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Presentation By
Riya Maitra
MSc. Instrumentation Sc.
2nd year 1st sem
Human Emotions in Robots
 The word robot comes from the
Slavic word robota, which
means labor.
 A robot is a mechanical or
virtual agent, usually an
electro-mechanical machine
that is guided by a computer
program or electronic circuitry
and ranging from industrial to
humanoids and even
microscopic nano robots. By
mimicking a lifelike
appearance or automating
movements, a robot may
convey a sense of intelligence
or thought of its own.
 Robotics is the branch of
technology that deals with the
design, construction, operation,
and application of robots, as well
as computer systems for their
control, sensory feedback, and
information processing.
 These technologies deal with
automated machines that can
take the place of humans in
dangerous environments or
manufacturing processes, or
resemble humans in appearance,
behavior, and/or cognition.
 Many of today's robots are
inspired by nature contributing to
the field of bio-inspired robotics.
 Throughout history, robotics has been often seen
to mimic human behavior, and often manage
tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a
rapidly growing field, as technological advances
continue, research, design, and building new
robots serve various practical purposes, whether
domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many
 robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such
as defusing bombs, mines and exploring
shipwrecks.
 The concept of creating
machines that can operate
autonomously dates back to
classical times, but research into
the functionality and potential
uses of robots did not grow
substantially until the 20th
century.
 The idea of automata was given
in third century B.C. and earlier.
It has achieved rapid growth in
20th century and it has achieved
much more within beginning of
21st century.
Details
 1. Power Source: At present mostly
(lead-acid) batteries are used as a
power source. Many different types of
batteries can be used as a
power source for robots.
Potential power sources could be:
• pneumatic (compressed gases)
• hydraulics (liquids)
• flywheel energy storage
• organic garbage (through anaerobic
digestion)
• faeces (human, animal); may be
interesting in a military context as
faeces of small combat groups may be
reused for the energy requirements
of the robot assistant. Power sources used
2.Sensors: Sensors allow robots to receive information about a
certain measurement of the environment, or internal
components. This is essential for robots to perform their tasks, and
act upon any changes in the environment to calculate the
appropriate response. They are used for various forms of
measurements, to give the robots warnings
about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real time information
of the task it is performing.
 3.Actuators:
 Actuators are like the "muscles" of a
robot, the parts which convert
 stored energy into movement. By far
the most popular actuators are
electric motors that spin a wheel or
gear, and linear actuators that
 control industrial robots in factories.
But there are some recent
 advances in alternative types of
actuators, powered by electricity,
 chemicals, or compressed air.
 Most commonly used actuators are-
Electric motors , Linear actuators,
series elastic actuators, Piezo motors,
Elastic nanotubes etc.
Actuators in a Robotic leg
Perception Processing Action
Sensors give
information
about the
environment
or the robot
itself
Information is
then
processed to
calculate the
appropriate
signals
Signals are
then received
by actuators
which move
the
mechanical
Control of a robot to perform a task
 There are several types of robots. Some of the types of modern robots
are:
 Mobile robots: Mobile robots have the capability to move around in
their environment and are not fixed to one physical location.
Ex.-i-foot, developed by Toyota.
 Industrial robots: An automatically controlled, reprogrammable,
multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which
may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation
applications. Ex.-HRP-3 PROMET Mk-II, manufactured by Kawada
Industries, designed by Yutaka Izubuchi.
 Modular robots: Modular robots are a new breed of robots that are
designed to increase the utilization of the robots by modularizing the
robots.
 Humanoid entertainment robots: Ex: ASIMO, manufactured by
Honda; QRIO, by Sony
 Androids: Androids are robots designed to strongly resemble humans.
Ex: Hanako, a humanoid robot designed for dentist training.
 Animal(four legged) robots: Ex: AIBO is a commercial robotic dog
manufactured by Sony Electronics.
 Rescue robots: Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by TMSUK.
 Guard robots: Ex: Banryu, manufactured by Sanyo and TMSUK.
 Social robots: Ex: PaPeRo; Paro, a robot baby seal intended for
therapeutic purposes
 Mining robots: Mining robots are designed to help counteract a
number of challenges currently facing the mining industry, including
skills shortages, improving productivity from declining ore grades,
and achieving environmental targets.
