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Atomicnotes 7 And 8


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Atomicnotes 7 And 8

  1. 1. Atomic Structure and Periodic Table <ul><li>A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are the smallest forms of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Elements make up the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>The periodic table is a map of the elements </li></ul>
  2. 2. Structure of an Atom <ul><li>Atom - the most basic unit of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Element- matter that cannot be changed into a simpler formed. Made up of one kind of atom. </li></ul>Periodic Table
  3. 3. Models of an Atom <ul><li>During the past 200 years scientists have proposed different models for the atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Dalton </li></ul><ul><li>Thomson </li></ul><ul><li>Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>Bohr </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Cloud </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>J.J.Thomson 1897 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed atom as a positive charged sphere with negative particles embedded inside it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Plum pudding model/ Blueberry muffin </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Rutherford Model 1911 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The atom is mostly empty space. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovers positively charged nucleus with the Gold foil experiment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons orbit nucleus in a random fashion </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Bohr Model 1913 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to Nagaoka model but electrons orbit nucleus in layers(shells). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons can jump between shells. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Modern Model-Cloud Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons form a negatively charged cloud around the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to determine the exact location of the electrons at any one point in time. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Inside the Nucleus <ul><li>Inside the nucleus of the atom the proton and neutrons are found. </li></ul><ul><li>The proton has a + charge. </li></ul><ul><li>The Neutron has a neutral charge </li></ul>
  9. 10. Atomic Number <ul><li>The atomic number identifies an element </li></ul><ul><li>This represents the amount of protons and neutrons </li></ul>
  10. 11. Electrons
  11. 12. Mass Number- the total number of proton and neutrons Atomic Mass Unit - is used to describe the mass of an atom.
  12. 13. Elements <ul><li>An element is a substance made up of just one kind of atom </li></ul><ul><li>The same properties used to describe matter in general can be used to describe the elements in their pure form. </li></ul>Luster Ductile Malleable
  13. 14. Chemical Symbols A shorthand way to write a chemical name. Usually one or two letters.
  14. 15. Compounds A compound is a substance made of two or more elements chemically combined. What are a few ways they can be formed?
  15. 16. Type of Compounds <ul><li>A compound made up of molecules is a molecular compound </li></ul><ul><li>A molecule is a particle of matter made by the sharing of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>An ionic compound is a combination of positive and negative ions. </li></ul><ul><li>An ion is a charged particle when an atom gains or loses an electron </li></ul>
  16. 17. Mixtures A mixture is formed when two or more different substances are mixed but not chemically combined. heterogeneous homogeneous
  17. 18. ATOMIC MODELS <ul><li>John Dalton Model 1808 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed the atom as a SOLID BALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each element is made of its own unique atom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms are not divisible </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Electrons are Arranged in energy levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First –can hold 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-can hold 8 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third-can hold 18 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth-can hold 32 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc…. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Atomic structure <ul><li>Atomic number- Tells how many protons are located in the nucleus of an element. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Hydrogen has an atomic number = 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore Hydrogen has 1 proton in it’s nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also tells how many electrons are in the element. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore Hydrogen contains 1 electron in it’s cloud. </li></ul></ul>Atomic #
  20. 23. Atomic structure <ul><li>Mass number= The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons therefore Carbon’s mass number =12. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Round the Atomic mass to get the Mass number! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass= the average of all the isotopes of a particular element found in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotope= atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. </li></ul>Atomic mass
  21. 24. 13 Al 26.98154 What is the atomic # of Aluminum?_______ What is the atomic mass of Aluminum?_______ What is the mass number of Aluminum?_______ How many protons are found in the Aluminum?__ Electrons?_____ Neutrons?___________ <ul><li>13 </li></ul><ul><li>26.98154amu </li></ul><ul><li>27 amu </li></ul><ul><li>13 </li></ul><ul><li>13 </li></ul><ul><li>27-13=14 </li></ul>
  23. 26. ELEMENTS <ul><li>Element Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Definition- an element is a substance made of the same kind of atoms that cannot be broken into anything other than itself by ordinary physical or chemical means. </li></ul><ul><li>113 elements (#113, 115-118 questionable) #114 was made </li></ul><ul><li>Organized in the periodic table based on properties </li></ul><ul><li>91 are naturally found </li></ul><ul><li>22 man made in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>11 gases, 2 liquids (bromine and mercury) rest solids (metals, nonmetals, metalloids) at room temp. </li></ul><ul><li>Represented by chemical symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Berzelenus (Sweden 1800’s started using symbols) </li></ul></ul>