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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
April 1rst , 2014
MAY
It is another modal verb and it is really formal.
Using "May" in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the
chart below to learn how "may" behaves in different contexts.
Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present 2. = Past 3.
= Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
You
can
also
use:
may
POSSIBILITY
1. Jack may be upset. I
can't really tell if he is
annoyed or tired.2. Jack
may have been upset. I
1. Jack may not be
upset. Perhaps he is
tired.2. Jack may not
have been upset.
might
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
couldn't really tell if he was
annoyed or tired.
3. Jack may get upset if you
don't tell him the truth.
Perhaps he was tired.
3. Jack may not get
upset, even if you tell
him the truth
may
GIVE
PERMISSION
1. You may leave the table
now that you're finished with
your dinner.2. SHIFT TO
"BE ALLOWED TO"
You were allowed to leave
the table after you finished
your dinner.
3. You may leave the table
when you finish your
dinner.
1. You may not leave
the table. You're not
finished with your
dinner yet.2. SHIFT
TO "BE ALLOWED
TO"
You were not allowed
to leave the table
because you hadn't
finished your dinner.
3. You may not leave
the table until you are
finished with your
dinner.
can
may
REQUEST
PERMISSION
May I borrow your
eraser?May I make a phone
call?
REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO
THE NEAR FUTURE.
NO NEGATIVE
FORMS
can,
might
You can see more information here :
http://www.englishpage.com/modals/may.html
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
April 3rd , 2014
MIGHT
"Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used
in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make
suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English.
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the
chart below to learn how "might" behaves in different contexts.
Modal Use
Positive Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
You
can
also
use:
might
possibility
1. She might be on the
bus. I think her car is
having problems. 2. She
might have taken the
bus. I'm not sure how
she got to work.
3. She might take the
bus to get home. I don't
think Bill will be able to
give her a ride.
1. She might not be on
the bus. She might be
walking home. 2. She
might not have taken
the bus. She might
have walked home.
3. She might not take
the bus. She might get
a ride from Bill.
could,
may
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
might
conditional of
may
1. If I entered the
contest, I might actually
win. 2. If I had entered
the contest, I might
actually have won.
3. If I entered the
contest tomorrow, I
might actually win.
Unfortunately, I can't
enter it.
1. Even if I entered the
contest, I might not win.
2. Even if I had entered
the contest, I might not
have won.
3. Even if I entered the
contest tomorrow, I
might not win.
might
suggestion
1. NO PRESENT
FORM 2. You might
have tried the cheese
cake.
3. You might try the
cheesecake.
1. NO PRESENT
FORM 2. PAST FORM
UNCOMMON
3. You might not want
to eat the cheese cake.
It's very calorific.
could
might
request(British
form)
Might I have something
to drink? Might I borrow
the stapler?
Requests usually refer
to the near future.
NEGATIVE FORMS
UNCOMMON
could,
may,
can
You can see more information here : http://www.englishpage.com/modals/might.html
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
April 7th , 2014
MAY VS MIGHT
The usages of may and might are similar. Although one or the other is more
likely to be used in some contexts, neither choice will be wrong. Below is an
introduction to the most important uses of may and might.
1. May and might are both commonly used to talk about possibility:
 You may have a little difficulty driving at night.
 I might have an allergy to wheat.
 We may go to London for vacation, if we can still afford it.
Note that many grammar books say it is better to use might when something is
less likely, and may when something is more likely, but this is a flexible rule.
2. In talking about the past, may have and might have are both common:
 The homework might have been too difficult for them.
 I may have been sleeping when you called.
 Looking back, there might have been some signs of trouble, but we didn’t
see them.
3. Might have is more common for statements about things that could have
happened but didn’t (counterfactuals), but may have is sometimes used:
 If they had lived in another time, their lives might have been different,
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
 I might have gone to school there, but because I didn’t have enough
money, I started working instead.
 If he had shown reliability from the start, things may have been different.
"
4. May is used to ask permission in formal speech, and both may and might are
used to make polite suggestions:
 May I be excused?
 May I help you with your luggage?
 Next time you might try washing it in the sink.
