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Roll-to-Roll ALD Coatings for Battery Cell
Interfaces at Production Scale
ALD/ALE 2022
D.Sc. Andrew Cook
andrew.cook@beneq.com
7/5/2022
BENEQ
• Supplier of ALD Equipment and Services
• Headquarters & ALD Fab in Espoo Finland with 40+ ALD systems for service & production
• 30+ years of industrial ALD experience at your service
7/5/2022
Key Battery Markets
Electric Vehicles
Portable Electronics
Internet of Things (IoT)
VTOL Lilium Jet
Energy Storage
Battery Markets
7/5/2022
Forecasted battery technology evolution
Source: Joint Research Centre (European Commission), 2018. doi:10.2760/75757
Cell chemistry
Generation 5 • Li/O2 (lithium-air)
Generation 4
• All-solid-state with lithium anode
• Conversion materials (primarily lithium sulphur)
Generation 3b
• Cathode: HE-NCM (high energy, high nickel content), HVS
(high-voltage spinel/LMNO)
• Anode: silicon/carbon
Generation 3a
• Cathode: NCM622 to NCM811
• Anode: carbon (graphite) + silicon component (5-10%)
Generation 2b
• Cathode: NCM523 to NCM622
• Anode: carbon
Generation 2a
• Cathode: NCM111
• Anode: 100% carbon
Generation 1
• Cathode: LFP, NCA
• Anode: 100% carbon
>2025 ?
~2025
~2020
current
7/5/2022
Key Battery Performance Metrics
• Battery capacity – is a measure of the
amperage a battery can provide in
exactly one hour and is quoted in A/hr.
Specific capacity is capacity per unit
weight
• Energy Density – is a measure of the
energy a battery contains as a portion of
its weight
• Lifetime
• Environmental friendliness
• Safety
• Cost
7/5/2022
ALD for Batteries - background
• Lot of research has been done since 2010 about ALD on Lithium-Ion Batteries
• Overall, ALD introduction to battery manufacturing has been slow and limited by the
availability of production scale ALD systems.
• One focus area has been coating of the cathode active materials as particles
• Now many research groups are interested in comparing the ALD on particles with
ALD on electrodes.
• More recently several groups have started research on ALD for Solid State Lithium
Batteries
• Beneq has a long experience with R2R ALD on other application areas, and is now
applying that know-how to offer R2R ALD solutions for battery manufacturing
7/5/2022
Li ion battery – ALD can help to
Adopted from: Ye Jin, Han Yu, and Xinhua Liang Appl. Phys. Rev. 8, 031301 (2021); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0048337
Improve stability of SEI layer
Suppress dendrite growth
Improve wettability
Inhibit transition metal dissolution
Separator
SSE
Stop particle cracking
Improve interfacial contact
Improve thermal stability
Inhibit transformation and pulverisation
Anode Cathode
Cu
Foil
Al
Foil
7/5/2022
Battery Manufacturing Process
ALD value add
7/5/2022
Solution: Functional ALD Layers
Encapsulation &
dendrite suppression
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b08585
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.02.04
3
Anode Coating
https://doi.org/10.1002/er.5371
Separator Protective Coating
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-014-2745-z
Cathode Protection
• Protective coatings on cathodes
• Anode coatings
• Dendrite growth suppression
• Protective coatings on separator films
7/5/2022
ALD coating of particles
• Lot of the ALD work on LIB has been done on particles, especially on cathode active
materials
• Two alternative ways to coat CAM particles by ALD
a) Coat loose particles and then place them on the foil
b) Place particles on the foil and then coat them
Coating as loose particles -
Fluidized bed process
Coating as particles on foil
– R2R process
7/5/2022
Cathodes – R2R ALD or Particle ALD
R2R advantages:
• You get the coating where
you want it – on external
surfaces, but not between
the particles
• Does not impact the
previous casting step
Coating of Electrodes Coating of Active
material as particles
Process type R2R ALD Fluidized bed ALD
Contact between
particles
Good Poor
ALD process
temperature
Limited by binder Wider range
Process integration Easier - no impact to
previous casting step
Will impact casting
step
R2R ALD works also on non-particle –based 3D
structures, such as nanotubes, etched pillars etc.
