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Philippine anthropology

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Philippine anthropology

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"Ganito ang antropolohiya noon, paano kaya ngayon? Notes on the Teaching and Practice of Philippine Anthropology". Delivered during the Friday School Extension Project of the Department of Social Sciences, UPLB with high school teachers from Laguna and other neighboring areas as audience.

"Ganito ang antropolohiya noon, paano kaya ngayon? Notes on the Teaching and Practice of Philippine Anthropology". Delivered during the Friday School Extension Project of the Department of Social Sciences, UPLB with high school teachers from Laguna and other neighboring areas as audience.

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Philippine anthropology

  1. 1. GANITO ANG ANTROPOLOHIYA NOON, PAANO KAYA NGAYON? Notes on the Practice and Teaching of Philippine Anthropology Jessie G. Varquez, Jr. Department of Social Sciences, UPLB DSS Friday School Extension Project 28 October 2016
  2. 2. Outline •  Antropolohiya / Aghamtao 101 •  19th century ethnological studies •  20th century American anthropology •  UP Anthropology •  Ugnayang Pang-Aghamtao •  Anthropology outside UP / Public Anthropology •  Some monographs on Philippine anthropology •  Anthropology elsewhere
  3. 3. Antropolohiya / Aghamtao 101 anthropos + logos •  ... a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings. (Ember) •  ... the exploration of human diversity in time and space. (Kottak) •  … the most liberating of all the sciences. (Haviland) Fieldwork as key research method (participant observation) ‘holistic’ and comparative Broader in scope, both geographically and historically
  4. 4. ‘child of imperialism’ “In practice, anthropology flourished in the context of conqueror-conquered relations concomitant with the West’s conquest of the non-Western world. This conqueror- conquered relationship made possible the practical and analytic separation between, on the one hand, the native peoples of Africa, America and Asia as objects of investigation, and, on the other hand, Western anthropologists as the investigating subjects.” (Bennagen 2010)
  5. 5. ScupinandDeCorse2012
  6. 6. 19th century ethnological studies Jose Rizal •  Dapitan exile: Annotation of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas •  language studies and surface exploration Jose Burgos •  Estado de Fiipinas a la Llegada de los Españoles (1864) •  Estudios sobre la Arqueologia de Manila a la Llegada de los Españoles (1871)
  7. 7. 19th century ethnological studies Isabelo delos Reyes •  El Folklore Filipino (1889) •  Filipinas: articulos varios sobre etnografia, historia, costumbres del pais (1887) •  La Religion Antiqua de los Filipinos (1909) T.H. Pardo de Tavera •  El Sanscrito en la Lengua Tagalog (1887) •  Las Costumbres de los Tagalos de Filipinas, según el Padre Plasencia (1892)
  8. 8. Ferdinand Blumentritt, 1890. Mapa Etnografico del Archipielago Filipino
  9. 9. 20th century American anthropology •  Unilineal cultural evolutionism •  Conducted ethnological survey focusing on “mountain dwelling” and “non-Christian” indigenous groups •  Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes (BNCT) •  David P. Barrows (PhD anthropology) and Dean C. Worcester (zoologist) •  “a vital agency during the American colonial regime in the Philippines having supplied much of the cultural and racial justification for American presence in the country” (Tatel 2010)
  10. 10. 1930 1963
  11. 11. 1913
  12. 12. ABicol ofAlbay Province ACagayan of Isabela Province ATagalog of Rizal Province ANegrito-Tagalog of Bataan Province
  13. 13. H. Otley Beyer •  Established the UP Department of Anthropology •  “a geologist by training, who arrived in the country in 1905, employed as an ethnologist by the Office of Ethnological Survey of the Bureau of Education under David P. Barrows” (Tatel 2010) •  Taught first anthropology course in 1914, established the department in 1917, and retired in 1954 •  succeeded by Marcelo Tangco, who is considered the first formally-trained Filipino physical anthropologist
  14. 14. Beyer’s studies •  Outline Review of Philippine Archaeology by Islands and Provinces (1949) •  Philippine Tektites: A Contribution to the Study of Tektite Problem in General, in the Light of both Past and Recent Discoveries (1961) •  The Philippine Saga: A Pictorial History of the Archipelago since Time Began (1947, with Jaime C. De Veyra) “Wave Migration Theory” “First came the Java Man, and then the “little people” – Australoid Sakai, Negritos, and Proto-Malays – followed by two waves of Indonesian – Type A and Type B – with a smaller wave of Papuans, who were succeeded in turn by separate Northern and Southern Malay waves, and finally the Jar Burial People.” PASSE. INCORRECT
