In manual operation, the pump has to be started manually after opening the hydrant valve, in automatic operation the pump is opened automatically when the hydrant valve is opened manually. It is the backbone of all fire protection system. It can be installed in airports, textile mills, paper mills, hospitals etc.
  19. 19. EMERGENCY EXIT ARRANGEMENT IN BUILDINGS
  20. 20. An emergency exit in a building is a special exit for emergencies such as a fire. The combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster evacuation, while it also provides an alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by fire, etc. These are mainly provided in theatres, hospitals etc.
  21. 21. TYPES OF EXIT:  HORIZONTAL – It may be a door – way corridor or a passage to a stairway or to a verandah or a terrace. VERTICAL – It may be a staircase or ramp but not a lift.
  22. 22. EXIT REQUIREMENTS AS PER NBC OF INDIA :  Every building should be provided with sufficient exit to permit safe escape in the case of fire. All exits should be free of obstruction.  Adequate illumination ( lighting). Alarm devices should be installed. Sprinklers to be provided.
  23. 23. MAJOR FIRE ACCIDENT
  24. 24. KUMBAKONAM FIRE ACCIDENT
  25. 25. CONCLUSION Now a days the technologies are developing towards many field and lots of preventing measures from fire has been established. These are to be utilised by everyone and to be established in all the buildings to protect the life from fire.

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