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18-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
MODAL VERBS – CAN
A modal verb (also modal, modal auxiliary verb, modal auxi...
Use of Can
Can: Possibility and Ability
We use can to talk about what is possible, what we are able or
free to do:
 She c...
19-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
THE MODAL VERBS
A modal verb (also modal, modal auxiliary verb, modal auxili...
20-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
MODAL FORMS
Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms. Study t...
21-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
MODAL VERB EXPLANATION
The modal verbs include can, must, may, might, will, ...
Modal verbs are: unlike other verbs. They do not change their form
(spelling) and they have no infinitive or participle (p...
24-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
MODAL VERBS EXPRESS:
PROBABILITY
First, they can be used when we want to say...
OBLIGATION AND ADVICE
We can use verbs such as 'must' or 'should' to say when something
is necessary or unnecessary, or to...
25-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
NEW VOCABULARY
TYPES OF BIRDS
 Pigeons
 Parrots
 Flamingos
 Penguins
 T...
TYPES OF CARS
 Toyota
 Audi
 Ferrari
 Chevrolet
 Mercedes-Benz
TYPES OF FLOWERS
 Alstroemeria
 Amaryllis
 Anthuriu...
26-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
COULD
Could is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb.
We use could to:
...
 Could is invariable. There is only one form of could.
 The main verb is always the bare infinitive.
Use of Could:
Could...
27-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Using "Can" in Present, Past, and Future
Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Prese...
OPPORTUNITY time. I can help her
now.
2. SHIFT TO "BE
ABLE TO"
I had some free time
yesterday. I was
able to help her at
t...
28-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Using "Could" in Present, Past, and Future
Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Pre...
2. You could have spent
your vacation in Hawaii.
3. You could spend your
vacation in Hawaii.
could
PAST ABILITY
I could ru...
31-03-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BE ABLE TO
Although we look at be able to here, it is not a modal verb. It i...
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Grammar 6to b

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Grammar 6to b

  1. 1. 18-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO MODAL VERBS – CAN A modal verb (also modal, modal auxiliary verb, modal auxiliary) is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality – that is, ability, permission, and obligation. Can Can is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use can to:  talk about possibility and ability  make requests  ask for or give permission Structure of Can Subject + can + main verb The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to").
  2. 2. Use of Can Can: Possibility and Ability We use can to talk about what is possible, what we are able or free to do:  She can drive a car.  John can speak Spanish.  I cannot hear you. (I can't hear you.)  Can you hear me? Normally, we use can for the present. But it is possible to use can when we make present decisions about future ability. A. Can you help me with my homework? (present) B. Sorry. I'm busy today. But I can help you tomorrow. (future)
  3. 3. 19-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO THE MODAL VERBS A modal verb (also modal, modal auxiliary verb, modal auxiliary) is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality that is, likelihood, ability, permission, and obligation. The modal verbs are: Can Could May Might Shall Should Will Would Uses of modal verbs:  We use modal verbs to show if we believe something is certain, probable or possible (or not).  We also use modals to do things like talking about ability, asking permission making requests and offers, and so on.
  4. 4. 20-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO MODAL FORMS Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms. Study the examples below: Modal Simple I could swim at the beach. Modal Continuous I could be swimming at the beach right now. Modal Perfect I could have swum at the beach yesterday. Modal Perfect Continuous I could have been swimming at the beach instead of working in the office. Passive Modal Simple The room should be cleaned once a day. Passive Modal Continuous The room should be being cleaned now. Passive Modal Perfect The room should have been cleaned yesterday. Passive Modal Perfect Continuous The room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare form)
  5. 5. 21-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO MODAL VERB EXPLANATION The modal verbs include can, must, may, might, will, would, should. They are used with other verbs to express ability, obligation, possibility, and so on. Below is a list showing the most useful modals and their most common meanings: Modal Meaning Example can to express ability I can speak a little Russian. can to request permission Can I open the window? may to express possibility I may be home late. may to request permission May I sit down, please? must to express obligation I must go now. must to express strong belief She must be over 90 years old. should to give advice You should stop smoking. would to request or offer Would you like a cup of tea? would in if-sentences If I were you, I would say sorry.