 You may want to consider leaving early
You can see more here:
http://www.learnersdictionary.com/qa/what-is-the-difference-between-may-and-might
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
April 8th , 2014
MAY NOT AND MIGHT NOT IN CONTEXT:
DIFFERENCES
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
April 15th , 2014
Should
"Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It
can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.
Examples:
 When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam.
recommendation
 You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice
 I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation
 By now, they should already be in Dubai. Expectation
Using "Should" in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the
chart below to learn how "should" behaves in different contexts.
Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present 2. = Past 3. =
Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
You can
also use:
should
RECOMMENDATION,
ADVISABILITY
1. People with high
cholesterol should eat low-fat
foods.
2. Frank should have
eaten low-fat foods. That
1. Sarah shouldn't
smoke so much.
It's not good for her
health.
2. Sarah shouldn't
ought to
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
might have prevented his
heart attack.
3. You really should start
eating better.
have smoked so
much. That's
what caused her
health problems.
3. Sarah shouldn't
smoke when she
visits Martha next
week. Martha
hates when
people smoke in
her house.
should
OBLIGATION
I should be at work before
9:00.
We should return the video
before the video rental
store closes.
"SHOULD" CAN ALSO EXPRESS
SOMETHING BETWEEN
RECOMMENDATION AND
OBLIGATION. "BE SUPPOSED TO"
EXPRESSES A SIMILAR IDEA AND
CAN EASILY BE USED IN THE
PAST OR IN NEGATIVE FORMS.
NO NEGATIVE
FORMS
be
supposed
to
should
EXPECTATION
1. Susan should be in New
York by now.
2. Susan should have
arrived in New York last
week. Let's call her and
see what she is up to.
3. Susan should be in New
York by next week. Her
new job starts on Monday.
1. Susan shouldn't
be in New York yet.
2. Susan
shouldn't have
arrived in New
York until
yesterday.
3. Susan
shouldn't arrive in
New York until
next week.
ought to,
be
supposed
to
You can see more here: http://www.englishpage.com/modals/should.html
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
April 21st , 2014
Must
"Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to
express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer
the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but
this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as
"should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit.
Examples:
 This must be the right address! certainty
 Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school.
necessity
 You must take some medicine for that cough. strong recommendation
 Jenny, you must not play in the street! prohibition
Using "Must" in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the
chart below to learn how "must" behaves in different contexts.
Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present 2. = Past 3.
= Future
You can
also
use:
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
must
CERTAINTY
1. That must be Jerry.
They said he was tall
with bright red hair.
2. That must have
been the right
restaurant. There are
no other restaurants
on this street.
3. NO FUTURE FORM
1. That must not be Jerry.
He is supposed to have red
hair.
2. That must not have
been the right restaurant.
I guess there is another
one around here
somewhere.
3. NO FUTURE FORM
have to
must not
PROHIBITION
You must not swim in that
river. It's full of crocodiles.
You must not forget to
take your malaria
medication while your
are in the tropics.
PROHIBITION USUALLY REFER
TO THE NEAR FUTURE.
must
STRONG
RECOMMENDATION
(Americans
prefer
the form
"should.")
1. You must take some
time off and get some
rest.
2. SHIFT TO
"SHOULD"
You should have taken
some time off last
week to get some
rest.
3. SHIFT TO
"SHOULD"
You should take some
time off next week to
get some rest.
1. You mustn't drink so
much. It's not good for your
health.
2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD"
You shouldn't have
drunk so much. That
caused the accident.
3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD"
You shouldn't drink at
the party. You are going
to be the designated
driver.
should
must
NECESSITY
(Americans
prefer
1. You must have a
permit to enter the
national park.
2. SHIFT TO "HAVE
1. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO"
We don't have to get a
permit to enter the national
park.
have to
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
the form
"have to.")
TO"
We had to have a
permit to enter the
park.
3. We must get a
permit to enter the
park next week.
2. SHIFT TO "HAVE
TO"
We didn't have to get a
permit to enter the
national park.
3. SHIFT TO "HAVE
TO"
We won't have to get a
permit to enter the
national park.
REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. "Do not have to"
"Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. "Do not have
to" suggests that someone is not required to do something.
Examples:
 You must not eat that. IT IS FORBIDDEN, IT IS NOT ALLOWED.