7/5/2022
R2R ALD process principle
7/5/2022
Offering: R2R Genesis ALD System
• Web Material:
Copper, Aluminum, Stainless steel, polymer,
paper and other substrates suitable for vacuum coating
• Web width, max.: 420 mm
• Machine Speed:
• Production Minimum 0.1 m/min
• Production Maximum 10 m/min
• ALD Materials: Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, ZnS, SiO2 and more
• Process temp., max: 250°C
Optional designs for wider webs and line integration available Genesis ALD
in collaboration with
R2R Production
7/5/2022
ALD systems used in development services trials
•
TFS 200 and SCS-1000 systems are currently used for ALD development services for coating battery samples
7/5/2022
ALD Al2O3 coating on NCM811 cathode foils
As received samples
Long cycling conditions:
0.5C, 3.0 – 4.4 V
ALD Coating shows increase in specific capacity
and significant increases in cycling stability
7/5/2022
Summary
• ALD is an enabling technology for future batteries
• ALD technology introduction has been hindered by lack
of production scale equipment
• Most applications need films in the range of 1-20 nm
 well suited for Roll-to-Roll ALD
• Beneq R2R ALD technology offers a straightforward
scale-up path to mass-production
• Protective coatings on anode, cathode and separator
• Coating on particles in R2R mode
• Suitable for 3D structures
• R&D / Pilot scale equipment exist already, larger
production systems available as custom design
Beneq® is a leading supplier of production and research equipment for atomic layer deposition
(ALD), a provider of thin film coating services, and the world’s premier manufacturer of thin
film electroluminescent (TFEL and TASEL) displays.
www.beneq.com | www.lumineq.com
Tel. +358 9 7599 530
info@beneq.com | lumineq@beneq.com
firstname.lastname@beneq.com
Thank You!
7/5/2022
Electrode Manufacturing
https://www.ukbic.co.uk/virtual-tour/
ALD
Powder ALD
7/5/2022
BENEQ ALD systems
Research & Development Equipment
Beneq R2 Beneq TFS200 Beneq TFS500
CONFIDENTIAL
7/5/2022
BENEQ ALD systems
3D & Batch
Beneq P400A Beneq P800 Beneq P1500
CONFIDENTIAL

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Roll-to-Roll ALD Coatings for Battery Cell Interfaces at Production Scale

  • 1. Roll-to-Roll ALD Coatings for Battery Cell Interfaces at Production Scale ALD/ALE 2022 D.Sc. Andrew Cook andrew.cook@beneq.com
  • 2. 7/5/2022 BENEQ • Supplier of ALD Equipment and Services • Headquarters & ALD Fab in Espoo Finland with 40+ ALD systems for service & production • 30+ years of industrial ALD experience at your service
  • 3. 7/5/2022 Key Battery Markets Electric Vehicles Portable Electronics Internet of Things (IoT) VTOL Lilium Jet Energy Storage Battery Markets
  • 4. 7/5/2022 Forecasted battery technology evolution Source: Joint Research Centre (European Commission), 2018. doi:10.2760/75757 Cell chemistry Generation 5 • Li/O2 (lithium-air) Generation 4 • All-solid-state with lithium anode • Conversion materials (primarily lithium sulphur) Generation 3b • Cathode: HE-NCM (high energy, high nickel content), HVS (high-voltage spinel/LMNO) • Anode: silicon/carbon Generation 3a • Cathode: NCM622 to NCM811 • Anode: carbon (graphite) + silicon component (5-10%) Generation 2b • Cathode: NCM523 to NCM622 • Anode: carbon Generation 2a • Cathode: NCM111 • Anode: 100% carbon Generation 1 • Cathode: LFP, NCA • Anode: 100% carbon >2025 ? ~2025 ~2020 current
  • 5. 7/5/2022 Key Battery Performance Metrics • Battery capacity – is a measure of the amperage a battery can provide in exactly one hour and is quoted in A/hr. Specific capacity is capacity per unit weight • Energy Density – is a measure of the energy a battery contains as a portion of its weight • Lifetime • Environmental friendliness • Safety • Cost
  • 6. 7/5/2022 ALD for Batteries - background • Lot of research has been done since 2010 about ALD on Lithium-Ion Batteries • Overall, ALD introduction to battery manufacturing has been slow and limited by the availability of production scale ALD systems. • One focus area has been coating of the cathode active materials as particles • Now many research groups are interested in comparing the ALD on particles with ALD on electrodes. • More recently several groups have started research on ALD for Solid State Lithium Batteries • Beneq has a long experience with R2R ALD on other application areas, and is now applying that know-how to offer R2R ALD solutions for battery manufacturing