  6. 6. Modal verbs are: unlike other verbs. They do not change their form (spelling) and they have no infinitive or participle (past/present). The modals must and can need substitute verbs to express obligation or ability in the different tenses. Here are some examples: Past simple Sorry I'm late. I had to finish my math test. Present perfect She's had to return to Korea at short notice . Future You'll have to work hard if you want to pass the exams. Infinitive I don't want to have to go. Past simple I couldn't/wasn't able to walk until I was 3 years old. Present perfect I haven't been able to solve this problem. Can you help? Future I'm not sure if I will be able to come to your party. Infinitive I would love to be able to play the piano.
  7. 7. 24-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO MODAL VERBS EXPRESS: PROBABILITY First, they can be used when we want to say how sure we are that something happened / is happening / will happen. We often call these 'modals of deduction' or 'speculation' or 'certainty' or 'probability'. For example: 1. It's snowing, so it must be very cold outside. 2. I don't know where John is. He could have missed the train. 3. This bill can't be right. 20 dollars for two cups of coffee! ABILITY We use 'can' and 'could' to talk about a skill or ability. For example: 1. She can speak six languages. 2. My grandfather could play golf very well. 3. I can't drive.
  8. 8. OBLIGATION AND ADVICE We can use verbs such as 'must' or 'should' to say when something is necessary or unnecessary, or to give advice. For example: 1. Children must do their homework. 2. We have to wear a uniform at work. 3. You should stop smoking. PERMISSION We can use verbs such as 'can', 'could' and 'may' to ask for and give permission. We also use modal verbs to say something is not allowed. For example: 1. Could I leave early today, please? 2. You may not use the car tonight. 3. Can we swim in the lake? HABITS We can use 'will' and 'would' to talk about habits or things we usually do, or did in the past. For example: 1. When I lived in Italy, we would often eat in the restaurant next to my flat. 2. John will always be late!
  9. 9. 25-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO NEW VOCABULARY TYPES OF BIRDS  Pigeons  Parrots  Flamingos  Penguins  Toucans CLOTHES  Jacket  Jeans  T-shirt  Shoes  Sweater FRUITS  Apple  Orange  Banana  Grapes  Strawberry
  10. 10. TYPES OF CARS  Toyota  Audi  Ferrari  Chevrolet  Mercedes-Benz TYPES OF FLOWERS  Alstroemeria  Amaryllis  Anthurium  Daisies  Sunflower TYPES OF CANCER  Bone cancer  Breast cancer  Cervical cancer  Colon cancer  Leukemia TYPES OF MOVIES  Horror  Romance  Action  Drama  Comedy
  11. 11. 26-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO COULD Could is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use could to:  Talk about past possibility or ability  Make requests Structure of Could Subject + could + main verb The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). subject auxiliary verb main verb + My grandmother could swim. - She could not walk. couldn't ? Could your grandmother swim? Notice that:
  12. 12.  Could is invariable. There is only one form of could.  The main verb is always the bare infinitive. Use of Could: Could: Past Possibility or Ability We use could to talk about what was possible in the past, what we were able or free to do:  I could swim when I was 5 years old.  My grandmother could speak seven languages.  Could you understand what he was saying? We use could (positive) and couldn't (negative) for general ability in the past. But when we talk about one special occasion in the past, we use be able to (positive) and couldn't (negative). Past GENERAL SPECIFIC OCCASION + My grandmother could speak Spanish. A man fell into the river yesterday. The police were able to save him. - My grandmother couldn't speak Spanish. A man fell into the river yesterday. The police couldn't save him.
