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Victoria Apuan, Ph.D. Miriam College

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  2. 2. Recent Developments in the Social Sciences-Philippine Studies <ul><li>Conscious effort to “decenter” the sources of knowledge (e.g. away from “imperial Manila”) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the less dominant discourse, the muted and marginalized </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of Anthropology, ethnographic studies, </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective and methods of Sikolohiyang Pilipino </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrating what one discovers/recovers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Phases of cultural domination by the West a. Denial and withdrawal of what was considered “local”, “native” (e.g. deities) b. Destruction and desecration (e.g. burning manuscripts, desecrating burial grounds) c. Denigration and marginalization (e.g. cultural forms, indigenous healing practices) d. Redefinition and token utilization (e.g. surface appreciation and utilization of indigenous cultural rituals, traits) e. Commercialization and commodification (e.g. rituals performed for tourism’s sake, commercializing the genetic diversity of indigenous plants, appropriating herbal knowledge)
  4. 4. What is local knowledge? Local Knowledge Totality of perceptions, beliefs, understandings & skills Gender-based Age-graded Varied Lens Use value Social Embedded in practices, institutions & relationships
  5. 5. What is Local Knowledge? Popular? Local? Native? Indigenous?
  6. 6. Local Knowledge outside emic etic local context global universe external internal inside objectivist phenomenological experience-near experience-distant
  7. 7. Local Knowledge: a question of purity outside emic etic Local context Global universe external internal inside objectivist Phenome-nological Experience-near Experience-distant
  8. 8. My experience with the Aytas of Pampanga <ul><li>A wealth of knowledge exists in their communities … </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic research requires that one comes in with very little preconceived notions … </li></ul><ul><li>Sikolohiyang Pilipino prefers that they speak for themselves … </li></ul>
  9. 9. What could we find out? (participatory listing)
  10. 10. Myriad facets of the culture <ul><li>Deities, Beliefs and Rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Dances </li></ul><ul><li>Diet and food </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage practices </li></ul><ul><li>Justice system, local political structures </li></ul><ul><li>Gender relations </li></ul><ul><li>Illness and healing </li></ul><ul><li>Disasters (e.g. eruption of Pinatubo) </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of the above (then and now) </li></ul>
  11. 11. More importantly: how do we undertake the process of discovery/recovery? (participatory listing)
  12. 12. Methods of Research <ul><li>Basic respect </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic tools (observation, partici-pant observation, interviews, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>SP – patanong-tanong, pakikipamuhay, pakikipagpalagayang loob, pakikipagkapwa </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to language and verbal/non-verbal expressions, procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Verification, validation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>As much as possible, keep process “fun”, “light”, even if subject is serious (space for humor and laughter) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Key informants – oldest residents
  14. 14. The local healers <ul><li>Click to edit Master text styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Females, mothers, grandmothers <ul><li>Click to edit Master text styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Farmers <ul><li>Click to edit Master text styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Males, fathers, formal leaders <ul><li>Click to edit Master text styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Political structures <ul><li>Click to edit Master text styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The focus group discussion <ul><li>Click to edit Master text styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Research partners – help gather, verify & process data with you <ul><li>Click to edit Master text styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Implications for the academe <ul><li>Local knowledge enriches academic/ professional knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Students shall be given a more holistic view of society </li></ul><ul><li>Local wisdom shall be promoted </li></ul>
  22. 22. Integrating local knowledge in the curriculum <ul><li>Subjects that lend themselves most to the integration of local knowledge: History/herstory – “My Hometown” project </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology – process documentation of beliefs, rituals, practices, food, crafts, material culture, behavior of selected groups, emerging trends, subcultures, best practices in community development </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy – profile of philosophers, process documentation of the basis of certain move-ments </li></ul><ul><li>Literature – oral culture </li></ul><ul><li>Science – process documentation of production of products </li></ul>
  23. 23. Students as co-researchers <ul><li>“ Start where they are, build on what they have” </li></ul><ul><li>Tapping their interests </li></ul><ul><li>Improving their research designs, research methods (especially ethical guidelines re: relationships with key informants), providing advice on technicalities </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a system of recognition for outstanding outputs </li></ul>
  24. 24. Facilitating mechanisms <ul><li>Committee at school level can facilitate research and documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Funding support from AUDRN </li></ul><ul><li>IT structures should be in place </li></ul>
  25. 25. Thank you!