  • 7. 7/5/2022 Li ion battery – ALD can help to Adopted from: Ye Jin, Han Yu, and Xinhua Liang Appl. Phys. Rev. 8, 031301 (2021); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0048337 Improve stability of SEI layer Suppress dendrite growth Improve wettability Inhibit transition metal dissolution Separator SSE Stop particle cracking Improve interfacial contact Improve thermal stability Inhibit transformation and pulverisation Anode Cathode Cu Foil Al Foil
  • 9. 7/5/2022 Solution: Functional ALD Layers Encapsulation & dendrite suppression https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b08585 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.02.04 3 Anode Coating https://doi.org/10.1002/er.5371 Separator Protective Coating https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-014-2745-z Cathode Protection • Protective coatings on cathodes • Anode coatings • Dendrite growth suppression • Protective coatings on separator films
  • 10. 7/5/2022 ALD coating of particles • Lot of the ALD work on LIB has been done on particles, especially on cathode active materials • Two alternative ways to coat CAM particles by ALD a) Coat loose particles and then place them on the foil b) Place particles on the foil and then coat them Coating as loose particles - Fluidized bed process Coating as particles on foil – R2R process
  • 11. 7/5/2022 Cathodes – R2R ALD or Particle ALD R2R advantages: • You get the coating where you want it – on external surfaces, but not between the particles • Does not impact the previous casting step Coating of Electrodes Coating of Active material as particles Process type R2R ALD Fluidized bed ALD Contact between particles Good Poor ALD process temperature Limited by binder Wider range Process integration Easier - no impact to previous casting step Will impact casting step R2R ALD works also on non-particle –based 3D structures, such as nanotubes, etched pillars etc.
  • 13. 7/5/2022 Offering: R2R Genesis ALD System • Web Material: Copper, Aluminum, Stainless steel, polymer, paper and other substrates suitable for vacuum coating • Web width, max.: 420 mm • Machine Speed: • Production Minimum 0.1 m/min • Production Maximum 10 m/min • ALD Materials: Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, ZnS, SiO2 and more • Process temp., max: 250°C Optional designs for wider webs and line integration available Genesis ALD in collaboration with R2R Production
  • 14. 7/5/2022 ALD systems used in development services trials • TFS 200 and SCS-1000 systems are currently used for ALD development services for coating battery samples
  • 15. 7/5/2022 ALD Al2O3 coating on NCM811 cathode foils As received samples Long cycling conditions: 0.5C, 3.0 – 4.4 V ALD Coating shows increase in specific capacity and significant increases in cycling stability
  • 16. 7/5/2022 Summary • ALD is an enabling technology for future batteries • ALD technology introduction has been hindered by lack of production scale equipment • Most applications need films in the range of 1-20 nm  well suited for Roll-to-Roll ALD • Beneq R2R ALD technology offers a straightforward scale-up path to mass-production • Protective coatings on anode, cathode and separator • Coating on particles in R2R mode • Suitable for 3D structures • R&D / Pilot scale equipment exist already, larger production systems available as custom design
  • 17. Beneq® is a leading supplier of production and research equipment for atomic layer deposition (ALD), a provider of thin film coating services, and the world’s premier manufacturer of thin film electroluminescent (TFEL and TASEL) displays. www.beneq.com | www.lumineq.com Tel. +358 9 7599 530 info@beneq.com | lumineq@beneq.com firstname.lastname@beneq.com Thank You!
  • 19. 7/5/2022 BENEQ ALD systems Research & Development Equipment Beneq R2 Beneq TFS200 Beneq TFS500 CONFIDENTIAL
  • 20. 7/5/2022 BENEQ ALD systems 3D & Batch Beneq P400A Beneq P800 Beneq P1500 CONFIDENTIAL