 You don't have to eat that. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT TO, BUT IT IS NOT NECESSARY.
You can see more here
http://www.englishpage.com/modals/must.html
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
April 24th , 2014
Have To
"Have to" is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation.
Examples:
 This answer has to be correct. certainty
 The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. necessity
 They have to leave early. Obligation
Using "Have to" in Present, Past, and Future
"Have to" behaves quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart
below to learn how "have to" behaves in different contexts.
Use Positive Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present 2. = Past 3. =
Future
You
can
also
use:
have to
CERTAINTY
1. That has to be Jerry.
They said he was tall with
bright red hair.
1. SHIFT TO "MUST"
That must not be Jerry. They
said he has blond hair, not
red hair.
must,
have
got to
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
2. That has to have been
the right restaurant. There
were no other restaurants
on the street.
3. NONE
2. SHIFT TO "MUST"
That must not have been the
right restaurant. I guess there
was another one around
there somewhere.
3. NONE
have to
NECESSITY
1. She has to read four
books for this literature
class.
2. She had to finish the
first book before the
midterm.
3. She will have to finish
the other books before
the final exam.
1. She doesn't have to read
"Grapes of Wrath." It's
optional reading for extra
credit.
2. She didn't have to write a
critique of "The Scarlet
Letter." She had to give a
presentation to her class.
3. She won't have to take any
other literature classes.
American Literature 101 is
the only required course.
must
REMEMBER: "Do not have to" vs. "Must not"
"Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. "Must
not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something.
Examples:
 You must not eat that. IT IS FORBIDDEN, IT IS NOT ALLOWED.
 You don't have to eat that. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT TO, BUT IT IS NOT NECESSARY.
You can see more here
http://www.englishpage.com/modals/haveto.html
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
April 29th , 2014
HAD BETTER
We use “had better” plus the infinitive without “to” to give advice. Although
“had” is the past form of “have”, we use “had better” to give advice about the
present or future.
 You'd better tell her everything.
 I'd better get back to work.
 We'd better meet early.
The negative form is “had better not”.
 You'd better not say anything.
 I'd better not come.
 We'd better not miss the start of his presentation.
We use “had better” to give advice about specific situations, not general ones. If
you want to talk about general situations, you must use “should”.
 You should brush your teeth before you go to bed.
 I shouldn't listen to negative people.
 He should dress more appropriately for the office.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
When we give advice about specific situations, it is also possible to use
“should”.
 You shouldn't say anything.
 I should get back to work.
 We should meet early.
However, when we use “had better” there is a suggestion that if the advice is
not followed, that something bad will happen.
 You'd better do what I say or else you will get into trouble.
 I'd better get back to work or my boss will be angry with me.
 We'd better get to the airport by five or else we may miss the flight.
So if you use it is because you are communicating that if it doesn´t happen, it is
going to have consequences.
YOU´LL FIND SOME EXERCISES AND VIDEOS ON THE BLOG ABOUT
EVERY THING: CLICK ON THE PAGES AND ENJOY IT.