 Research robots:
 While most robots today are installed in factories or homes,
performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are
being developed in laboratories around the world.
 Collaborative robots: A collaborative robot or Cobot is a robot that can
safely and effectively interact with human workers in performance of
simple industrial tasks. Ex: Boxter
 Military robots: Military robots include the SWORDS robot which is
currently used in ground-based combat. It can use a variety of
weapons and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of
autonomy in battleground situations.
Various types of robots
AIBO (animal robot)
ASIMO humanoid entertainment robot
Rescue robot
Robot soldiers
Social robot
Industrial robot
Mining robot
 Artificial intelligence (AI) is
technology and a branch of
computer science that
studies and develops
intelligent machines and
software.
 The field was founded on
the claim that a central
ability of humans,
intelligence—the sapience of
Homo sapiens—can be so
precisely described that it
can be simulated by a
machine.
 A humanoid robot is a robot with its body
shape built to resemble that of the human
body. A humanoid design might be for
functional purposes, such as interacting with
human tools and environments, for
experimental purposes, such as the study of
bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In
general, humanoid robots have a torso, a
head, two arms, and two legs, though some
forms of humanoid robots may model only
part of the body, for example, from the waist
up. Some humanoid robots may also have
heads designed to replicate human facial
features such as eyes and mouths. Androids
are humanoid robots built to aesthetically
resemble humans.
 Though humanoids don't yet have some
features of the human body. They include
structures with variable flexibility, which
provide safety (to the robot itself and to the
people), and redundancy of movements,
i.e. more degrees of freedom and therefore
wide task availability.
 In earlier days, robots were designed to
perform only some laborious , hazardous
works only and those had no such
intelligence. But in case of humanoid
robots, scientists succeeded to implement
artificial intelligence and also some
artificial emotions and they can interact
with human.
Details
 If robots are to work effectively in homes and other
non-industrial environments, the way they are
instructed to perform their jobs, and especially
 how they will be told to stop will be of critical
importance. The people who interact with them may
have little or no training in robotics, and so any
interface will need to be extremely intuitive. Science
fiction authors also typically assume
 that robots will eventually be capable of
communicating with humans through
 speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a
command-line interface.
Robots interact with human in
following ways:
1.Touch: Current robotic and prosthetic
hands receive far less tactile information
than the human hand. Recent research
has developed a tactile sensor array
that mimics the mechanical properties
and touch receptors of human
fingertips.
2.Vision: Computer vision is the science
and technology of machines that see. As
a scientific discipline, computer vision is
concerned with the theory behind
artificial systems that extract
information from images. The image
data can take many forms, such as
video sequences and views from
cameras.
 3.Speech recognition: Though it
becomes harder when the
speaker has a different accent,
currently, the best systems can
recognize continuous, natural
speech, up to 160 words per
minute, with an accuracy of
95%.
 4.Robotic voice : For social
reasons, synthetic voice proves
suboptimal as a communication
medium, making it necessary to
develop the emotional
component of robotic voice
through various techniques.
 5.Gestures: It is likely that
gestures will make up a part of
the interaction between humans
and robots . A great many
systems have been developed to
recognize human hand gestures.
 6.Facial expression: A robot
should know how to
approach a human, judging
by their facial expression
and body language.
Whether the person is
happy, frightened, or crazy-
looking affects the type of
interaction expected of the
robot. Likewise, robots like
Kismet and the more recent
addition, Nexi can produce
a range of facial expressions,
allowing it to have
meaningful social exchanges
with humans.
 7. Artificial emotions:
Artificial emotions can
also be generated,
composed of a sequence
of facial expressions
and/or gestures.
 8.Personality:
Researchers are trying to
create robots which
appear to have a
personality , i.e. they use
sounds, facial
expressions, and body
language to try to convey
an internal state , which
may be joy, sadness, or
fear.
 Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and
robots. One method is evolutionary robotics, in which a number of
differing robots are submitted to tests. Those which perform best are used
as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. Another method is
developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a
single robot in the areas of problem-solving and other
functions.Cooperation between robots with different capabilities is one of
aspects which can influence on the future of robotics. In this situation
coordination is an important factor which must be take to account for
making a robust behavior for each robot.
 Projected robotics timeline:
 2015-2020 - every South Korean and many European households will have
a robot, The Ministry of Information and Communication (South Korea),
2007
 2018 - robots will routinely carry out surgery, South Korea government
2007
 2022 - intelligent robots that sense their environment, make decisions, and
learn are used in 30% of households and organizations - TechCast
 2030 - robots capable of performing at human level at most manual jobs
Marshall Brain
 2034 - robots (home automation systems) performing most household tasks,
Helen Greiner, Chairman of iRobot
 2050 - robot "brains" based on computers that execute 100 trillion
instructions per second will start rivaling human intelligence
 Military robots :
 2015 - one third of US fighting strength will be composed of robots - US
Department of Defense, 2006
 2035 - first completely autonomous robot soldiers in operation - US
Department of Defense, 2006
 Developments related to robotics from the Japan NISTEP 2030 report :
 2013-2014 — agricultural robots
 2013-2017 — robots that care for the elderly
 2017 — medical robots performing low-invasive surgery
 2017-2019 — household robots with full use.
 2019-2021 — Nanorobots
According to research
commissioned by the UK Office of
Science and Innovation's Horizon
Scanning Centre, robots could one
day demand the same citizen's
rights as humans. The study also
warns that the rise of robots could
put a strain on resources and the
environment. Even this technology
can be misused for destructive
works also (which is a threat to us).
To know more….
Google search is
the best option….
Human Emotions in Robots

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Human Emotions in Robots

  • 1. Presentation By Riya Maitra MSc. Instrumentation Sc. 2nd year 1st sem Human Emotions in Robots
  • 2.  The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota, which means labor.  A robot is a mechanical or virtual agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry and ranging from industrial to humanoids and even microscopic nano robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own.
  • 3.  Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.  These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition.  Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.
  • 4.  Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue, research, design, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many  robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines and exploring shipwrecks.
  • 5.  The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.  The idea of automata was given in third century B.C. and earlier. It has achieved rapid growth in 20th century and it has achieved much more within beginning of 21st century. Details
  • 6.  1. Power Source: At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a power source. Many different types of batteries can be used as a power source for robots. Potential power sources could be: • pneumatic (compressed gases) • hydraulics (liquids) • flywheel energy storage • organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion) • faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant. Power sources used
  • 7. 2.Sensors: Sensors allow robots to receive information about a certain measurement of the environment, or internal components. This is essential for robots to perform their tasks, and act upon any changes in the environment to calculate the appropriate response. They are used for various forms of measurements, to give the robots warnings about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real time information of the task it is performing.
  • 8.  3.Actuators:  Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert  stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that  control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent  advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity,  chemicals, or compressed air.  Most commonly used actuators are- Electric motors , Linear actuators, series elastic actuators, Piezo motors, Elastic nanotubes etc. Actuators in a Robotic leg
  • 9. Perception Processing Action Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself Information is then processed to calculate the appropriate signals Signals are then received by actuators which move the mechanical Control of a robot to perform a task
  • 10.  There are several types of robots. Some of the types of modern robots are:  Mobile robots: Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. Ex.-i-foot, developed by Toyota.  Industrial robots: An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications. Ex.-HRP-3 PROMET Mk-II, manufactured by Kawada Industries, designed by Yutaka Izubuchi.  Modular robots: Modular robots are a new breed of robots that are designed to increase the utilization of the robots by modularizing the robots.  Humanoid entertainment robots: Ex: ASIMO, manufactured by Honda; QRIO, by Sony  Androids: Androids are robots designed to strongly resemble humans. Ex: Hanako, a humanoid robot designed for dentist training.
