The History of Firestopping? 07 84 00 By: Bob Poole
What is firestopping? <ul><li>Firestopping is the process of containing fire  or smoke through the use of  UL  tested and ...
History of Firestopping <ul><li>Firestopping in the US got its start in the 1960’s onboard Navy combat ships.  </li></ul><...
History of Firestopping  cont’d <ul><li>The Firestopping industry really took off in the 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Large E...
History of Firestopping  cont’d <ul><li>The increased demand for Firestopping lead to changes in the codes. For example sh...
History of Firestopping  cont’d <ul><li>Two of the original Firestopping materials were Silicone foam and fire rated morta...
History of Firestopping  cont’d <ul><li>caulk, except it did not dry and become hard. This product made great strides in t...
Firestopping Standards <ul><li>Originally Firestopping design standards were  covered by ASTM  E 119 and  UL  263. </li></...
Where is Firestopping used <ul><li>There are 4 primary locations where Firestopping is used to prevent the spread of fire,...
Where is Firestopping used  cont’d <ul><li>Joints  - Any joint between fire rated components. i.e. wall/wall (WW), floor/ ...
Where is Firestopping used  cont’d <ul><li>Blank Openings  – Openings with no penetrating items. </li></ul>
Joints <ul><li>Wall/Wall  Dynamic & Static  ( WWD &WWS ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drywall construction usually does not requi...
Floors <ul><li>Slab edges - (CEJ) exterior wall cavity (Curtain Wall construction) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Joints - (C...
Blank Openings <ul><li>This is a condition that is not commonly seen in the Healthcare Construction arena. </li></ul><ul><...
Penetrations <ul><li>(F, W, C) These would mainly consist of pipes, conduits, cabling and ductwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Ther...
Penetrations  cont’d <ul><li>When there are penetrations for which there are no known  UL  approved details, An Engineerin...
UL  Designations For Firestop Systems <ul><li>For example, System # CAJ-1044 is deciphered as follows:  </li></ul><ul><ul>...
 
 
 
UL  Designations For Firestop Systems In a nutshell, the tested firestop system is given a letter designation indicating w...
Firestopping Nomenclature <ul><li>Annular space  – The gap between the penetrating item and the hole. </li></ul><ul><li>Ba...
Firestopping Nomenclature  cont’d <ul><li>Point of contact  – when a penetrating item makes contact with the hole. </li></...
Firestopping Nomenclature Courtesy of 3M
Firestopping Nomenclature Courtesy Of  3M
UL  Designations For Firestop Systems Translation: This system, CAJ-1044, can be specified for use on metallic piping such...
Ratings of  UL  Firestop systems Also located in the UL Fire Resistance Directory Vol. 2 are the F, T and L ratings for ea...
Ratings of  UL  Firestop Systems The “F” rating provides &quot;the time period for which the system is capable of prohibit...
Ratings of  UL  Firestop Systems The “T” designation indicates &quot;the time period for which the system is capable of li...
Ratings of  UL  Firestop Systems The “L” rating designates &quot;information concerning the amount of air leakage, in cubi...
Available Products <ul><li>Some of the many products available today include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intumescent, Silicone,...
Firestopping Industry Today <ul><li>Many manufacturers have entered the arena. </li></ul><ul><li>The industry also has a t...
Firestopping Installations <ul><li>A large majority of the firestopping work today  is not installed correctly. </li></ul>...
Example How will this be Firestopped? Is there an UL detail for this?
Example Examples of improperly applied details.
Example The incorrect Firestopping material used here.
Example How will this be Firestopped?
Example One of the many types of re enterable sleeves.
Example Improperly installed fire caulk.  UL  detail not followed. Penetrations not Firestopped.
Example An approved  UL  detail not followed here.
The History of Firestopping? 07 84 00 <ul><li>The End </li></ul>
The History of Firestopping? 07 84 00 <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
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History of Firestopping