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April

  • 1. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA April 1rst , 2014 MAY It is another modal verb and it is really formal. Using "May" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "may" behaves in different contexts. Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: may POSSIBILITY 1. Jack may be upset. I can't really tell if he is annoyed or tired.2. Jack may have been upset. I 1. Jack may not be upset. Perhaps he is tired.2. Jack may not have been upset. might
  • 2. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA couldn't really tell if he was annoyed or tired. 3. Jack may get upset if you don't tell him the truth. Perhaps he was tired. 3. Jack may not get upset, even if you tell him the truth may GIVE PERMISSION 1. You may leave the table now that you're finished with your dinner.2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO" You were allowed to leave the table after you finished your dinner. 3. You may leave the table when you finish your dinner. 1. You may not leave the table. You're not finished with your dinner yet.2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO" You were not allowed to leave the table because you hadn't finished your dinner. 3. You may not leave the table until you are finished with your dinner. can may REQUEST PERMISSION May I borrow your eraser?May I make a phone call? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. NO NEGATIVE FORMS can, might You can see more information here : http://www.englishpage.com/modals/may.html
  • 3. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA April 3rd , 2014 MIGHT "Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English. Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "might" behaves in different contexts. Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: might possibility 1. She might be on the bus. I think her car is having problems. 2. She might have taken the bus. I'm not sure how she got to work. 3. She might take the bus to get home. I don't think Bill will be able to give her a ride. 1. She might not be on the bus. She might be walking home. 2. She might not have taken the bus. She might have walked home. 3. She might not take the bus. She might get a ride from Bill. could, may
  • 4. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA might conditional of may 1. If I entered the contest, I might actually win. 2. If I had entered the contest, I might actually have won. 3. If I entered the contest tomorrow, I might actually win. Unfortunately, I can't enter it. 1. Even if I entered the contest, I might not win. 2. Even if I had entered the contest, I might not have won. 3. Even if I entered the contest tomorrow, I might not win. might suggestion 1. NO PRESENT FORM 2. You might have tried the cheese cake. 3. You might try the cheesecake. 1. NO PRESENT FORM 2. PAST FORM UNCOMMON 3. You might not want to eat the cheese cake. It's very calorific. could might request(British form) Might I have something to drink? Might I borrow the stapler? Requests usually refer to the near future. NEGATIVE FORMS UNCOMMON could, may, can You can see more information here : http://www.englishpage.com/modals/might.html
  • 5. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA April 7th , 2014 MAY VS MIGHT The usages of may and might are similar. Although one or the other is more likely to be used in some contexts, neither choice will be wrong. Below is an introduction to the most important uses of may and might. 1. May and might are both commonly used to talk about possibility:  You may have a little difficulty driving at night.  I might have an allergy to wheat.  We may go to London for vacation, if we can still afford it. Note that many grammar books say it is better to use might when something is less likely, and may when something is more likely, but this is a flexible rule. 2. In talking about the past, may have and might have are both common:  The homework might have been too difficult for them.  I may have been sleeping when you called.  Looking back, there might have been some signs of trouble, but we didn’t see them. 3. Might have is more common for statements about things that could have happened but didn’t (counterfactuals), but may have is sometimes used:  If they had lived in another time, their lives might have been different,
  • 6. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA  I might have gone to school there, but because I didn’t have enough money, I started working instead.  If he had shown reliability from the start, things may have been different. " 4. May is used to ask permission in formal speech, and both may and might are used to make polite suggestions:  May I be excused?  May I help you with your luggage?  Next time you might try washing it in the sink.  You may want to consider leaving early You can see more here: http://www.learnersdictionary.com/qa/what-is-the-difference-between-may-and-might
  • 7. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA April 8th , 2014 MAY NOT AND MIGHT NOT IN CONTEXT: DIFFERENCES
  • 8. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA April 15th , 2014 Should "Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation. Examples:  When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. recommendation  You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice  I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation  By now, they should already be in Dubai. Expectation Using "Should" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "should" behaves in different contexts. Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: should RECOMMENDATION, ADVISABILITY 1. People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods. 2. Frank should have eaten low-fat foods. That 1. Sarah shouldn't smoke so much. It's not good for her health. 2. Sarah shouldn't ought to
  • 9. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA might have prevented his heart attack. 3. You really should start eating better. have smoked so much. That's what caused her health problems. 3. Sarah shouldn't smoke when she visits Martha next week. Martha hates when people smoke in her house. should OBLIGATION I should be at work before 9:00. We should return the video before the video rental store closes. "SHOULD" CAN ALSO EXPRESS SOMETHING BETWEEN RECOMMENDATION AND OBLIGATION. "BE SUPPOSED TO" EXPRESSES A SIMILAR IDEA AND CAN EASILY BE USED IN THE PAST OR IN NEGATIVE FORMS. NO NEGATIVE FORMS be supposed to should EXPECTATION 1. Susan should be in New York by now. 2. Susan should have arrived in New York last week. Let's call her and see what she is up to. 3. Susan should be in New York by next week. Her new job starts on Monday. 1. Susan shouldn't be in New York yet. 2. Susan shouldn't have arrived in New York until yesterday. 3. Susan shouldn't arrive in New York until next week. ought to, be supposed to You can see more here: http://www.englishpage.com/modals/should.html