  • 11.  Animal(four legged) robots: Ex: AIBO is a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics.  Rescue robots: Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by TMSUK.  Guard robots: Ex: Banryu, manufactured by Sanyo and TMSUK.  Social robots: Ex: PaPeRo; Paro, a robot baby seal intended for therapeutic purposes  Mining robots: Mining robots are designed to help counteract a number of challenges currently facing the mining industry, including skills shortages, improving productivity from declining ore grades, and achieving environmental targets.  Research robots:  While most robots today are installed in factories or homes, performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories around the world.  Collaborative robots: A collaborative robot or Cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers in performance of simple industrial tasks. Ex: Boxter  Military robots: Military robots include the SWORDS robot which is currently used in ground-based combat. It can use a variety of weapons and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of autonomy in battleground situations.
  • 12. Various types of robots AIBO (animal robot) ASIMO humanoid entertainment robot Rescue robot
  • 14.  Artificial intelligence (AI) is technology and a branch of computer science that studies and develops intelligent machines and software.  The field was founded on the claim that a central ability of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens—can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine.
  • 15.  A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble that of the human body. A humanoid design might be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots may also have heads designed to replicate human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans.
  • 16.  Though humanoids don't yet have some features of the human body. They include structures with variable flexibility, which provide safety (to the robot itself and to the people), and redundancy of movements, i.e. more degrees of freedom and therefore wide task availability.  In earlier days, robots were designed to perform only some laborious , hazardous works only and those had no such intelligence. But in case of humanoid robots, scientists succeeded to implement artificial intelligence and also some artificial emotions and they can interact with human. Details
  • 17.  If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments, the way they are instructed to perform their jobs, and especially  how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics, and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. Science fiction authors also typically assume  that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through  speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface.
  • 18. Robots interact with human in following ways: 1.Touch: Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. 2.Vision: Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from cameras.
  • 19.  3.Speech recognition: Though it becomes harder when the speaker has a different accent, currently, the best systems can recognize continuous, natural speech, up to 160 words per minute, with an accuracy of 95%.  4.Robotic voice : For social reasons, synthetic voice proves suboptimal as a communication medium, making it necessary to develop the emotional component of robotic voice through various techniques.  5.Gestures: It is likely that gestures will make up a part of the interaction between humans and robots . A great many systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures.
  • 20.  6.Facial expression: A robot should know how to approach a human, judging by their facial expression and body language. Whether the person is happy, frightened, or crazy- looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. Likewise, robots like Kismet and the more recent addition, Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans.
  • 21.  7. Artificial emotions: Artificial emotions can also be generated, composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures.  8.Personality: Researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality , i.e. they use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal state , which may be joy, sadness, or fear.
  • 22.  Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. One method is evolutionary robotics, in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests. Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. Another method is developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a single robot in the areas of problem-solving and other functions.Cooperation between robots with different capabilities is one of aspects which can influence on the future of robotics. In this situation coordination is an important factor which must be take to account for making a robust behavior for each robot.  Projected robotics timeline:  2015-2020 - every South Korean and many European households will have a robot, The Ministry of Information and Communication (South Korea), 2007  2018 - robots will routinely carry out surgery, South Korea government 2007
  • 23.  2022 - intelligent robots that sense their environment, make decisions, and learn are used in 30% of households and organizations - TechCast  2030 - robots capable of performing at human level at most manual jobs Marshall Brain  2034 - robots (home automation systems) performing most household tasks, Helen Greiner, Chairman of iRobot  2050 - robot "brains" based on computers that execute 100 trillion instructions per second will start rivaling human intelligence  Military robots :  2015 - one third of US fighting strength will be composed of robots - US Department of Defense, 2006  2035 - first completely autonomous robot soldiers in operation - US Department of Defense, 2006  Developments related to robotics from the Japan NISTEP 2030 report :  2013-2014 — agricultural robots  2013-2017 — robots that care for the elderly  2017 — medical robots performing low-invasive surgery  2017-2019 — household robots with full use.  2019-2021 — Nanorobots
  • 24. According to research commissioned by the UK Office of Science and Innovation's Horizon Scanning Centre, robots could one day demand the same citizen's rights as humans. The study also warns that the rise of robots could put a strain on resources and the environment. Even this technology can be misused for destructive works also (which is a threat to us).
  • 25. To know more…. Google search is the best option….