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History of Firestopping

  1. 1. The History of Firestopping? 07 84 00 By: Bob Poole
  2. 2. What is firestopping? <ul><li>Firestopping is the process of containing fire or smoke through the use of UL tested and approved assemblies. </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of Firestopping <ul><li>Firestopping in the US got its start in the 1960’s onboard Navy combat ships. </li></ul><ul><li>A company called Lucab Sweden invented the first known Firestop. MCT (Multi Cable Transit) </li></ul><ul><li>A gentleman by the name of Mr. Joe O'Brien ('Mr. MCT') is credited with being the father of firestopping. </li></ul><ul><li>Firestopping as we know it has been around for about 30 years. It got its start in the Nuclear, Telecommunications and Power Plant Industries. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History of Firestopping cont’d <ul><li>The Firestopping industry really took off in the 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Large Electrical Manufacturers and Silicone Manufacturers teamed up to do R&D on new products. </li></ul><ul><li>Land based use of Firestopping began in earnest in the 1980’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Insurance industry also played a big role in promoting the development of Firestop products to minimize the risks from property lost. </li></ul>
  5. 5. History of Firestopping cont’d <ul><li>The increased demand for Firestopping lead to changes in the codes. For example shafts were no longer the only way to run services between floors. As new Products were developed, new Firestopping systems were also developed to allow wiring and cables to be routed through rated assemblies with out the need for shafts. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of Firestopping cont’d <ul><li>Two of the original Firestopping materials were Silicone foam and fire rated mortars. These products did not provide the flexibility of re entry into existing penetrations. As a result of the need for this flexibility, fire pillows and Intumescent caulks were developed. These products were improvements but still had re entry issues. Intumescent caulk revolutionized the industry. The next generation of products was the moldable putty. It offered the benefit of the intumescent </li></ul>
  7. 7. History of Firestopping cont’d <ul><li>caulk, except it did not dry and become hard. This product made great strides in the re-entry of penetrations. New products continued to be developed right up to today. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Firestopping Standards <ul><li>Originally Firestopping design standards were covered by ASTM E 119 and UL 263. </li></ul><ul><li>With the need for standards for testing procedures and Installation methods, ASTM E 814 and UL 1479 were developed . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Where is Firestopping used <ul><li>There are 4 primary locations where Firestopping is used to prevent the spread of fire, smoke or gases. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Where is Firestopping used cont’d <ul><li>Joints - Any joint between fire rated components. i.e. wall/wall (WW), floor/ wall (FW), wall/ceiling or structure (HW). </li></ul><ul><li>Floors - (CEJ) perimeter slab edges/ exterior wall cavities ( curtain walls) </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrations - (F loor ,W all ,C ombination ) Any opening(s) in rated walls or floors. ( M.E.P. penetrations) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Where is Firestopping used cont’d <ul><li>Blank Openings – Openings with no penetrating items. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Joints <ul><li>Wall/Wall Dynamic & Static ( WWD &WWS ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drywall construction usually does not require joints that need to be firestopped. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete and Masonry walls are where wall to wall joints are most commonly used. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Floors <ul><li>Slab edges - (CEJ) exterior wall cavity (Curtain Wall construction) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Joints - (CEJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Floor to floor - (FFD) </li></ul><ul><li>Floor to wall - (FWD) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Blank Openings <ul><li>This is a condition that is not commonly seen in the Healthcare Construction arena. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of what we deal with is Drywall construction. In most cases a opening/hole in the wall is covered with what is referred to as a “Blow Out patch” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Penetrations <ul><li>(F, W, C) These would mainly consist of pipes, conduits, cabling and ductwork. </li></ul><ul><li>There are Firestop systems for virtually every condition listed above with some exceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>These exceptions would be for penetrations which are not the norm; i.e., perpendicular to and are usually skewed or partially penetrate the wall/floor plane. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Penetrations cont’d <ul><li>When there are penetrations for which there are no known UL approved details, An Engineering Judgment may be issued. </li></ul><ul><li>These judgments usually come from the Engineering staff of one of the major Firestopping Manufacturers. They will make a judgment that the condition in question closely resembles that of an UL tested condition and therefore they issue an Engineering Judgment that tells the Contractor what detail to follow. Most AHJ’s accept these judgments. </li></ul>