  13. 13. 27-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using "Can" in Present, Past, and Future Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: can GENERAL ABILITY 1. I can speak Chinese. 2. SHIFT TO "COULD" I could speak Chinese when I was a kid. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course. 1. I can't speak Swahili. 2. SHIFT TO "COULD" I couldn't speak Swahili. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I won't be able to speak Swahili. be able to can ABILITY DURING A SPECIFIC EVENT 1. With a burst of adrenaline, people can pick up cars. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he was able to lift the car off the child's leg. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he will be able to lift the car. 1. Even with a burst of adrenaline, people can't pick up something that heavy. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" Even the weight lifter, wasn't able to lift the car off the child's leg. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" Even three men working together won't be able to lift the car. be able to can 1. I have some free 1. I don't have any be able to
  14. 14. OPPORTUNITY time. I can help her now. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I had some free time yesterday. I was able to help her at that time. 3. I'll have some free time tomorrow. I can help her then. time. I can't help her now. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I didn't have time yesterday. I wasn't able to help her at that time. 3. I won't have any time later. I can't help her then. can PERMISSION 1. I can drive Susan's car when she is out of town. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO " I was allowed to drive Susan's car while she was out of town last week. 3. I can drive Susan's car while she is out of town next week. 1. I can't drive Susan's car when she is out of town. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO " I wasn't allowed to drive Susan's car while she was out of town last week. 3. I can't drive Susan's car while she is out of town next week. may can REQUEST Can I have a glass of water? Can you give me a lift to school? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. Can't I have a glass of water? Can't you give me a lift to school? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. could, may can POSSIBILITY, IMPOSSIBILITY Anyone can become rich and famous if they know the right people. Learning a language can be a real challenge. THIS USE IS USUALLY A GENERALIZATION OR A SUPPOSITION. It can't cost more than a dollar or two. You can't be 45! I thought you were about 18 years old. THIS USE IS USUALLY A GENERALIZATION OR A SUPPOSITION. could
  15. 15. 28-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using "Could" in Present, Past, and Future Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: could POSSIBILITY 1. John could be the one who stole the money. 2. John could have been the one who stole the money. 3. John could go to jail for stealing the money. 1. Mary couldn't be the one who stole the money. 2. Mary couldn't have been the one who stole the money. 3. Mary couldn't possibly go to jail for the crime. might, may could CONDITIONAL OF CAN 1. If I had more time, I could travel around the world. 2. If I had had more time, I could have traveled around the world. 3. If I had more time this winter, I could travel around the world. 1. Even if I had more time, I couldn't travel around the world. 2. Even if I had had more time, I couldn't have traveled around the world. 3. Even if I had more time this winter, I couldn't travel around the world. could SUGGESTION 1. NO PRESENT FORM NO NEGATIVE FORMS
  16. 16. 2. You could have spent your vacation in Hawaii. 3. You could spend your vacation in Hawaii. could PAST ABILITY I could run ten miles in my twenties. I could speak Chinese when I was a kid. "COULD" CANNOT BE USED IN POSITIVE SENTENCES IN WHICH YOU DESCRIBE A MOMENTARY OR ONE-TIME ABILITY. Yesterday, I could lift the couch by myself. Not Correct I couldn't run more than a mile in my twenties. I couldn't speak Swahili. "COULD" CAN BE USED IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES IN WHICH YOU DESCRIBE A MOMENTARY OR ONE-TIME ABILITY. Yesterday, I couldn't lift the couch by myself. Correct be able to could POLITE REQUEST Could I have something to drink? Could I borrow your stapler? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. Couldn't he come with us? Couldn't you help me with this for just a second? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. can, may, might
  17. 17. 31-03-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BE ABLE TO Although we look at be able to here, it is not a modal verb. It is simply the verb be plus an adjective (able) followed by the infinitive. We look at be able to here because we sometimes use it instead of canand could. We use be able to:  To talk about ability Structure of Be able to The structure of be able to is: Subject + be + able + infinitive SUBJECT BE MAIN VERB ABLE ADJECTIVE INFINITIVE + I am able to drive. - She is not able to drive. isn't ? Are you able to drive?

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