The ancient Chinese text Lie Zi describes an ‘Automaton’ around 250 B.C. The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria describes an automaton to pour guest’s wine Leonardo da Vinci designs his humanoid automaton in 1495 known as Leonardo’s robot
LEONARDO’S ROBOTThe robot is clad in German-Italian medieval armour, that is able to make several human-likemotions. These motions included sitting up, moving its arms, neck, and an anatomically correctjaw.
Isaac Asimov formulates the ‘Three Laws of Robotics’ and hence coins the term ‘Robotics’ The word ‘Cybernetics’ is used by Norbert Wiener when he formulates the Principles of Cybernetics Fritz Langs movie "Metropolis" is released in 1926. "Maria" the female robot in the film is the first robot to be projected on the silver screen.
Although our history and literature iscrowded with references to automatons,our true interaction with machinesstarted with the Industrial revolution.Steam powered engines began to trulyease the burden off the shoulder ofhumans.The introduction of the first mechanizedassembly line by Eli Whitney in 1797was a revolutionary breakthrough.
The modern day Man-Machine Interaction may be divided into 2 categories: 1. Control of machines in general using devices like steering wheel, automobile pedal, or button. 2. Human–computer interaction. The first category is the classical one and least controversial. We use it daily The second category is the emerging one, which we are beginning to use,
We focus on the Human-Computer Interface since it iswhere ethical considerationscome into play with themes like: Robot-Emotion Treatment of emotion enhanced robots Place of augmented humans in society Moral issues of using machines to interfere with what Nature intended And by extension immortality
"Luke" arm developed by Dean Kamens Dekaorganization, funded by DARPA
ISAAC ASIMOV Explored the pitfalls of MMI beautifully in his works. R. Daneel Olivaw is the pinnacle in humanoid robot development with something akin to emotion. He befriends a human who reciprocates his feelings and this relationship ultimately alters the course of human history(future) over a few thousand years.
R. Giskard gains the ability to sense human emotion and alter them leading to the destruction of Earth. Golan Trevize’s mind controlled automatic spaceship communicates with him through his hands and follows his every thought.
BIONIC MAN REX It incorporates some of the latest advances in prosthetic technology, as well as an artificial pancreas, kidney, spleen and trachea, and a functional blood circulatory system Created as a collaboration between Sheffield university, MIT, Oxford, University College London and Swansea
REXThe $1million complete bionic man complete with artificial organs, synthetic bloodand robot limbs
PROSTHETICSAn ancient Egyptian Wooden prosthetic toe
Oscar Pistorius He participated in the Summer Olympics with a pair of prosthetic limbs Generated controversy over whether his ‘Flex-Foot Cheetah Blade’ gave him any advantage over other athletes
OSCAR PISTORIUSOscar Pistorius during the Summer Olympics 2012
MEDICAL SCIENCES Robotic surgery is poised to allow the best doctors from around the world operate on the most critical patient anywhere in the world In 1988, the PROBOT, developed at Imperial College London, was used to perform prostatic surgery by Dr. Senthil Nathan at Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London
ROBOTIC SURGICAL SYSTEMA robotically assisted surgical system used for prostatectomies, cardiac valverepair and gynaecologic surgical procedures
COMMON MMI Several implants in the human body like: ◦ Cochlear implant ◦ Pace Maker ◦ Micro Chip implant Increasing dependence on technology like Apple’s Siri which can be talked to Google Glass project Sensors surround us working even without human interference
PROF. STEPHEN HAWKINSHe is living proof of the benefits of a Man-Computer Interface which allows him tomove and speak through speakers mounted on his wheelchair even though hehas Motor-Neuron disease
GOOGLE GLASSIts an augmented reality Head-Mounted Display that projects real timeinformation into the wearers retina and will communicate by using boneconduction sound technology instead of human speech
SELF DRIVEN CARS Self-driven cars are just round the corner working with each other without human interference to navigate the fastest and safest route Potential for a ‘Zero’ accident scenario Very desirable technology with both civilian and battlefield implications
GOOGLE’S SELF DRIVEN CARThis is an experimental car from Google which is able to navigate its waythrough city traffic autonomously
A.I. SURGERY In May 2006 the first AI doctor- conducted unassisted robotic surgery on a 34 year old male to correct heart arythmia The surgery was rated as better than an above-average surgeon In the future Surgeries will be done flawlessly by means on robotic A.I.
ROBOT EXO SKELETONS An almost tireless body Able to do the work of many men and machines alone. Dr. Octopus from Spiderman is a famous example Possibility to shed the weak human body and be as powerful as machines
DR. OCTOPUSDr. Octopus with his four robotic ‘assistants’
CYBORGS A man-machine mixture and the ultimate form of robot exo-skeleton made famous by RoboCop A cybernetic organism is a large network of communication and control made famous by SkyNet
ROBOCOPAfter being mortally wounded in a firefight officer Murphy morphs intoRoboCop
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Are we prepared to accept a robot that feels like a human What if the robot demands equality with humans and uses his undeniably superior powers to achieve them Do robots need emotion in the first place Again can robots be a faithful companion if it doesn’t have emotion
ROGUE A.I. Popularized by ‘The Terminator’ series of movies Leaving the running of day to day life to robots might make us lose control of our lives Sentient robots might consider themselves our master
TERMINATOR ROBOTTerminator robots are sent from the future by a rogue A.I. Skynet which plansto destroy all of humanity
AUGMENTED HUMANS Can humans with augmented limbs be allowed to compete in society or should they be a special case Augmenting allows more ability than muscular limbs- Are we prepared to allow a person in our midst who can hear even our tiniest whispers
STAGNATION As robots take over the hard work of humans we grow weaker and weaker Less productive humans with no impetus to explore new frontiers Science and technological development gradually slows to a halt Humans less prepared to adapt physically to any eventuality
POSSIBLE FUTURE HUMAN EVOLUTIONThe human race may split into 2 different species in the future it has beenpredicted. The impact of stagnating human lifestyle has not yet been studiedproperly
IMMORTALITY With the ability to scan the brain via MRI we are nearer to immortality than any previous generation The brain can be scanned and uploaded to a computer to allow a person to live in a machine even if the body withers away So what constitutes a human? Only his brain or the entire body
BLESSINGS With the benefits MMI brings in to the progress of Human society its inevitable that Man-Machine Interaction will continue to increase Replaceable biological organs with machines provides a way out of matching blood group, unavailability of organs etc
CURSES The increasing MMI might cause catastrophe in Nature It might be harmful for future humans to be totally reliant on machines for even basic needs of life Augmented humans might be controversial in society
AMBIGIOUS We are not yet at the point of seamless MMI What we have is rudimentary voice or nerve control What we need is direct brain control We don’t know whether it will be good or bad But MMI is inevitable