  17. 17. UL Designations For Firestop Systems <ul><li>For example, System # CAJ-1044 is deciphered as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C = Either floor or wall A or J = Concrete floor or wall, with minimum thickness less than or equal to 5 or 8 inches, respectively. 1000 to 1999 = Specific types of metallic piping and specific diameters. #1044 is the 44th system in the 1000 series of metallic penetrations. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. UL Designations For Firestop Systems In a nutshell, the tested firestop system is given a letter designation indicating what type of floor or wall assembly the firestop system has been tested in: concrete, masonry, gypsum, etc. Following the letter is a number designation referring to the type of penetrating item that has been tested, such as metallic pipe, non-metallic pipe, cable, electrical, etc.
  19. 22. Firestopping Nomenclature <ul><li>Annular space – The gap between the penetrating item and the hole. </li></ul><ul><li>Backer rod /material – Materials used as a support for gunned or troweled sealant materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Intumescent – Materials that swell in the presence of heat to seal gaps around a penetration. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Firestopping Nomenclature cont’d <ul><li>Point of contact – when a penetrating item makes contact with the hole. </li></ul><ul><li>UL Fire Resistance Directory – the publication which contains details/descriptions for all Firestopping systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Resistance Rating – an hourly rating defined by building codes for the endurance of types of construction to resist fire. </li></ul>
  21. 24. Firestopping Nomenclature Courtesy of 3M
  22. 25. Firestopping Nomenclature Courtesy Of 3M
  23. 26. UL Designations For Firestop Systems Translation: This system, CAJ-1044, can be specified for use on metallic piping such as steel, iron, or copper tubing and copper pipe with specific outside dimensions, and installed through concrete floors or walls 5 to 8 inches thick or in framed floors.
  24. 27. Ratings of UL Firestop systems Also located in the UL Fire Resistance Directory Vol. 2 are the F, T and L ratings for each firestop system. These are hourly ratings that indicate specific performance capabilities and correspond to building code requirements. The Directory defines these ratings as follows:
  25. 28. Ratings of UL Firestop Systems The “F” rating provides &quot;the time period for which the system is capable of prohibiting the passage of flame through the system and requires acceptable hose stream performance.&quot;
  26. 29. Ratings of UL Firestop Systems The “T” designation indicates &quot;the time period for which the system is capable of limiting the maximum temperature rise on the unexposed surface of the wall or floor assembly, on the penetrating item, and on the fill material in the annular space, not to exceed 325° F (181° C) above ambient temperature, and requires acceptable hose stream performance.&quot;
  27. 30. Ratings of UL Firestop Systems The “L” rating designates &quot;information concerning the amount of air leakage, in cubic feet per minute per square foot of opening through the firestop system and/or 400° F air temperatures at an air pressure differential of 0.30 in W.C.&quot;
  28. 31. Available Products <ul><li>Some of the many products available today include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intumescent, Silicone, Latex and Acrylic caulks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastomeric Sprays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putty's, putty pads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collars, wrap strips, adjustable sleeves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pillows, Foam, Mortar </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Firestopping Industry Today <ul><li>Many manufacturers have entered the arena. </li></ul><ul><li>The industry also has a trade organization…. Firestop Contractors International Assoc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They promote industry wide education for Contractors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They work with Code officials to improve codes and standards for firestopping. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They assist Architects in writing tight specs. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Firestopping Installations <ul><li>A large majority of the firestopping work today is not installed correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>The key factor is lack of education and unskilled workers doing the work. </li></ul><ul><li>A General lack of understanding that all firestopping work must be done in accordance with approved UL details exist in the Construction Industry today. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Example How will this be Firestopped? Is there an UL detail for this?
  32. 35. Example Examples of improperly applied details.
  33. 36. Example The incorrect Firestopping material used here.
  34. 37. Example How will this be Firestopped?
  35. 38. Example One of the many types of re enterable sleeves.
  36. 39. Example Improperly installed fire caulk. UL detail not followed. Penetrations not Firestopped.
  37. 40. Example An approved UL detail not followed here.
  38. 41. The History of Firestopping? 07 84 00 <ul><li>The End </li></ul>
  39. 42. The History of Firestopping? 07 84 00 <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>

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