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EXISTENCE OF MATERIALS
CRYSTALLINE
Atoms are
arranged in
regular
manner.
Anisotropic in
nature.
NON-
CRYSTALLINE
Atoms are
arranged in
random manner.
Isotropic in
nature.
CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS
Polycrystalline Form
Regular arrangement of ions up to
finite distance.
Large number of grains in the
material.
Single crystalline Form
Regular arrangement of
atoms/ions throughout the
material.
Single grain in the material.
IMPORTANT TERMS
LATTICE
1. The 3-D
arrangement of
points obtained by
replacing the atom
or group of atoms
are lattice.
2. The concept of
space lattice is
totally imaginary.
BASIS
1. Some atoms or
group of atoms or
group of ions by
which if we
replace the lattice
points then we get
a complete crystal
structure.
2. Eg. In case of
NACL, NA atoms
will act as basis.
UNIT CELL
1. Smallest entity
2. Repeated again
& again in 3-D
so that a
complete
structure is
formed.
3. Parallalopipe in
nature.
TYPES OF UNIT CELL
SIMPLE CUBIC
FACE CENTERED
BODY CENTERED
SIMPLE CUBIC STRUCTURE
1. In this type of
structure, atoms
are located at
the corners of
the cube .
2. All the atoms
which are at
distance ’a’
touch each
other.
3. Coordination
Number is=6
PACKING FRACTION OF SIMPLE CUBIC STRUCTURE
PF=Volume occupied by atom/
Volume of unit cell
No of atoms in unit cell=1/8*8=1
Volume of atoms
In a unit cell=4/3*pi*r^3
(It is clear from picture 2r=a)
PF= 4/3*pi*r^3/
a^3
=52.33%
BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE
1.Atoms are
present at the
corners of the
cube & one atom is
present at the
centre of cube.
2. Atoms present
at the centre will
touch all the
atoms & corner
atoms will not
touch each other.
3. Coordination
Number is = 8
PACKING FRACTION OF BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE
PF=Volume occupied by atom/
Volume of unit cell
No of atoms in unit cell=1/8*8+1
=2
Volume occupied by atoms
In a unit cell =2*4/3pi*r^3
=8/3pi*r^3
PF=8/3*pi*r^3/
a^3
=67.9%
FACE CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE
1. Atoms are present at
the corners of the
cube, one atom is at
the centre of each
face.
2. Each atom which is at
centre will touch four
corner atoms in its
plane , 4 face atoms
below its plane & 4
face atoms above its
plane.
3. Coordination Number
is =12
PACKING FRACTION OF FACE CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE
PF=Volume occupied by atom/
Volume of unit cell
No of atoms in unit cell=1/8*8+6*1/2
=4
Volume occupied by atoms
In a unit cell =4*4/3pi*r^3
=16/3*pi*r^3
PF=16/3*pi*r^3/
a^3
=73.2%
=74%
Crystal structure

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Crystal structure

  • 1.
  • 2. EXISTENCE OF MATERIALS CRYSTALLINE Atoms are arranged in regular manner. Anisotropic in nature. NON- CRYSTALLINE Atoms are arranged in random manner. Isotropic in nature.
  • 3. CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS Polycrystalline Form Regular arrangement of ions up to finite distance. Large number of grains in the material. Single crystalline Form Regular arrangement of atoms/ions throughout the material. Single grain in the material.
  • 4. IMPORTANT TERMS LATTICE 1. The 3-D arrangement of points obtained by replacing the atom or group of atoms are lattice. 2. The concept of space lattice is totally imaginary.
  • 5. BASIS 1. Some atoms or group of atoms or group of ions by which if we replace the lattice points then we get a complete crystal structure. 2. Eg. In case of NACL, NA atoms will act as basis.
  • 6.
  • 7. UNIT CELL 1. Smallest entity 2. Repeated again & again in 3-D so that a complete structure is formed. 3. Parallalopipe in nature.
  • 8.
  • 9. TYPES OF UNIT CELL SIMPLE CUBIC FACE CENTERED BODY CENTERED
  • 10. SIMPLE CUBIC STRUCTURE 1. In this type of structure, atoms are located at the corners of the cube . 2. All the atoms which are at distance ’a’ touch each other. 3. Coordination Number is=6
  • 11. PACKING FRACTION OF SIMPLE CUBIC STRUCTURE PF=Volume occupied by atom/ Volume of unit cell No of atoms in unit cell=1/8*8=1 Volume of atoms In a unit cell=4/3*pi*r^3 (It is clear from picture 2r=a) PF= 4/3*pi*r^3/ a^3 =52.33%
  • 12. BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE 1.Atoms are present at the corners of the cube & one atom is present at the centre of cube. 2. Atoms present at the centre will touch all the atoms & corner atoms will not touch each other. 3. Coordination Number is = 8
  • 13. PACKING FRACTION OF BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE PF=Volume occupied by atom/ Volume of unit cell No of atoms in unit cell=1/8*8+1 =2 Volume occupied by atoms In a unit cell =2*4/3pi*r^3 =8/3pi*r^3 PF=8/3*pi*r^3/ a^3 =67.9%
  • 14. FACE CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE 1. Atoms are present at the corners of the cube, one atom is at the centre of each face. 2. Each atom which is at centre will touch four corner atoms in its plane , 4 face atoms below its plane & 4 face atoms above its plane. 3. Coordination Number is =12
  • 15. PACKING FRACTION OF FACE CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE PF=Volume occupied by atom/ Volume of unit cell No of atoms in unit cell=1/8*8+6*1/2 =4 Volume occupied by atoms In a unit cell =4*4/3pi*r^3 =16/3*pi*r^3 PF=16/3*pi*r^3/ a^3 =73.2% =74%