Isamic medical Ethics


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Islam is the complete religion for every need of human being.

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Isamic medical Ethics

  1. 1. IslamicMedical Ethics 1
  2. 2. Islam is the Youngest 2nd Largest Religion Every 5th person worldwideJudaism Hinduism Buddhism Christianity Islam 2000 BC 1000 BC 563 BC 33 AD 610 AD 2008 2
  3. 3. Spiritual Religion Care Muslim PatientValues Beliefs 3
  4. 4. Islamic Law and RulesThe Holy Book Quran(Hadith), words oractions of the prophet Sunnah(Ijma) of the Clerics Consensus(Ijtihad) personal study Wisdom 4
  5. 5. Values: Regulates:Honor parents MarriageBe kind to neighbors DivorceProtect the weak InheritanceGive to the poor Business The Qur’an Forbids: Condemns: Gambling Murder Pork Stealing Alcohol Lying Prostitution Adultery 5
  6. 6. Oneness of God All can, no body or sex Life after Death Angels of God Sorting to Hill or Paradise From light to serve God Internal Prophets of God Beliefs From Adam to MohammedDay of Judgment Rise of humanity Books of God Divine Decree Of Abraham, David, Fate set in advance Moses, Jesus, Mohammed 6
  7. 7. Health, Religion & Ethics Contraception  Brain Death Fertility  Organ Donation Cloning  Euthanasia Medications  Death Resuscitation  Life after Death 7
  8. 8. The Sharia Law System Category Arabic Do it Not do itObligatory Fard Wajeb Reward Punishment(Prescribed)Recommended Mustahab Mandub Reward No Punishment(Desirable)Permitted Mubah Halal No Reward No Punishment(Allowed)Discouraged Makruh Manboth No Punishment Reward(Disliked)Forbidden Haraam Mahd’ur Punishment No Reward(Prohibited) 8
  9. 9. Forbidde Enforcing of not n Doing Maslow Discourage d Urging of not Doing Way Permitted Choice of DoingRecommendedUrging of Doing ObligatoryEnforcing of Doing 9
  10. 10. 5 Pillars 5 PillarsObligatory 1-9 1-9 Testimony Testimony Pilgrimage Pilgrimage of Faith Hajj of Faith Hajj Shahadah Shahadah External Charity Beliefs Prayer Charity (Ibada) Prayer Zakat Zakat Salat Salat Fasting Fasting Sawm Sawm © Copyright 1995 Prentice Hall 10
  11. 11. Recommended Blood and organ donation. (giving and receiving). Circumcision of male infants (7th day). Controversy of female circumcision. Breast feeding (two years). Human skin bank: lawful for medical grafting and unlawful for cosmetics and misleading others. 11
  12. 12. Permitted Autopsy: if for medically or by law indicated. Reconstructive Surgery (post mastectomy). Do Not Resuscitate order: when the treatment becomes futile. Withdrawal or withheld therapy is permitted in brain death. Genetic Engineering: to alter or cure diseased genes. Abortion: pregnancy that risk the mother’s health, physically or mentally. 12
  13. 13. Permitted Contraception: Islam approves all methods of contraception between husband and wife which are not harmful, are reversible and are not causing abortion. Artificial insemination: when using the husband’s sperm and the wife’s ovaries and uterus. Death of one of the spouse terminates the marriage contract on earth, thus frozen sperm from husband can not be used. 13
  14. 14. Discourage Forced feeding the sick. Smoking Divorce Elective abortion before age 120 days (some sects before 40 days). 14
  15. 15. Forbidden Surgical contraception: (Sterilization: Vasectomy & tubal ligation). Permitted for mentally sick or when another pregnancy risks mother’s life. Sperm or ova donation. Fetal Sex Determination. Elective abortion in a healthy mother 120 days after fertilization. Human milk bank. Human cloning (permitted for tissues and organs). 15
  16. 16. Forbidden Surrogacy Uterus: Surrogacy involving a third person is not permissible. (even if the woman involved is another wife of the husband). Sex: Oral sex, homosexual and gay/lesbian relation, prostitution and sex outside marriage. Cosmetic surgery: Changing the creation of Allah. Food: not Halal meat, of pork or dead animal/bird. Drink: alcohol. Others: interest, theft, gambling and drugs. 16