  • 10. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA April 21st , 2014 Must "Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit. Examples:  This must be the right address! certainty  Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. necessity  You must take some medicine for that cough. strong recommendation  Jenny, you must not play in the street! prohibition Using "Must" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "must" behaves in different contexts. Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use:
  • 11. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA must CERTAINTY 1. That must be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair. 2. That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants on this street. 3. NO FUTURE FORM 1. That must not be Jerry. He is supposed to have red hair. 2. That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there is another one around here somewhere. 3. NO FUTURE FORM have to must not PROHIBITION You must not swim in that river. It's full of crocodiles. You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics. PROHIBITION USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. must STRONG RECOMMENDATION (Americans prefer the form "should.") 1. You must take some time off and get some rest. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should have taken some time off last week to get some rest. 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should take some time off next week to get some rest. 1. You mustn't drink so much. It's not good for your health. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You shouldn't have drunk so much. That caused the accident. 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You shouldn't drink at the party. You are going to be the designated driver. should must NECESSITY (Americans prefer 1. You must have a permit to enter the national park. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE 1. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We don't have to get a permit to enter the national park. have to
  • 12. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA the form "have to.") TO" We had to have a permit to enter the park. 3. We must get a permit to enter the park next week. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We didn't have to get a permit to enter the national park. 3. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We won't have to get a permit to enter the national park. REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. "Do not have to" "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. Examples:  You must not eat that. IT IS FORBIDDEN, IT IS NOT ALLOWED.  You don't have to eat that. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT TO, BUT IT IS NOT NECESSARY. You can see more here http://www.englishpage.com/modals/must.html
  • 13. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA April 24th , 2014 Have To "Have to" is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation. Examples:  This answer has to be correct. certainty  The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. necessity  They have to leave early. Obligation Using "Have to" in Present, Past, and Future "Have to" behaves quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "have to" behaves in different contexts. Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: have to CERTAINTY 1. That has to be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair. 1. SHIFT TO "MUST" That must not be Jerry. They said he has blond hair, not red hair. must, have got to
  • 14. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA 2. That has to have been the right restaurant. There were no other restaurants on the street. 3. NONE 2. SHIFT TO "MUST" That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there was another one around there somewhere. 3. NONE have to NECESSITY 1. She has to read four books for this literature class. 2. She had to finish the first book before the midterm. 3. She will have to finish the other books before the final exam. 1. She doesn't have to read "Grapes of Wrath." It's optional reading for extra credit. 2. She didn't have to write a critique of "The Scarlet Letter." She had to give a presentation to her class. 3. She won't have to take any other literature classes. American Literature 101 is the only required course. must REMEMBER: "Do not have to" vs. "Must not" "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. Examples:  You must not eat that. IT IS FORBIDDEN, IT IS NOT ALLOWED.  You don't have to eat that. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT TO, BUT IT IS NOT NECESSARY. You can see more here http://www.englishpage.com/modals/haveto.html
  • 15. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA April 29th , 2014 HAD BETTER We use “had better” plus the infinitive without “to” to give advice. Although “had” is the past form of “have”, we use “had better” to give advice about the present or future.  You'd better tell her everything.  I'd better get back to work.  We'd better meet early. The negative form is “had better not”.  You'd better not say anything.  I'd better not come.  We'd better not miss the start of his presentation. We use “had better” to give advice about specific situations, not general ones. If you want to talk about general situations, you must use “should”.  You should brush your teeth before you go to bed.  I shouldn't listen to negative people.  He should dress more appropriately for the office.
  • 16. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA When we give advice about specific situations, it is also possible to use “should”.  You shouldn't say anything.  I should get back to work.  We should meet early. However, when we use “had better” there is a suggestion that if the advice is not followed, that something bad will happen.  You'd better do what I say or else you will get into trouble.  I'd better get back to work or my boss will be angry with me.  We'd better get to the airport by five or else we may miss the flight. So if you use it is because you are communicating that if it doesn´t happen, it is going to have consequences. YOU´LL FIND SOME EXERCISES AND VIDEOS ON THE BLOG ABOUT EVERY THING: CLICK ON THE PAGES AND ENJOY IT.