  15. 15. Post-Beyer notable Filipino anthropologists • Marcelo Tangco • Mario Zamora • Juan Francisco • Moises Bello • Alfredo Evangelista • F. Landa Jocano • E. Arsenio ManueL 1973
  16. 16. 70s-80s: Indigenization •  “Aghamtao”; linguistic turn •  Sikolohiyang Pilipino ni Virgilio Enriquez •  Pantayong Pananaw ni Zeus Salazar •  Pilipinolohiya ni Prospero Covar •  “Asianization of Anthropology” This perspective to Asianize anthropology and the other sciences was the logical consequence of the recognition of the inadequacy of Western models, hypotheses and theories. (Bennagen 1980)
  17. 17. Ponciano Bennagen •  Department chair from 1970s-1980s •  First to write MA thesis in Filipino •  Member, 1986 Constitutional Commission 1977 1996
  18. 18. Ugnayang Pang-Aghamtao, Inc. (UGAT) • Repressive regime • Activism at UP • Philippines Social Science Council • Critique of colonial legacy •  Peoples as objects; as “others” • Critique of Development
  19. 19. Ugnayang Pang-Aghamtao, Inc. (UGAT) formal organization of anthropologists in a conscious effort to create a more appropriate anthropology, i.e., attuned to the conditions, needs and visions of Philippine society (Bennagen 1978 :1-2) Forum on the Pantabangan and Chico Dam Project (1978) The International Conference on the Tasaday and other Urgent Anthropological Issues (1986) First Conference of the Ancestral Domain: Human Rights and the Ancestral Domain (1983)
  20. 20. Anthropology outside UP Ateneo de Manila U Silliman U San Carlos U Xavier U U of Southeastern Phil
  21. 21. Some examples of contemporary Philippine anthropology and Filipino anthropologists Cordillera Studies June Prill-Bret Understanding Philippine Culture and Society for K-12 Jojo Bersales and Zona Amper Environmental concerns Enrique Oracion Mindanao culture and archaeology Linda Burton Peace and development in Mindanao Fr. Albert Alejo and Rufa Guiam Heritage studies and advocacy Butch Zialcita Drugs and addiction Leonardo Estacio Legal anthropology Gus Gatmaytan Philippine prehistory Armand Mijares Educational anthropology Eufracio Abaya Maritime anthropology Maria Mangahas and Chim Zayas Source: P.L. Bennagen (pers. comm.)
  22. 22. Public anthropology
  23. 23. “Public anthropology” Source: Eufracio Abaya’s presentation at the World Council of Anthropological Associations in New Delhi, India. 2012.
  24. 24. Some monographs by Filipino anthropologists 1987 2000 2007
  25. 25. Some monographs by Filipino anthropologists 1968 1976
  26. 26. Some monographs by Filipino anthropologists 2013 2008 2011
  27. 27. Some monographs on Philippine anthropology 2001 1970 1964
  28. 28. Anthropology elsewhere
  29. 29. Anthropology elsewhere
  30. 30. GANITO ANG ANTROPOLOHIYA NOON, PAANO KAYA NGAYON? Maraming salamat po sa pakikinig!
  31. 31. References Abaya, Eufracio; Ma. Luisa Lucas-Fernan and Daisy Y. Noval-Morales. 1999. “Shifting Terms of Engagement: A Review of the History of Anthropology,” in Virginia Miralao (ed.). The Philippine Social Science in the Life of the Nation. Quezon City: Philippine Social Science Research Council. Alatas, Syed Farid. 2005. “Indigenization: Features and problems.” In van Bremen, Jan, Eyal Ben-Ari and Syed Farid Alatas (eds) Asian Anthropology. London and New York: Routledge. Bennagen, Poncianno L. 1980. “The Asianization of anthropology”. Asian Studies, 18: 1–26. Tan, Michael L. 2010. “Philippine Anthropology in a Post-Anthropology Age”. In Tigno, Jorge V. (ed.) Philippine Social Science Discourse. Quezon City: College of Social Sciences and Philosophy. Scupin, Raymond and Christopher R. DeCorse. 2012. Anthropology: A Global Perspective. Seventh edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Tatel, Carlos P. Jr. 2010. “Anthropology at the University of the Philippines: Examining Institutional History and Academic Dependency in a Southeast Asian University.” In Syed Farid Alatas and Kathinka Sinha-Kerkhoff (eds.) Academic Dependency in the Social Sciences: Structural Reality and Intellectual Challenges. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers. Zamora, Mario D. “Cultural Anthropology in the Philippines - 1900-1983: Perspectives, Problems, and Prospectsr..”

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