  17. 17. Forbidden Active Euthanasia: voluntary, non-voluntary and Involuntary are not permissible under any circumstances. Passive euthanasia: treatment is not obligatory when there is no hope of survival (brain death). Patient should be provided with food, drink, nursing, and relief from pain until death. Suicide: include assisted suicide and physician’s assisted suicide. Murder. "take not life which Allah has made sacred" Qur’an 6:151.17
  18. 18. Principles of Medical Ethics Necessity overrides prohibition (insulin from pork, medications with alcohol). Remove harm at every cost if possible (quit smoking, risk factors, disease therapy). Accept the lesser of two harms if both cannot be avoided (abortion in risk to the pregnant woman). Public interest overrides individual interest (blood and organ donation). 18
  19. 19. Female Modesty Dress: Provide a long-sleeved gown or allow to wear her own cloths. Examination: exposure of the patient’s body parts should be limited to the minimum necessary. Sex: sensitivity when asking a single, widow or a divorced about sexual habits. Respect privacy and do not touch while talking. Should not be placed in mixed rooms. Avoid eye contact and shaking hands to prevent unnecessary embarrassment. 19
  20. 20. Cancer Result of Divine Will or a spiritual trial (not a product of a carcinogen or risk behavior). Cancer is often referred to as “that disease” followed by “God keep it away”. Cancer kept confidential, fear that it may affect their daughters marriage. Pain: analgesic to prevent suffering include morphine is allowed and recommended. Suffering delete sins. 20
  21. 21. Palliative Care When death is inevitable, Islam directs that the patient be allowed to die without heroic measures. Muslims disapprove of any medical care that may hasten the death of a patient. Muslims prefer to die at home if possible with the family providing comprehensive physical and spiritual support. Death is not prepared for with prior funeral arrangements and viewed as an interference in God’s will. 21
  22. 22. Death Death definition: when spirit leave’s the body. Death is Inevitable: “ Every soul shall have a taste of death: In the end to Us shall you be brought back." Qur’an 29:57 The dying person: should sit up or lie with their face towards Mecca. Ideally one should die with the Declaration of Faith on the lips (Shahada). When death occur: eyes should be closed; all connected tubes removed; all limbs flexed and the body straightened. 22
  23. 23. After Death Washing and burying the body as soon as possible (same day). On the right side, facing Mecca. Respect for the body and prayers over the dead. Recitation of the whole Quran if possible. Mourning should not be excessive, as this would disturb the dead as well as show lack of acceptance of God’s will and purpose regarding death. 23
  24. 24. Funeral & Mourning Period Funeral is simple and every human is equal. Deceased buried in a white shroud (men 3 pieces, women 5 pieces) without a coffin. Islam forbids cremation. Women are not allowed to attend the funeral, non- Muslim men may attend. Mourning period 3 days. Wife mourn her husband 4 months and 10 days. She is not to remarry, leave her home, or wear decorative clothing. Pregnant widow may remarry 42 days after childbirth. 24
  25. 25. Life After Death Angels visit the dead in grave during the first night. Believers are comfortable waiting till judgment day. Judgement Day: resurrection of bodies. The good cross to Paradise, The bad fall off into Hell. Child is regarded sinless until the age of maturity. The soul /spirit of the child is automatically transferred to paradise. 25
  26. 26. Family Duties After Death Payment of Funeral expenses. Payment of his/her debts. Execution of his/her will. Distribution of the remaining estate. 26
  27. 27. Spiritual History Ask: About life & death meaning. Observe: Dressing, praying, reading Listen: Reactions, answers, remarks 27
  28. 28. Barriers of Spiritual History and Therapy Lack of time. Lack of training. Discomfort with the subject. Fear of activity outside area of expertise. Lack of interest or awareness. 28
  29. 29. Final Words Listen to patient and family. Demonstrate sensitivity. Respect Patient’s Values and Beliefs. Remain Flexible. Avoid Speculation. Respond to Who, What, Where, When? Provide Reassurance. 29
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