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A Fiqh Tutorial For A New Muslim


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A Fiqh Tutorial For A New
Muslim by Hatem al-Haj

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A Fiqh Tutorial For A New Muslim

  1. 1. A Fiqh Tutorial For A New Muslim Hatem al-Haj
  2. 2. Need • There is an obvious need to address the issues faced by new Muslims in the beginning of their Islam and help them cruise through some of the difficulties they come across through times that are at least turbulent and unstable. • I felt like contributing to this effort by preparing this Fiqh (the science pertaining to rulings) tutorial for my new Muslim brothers and sisters. • I have to also mention that the general meaning of fiqh is the good understanding of the entire religion, yet in the terminological use, it pertains to the science of legal rulings. • I will be talking about fiqh in the terminological sense, and that doesn’t mean that these issue are more important than issue like reliance upon Allah and his love and recognition, but simply I will be talking about rulings today and at what point we have to discuss them because we need to learn how to worship our most beloved Allah.
  3. 3. • I will include in this talk Introduction • The source and authority, and the correct position from the madhhabs (schools of fiqh) • The Fiqh and how to approach it, which will include talking about moderation, laxity and excessiveness. • The prophet's approach to teaching new Muslims. • And then we will go through some of the details of the various rulings Matters of Worship • Shahadah taking and associated rites, including pronouncement, witnesses, and washing. • Purification • Washing / Shaving or saving / Circumcision / Tattoos, now what? • Prayers • What parts must be in Arabic / Hard in the beginning, tips to make it easy Rulings pertaining to Transactions, interactions and customs. • Family Laws • Relations with the kin / My girl/boy friend / My child, is it mine? • Laws of Inheritance • Am I not getting anything from my parents? • Work • What and how • Islamic Etiquettes and Manners and people's customs • Names, and when they need to be changed. • Hijab & Dress code for men (Suit and Tie vs Qamees and 'Emamah) • Male and Female interactions • Foods and drinks • Celebrations (mother's day vs mother's birthday), national and religious holidays. and parties.
  4. 4. • I will not talk about these issues in the format of categories and subcategories, but to make it more engaging, I will try to present it within a story like format, in which we will accompany a new Muslim male and a new Muslim female within the first your of their life post Islam. This is more likely to make us feel their joy and struggles in this year, and thus address the various issues with this understanding. • It is to be mentioned here as well that this is not a comprehensive explanation of fiqh, and some of the issues discussed today may be less important than others not discussed, but I tried to select the issue that create the most confusion for the new Muslims.
  5. 5. The source of this religion is the revelation and that is al-Quran and the Sunnah. • Allah is the only legislator in Islam, and the Prophet is the only conveyer. Allah said: ‫َإ‬ َ َ ْ ُ َ َ ِ ِ ‫)أمْ َ ُ ْ ُ َآ ء َ َ ُ ا َ ُ ْ ِ َ ا ِ َ َ ْ َ ْذنْ ِ ِ ا ُ وَ ْ آِ َ ُ ا ْ َ ْ ِ َ ُ ِ َ َ ْ َ ُ ْ وِن ا‬ َ ُ َ َ (21:‫َ َا ٌ أِ ٌ( )ا رى‬َ‫ب‬ What! have they partners (in godhead), who have established for them some religion without the permission of Allah. Had it not been for the Decree of Judgment, the matter would have been decided between them (at once). But verily the Wrong- doers will have a grievous Penalty. And Allah said about the Prophet: (4-3: ‫)و َ َ ْ ِ ُ َ ِ ا ْ َ َى* إنْ ه َ إ و ْ ٌ ُ َ ( )ا‬ َ ِ ُ ِ َ Which means: quot;Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.quot; An-Najm 53/3-4 (7: ِ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ُ ‫)و َ َ آ ُ ا ُ ل َ ُ ُو ُ و َ َ َ آ ْ َ ْ ُ َ ْ َ ُ ا َا ُ ا ا َ ِن ا َ َ ِ ُ ا ْ ِ َ ب( )ا‬ َ ُ ُ َ Which means: quot;And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it) , and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Severe in punishment.quot; Al-Hashr 59/7
  6. 6. What is the role of the madhhabs As we have indicated before, Muslims should consult those well grounded in knowledge as per Allah's command. And the ummah has accepted the founders of the madhahib as such. Their work was • Collection and compiling of knowledge. • Arranging knowledge in chapters, titles and sub titles. • Reconciling between the different divine and prophetic statements that would seem contradictory to those who lack comprehensive knowledge of them. • Choosing from the different opinions of Sahaba and their followers when they were different and justifying the chosen opinion by At-Tadleel (proving an opinion by the scriptural evidence)or At-Ta’leel (proving an opinion by reasoning). • Deduction of rulings from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the prophet based on certain fundamental principles of each Madhhab known as (Principals of Jurisprudence). – This is particularly important because the Muslims have come across many new events and things the prophet (May Allah bless him and give him peace) didn’t directly comment on. (Finite scriptural statements versus relatively infinite matters and events needing to be subject to the rule of Islam) • Finally it has to be mentioned that the Madhahib are not only the product of their founders but a collective effort of thousands of the most outstanding scholars of Islam throughout the history of Islam. You may say that each Madhhab was like a huge fiqh assembly of outstanding scholars with different specialties that transcended time.
  7. 7. Why and upon what did they differ? • The four Imams belong to ahlussunah (the people of sunnah, who are the Muslim mainstream) and their differences were not in the major cornerstones of belief . • Their differences were not a matter of whether we should follow the Sunnah or not but rather how to understand and apply it. • The three most important reasons of their differences are: 1- Did the revelation say that? 2-Did the revelation mean that? 3-But the revelation also said
  8. 8. What should be our stance from Madhahib? • First of all we have to understand that our position from the madhahib is dependent on our position from the pursuit of knowledge. • There are two types of Muslims 1-the students of knowledge 2-the public • 1- As for the students of knowledge There are different types, those with a main focus on hadeeth (the prophetic traditions), and those with a main focus on tafseer (interpretation of the Quran), and those with a main focus on fiqh (jurisprudence) etc. For all students of knowledge the scholars recommend studying according to a particular madhhab initially After you had a good understanding of your particular madhhab you may move on to learning about the other madhahib. Initially you will abide in your religious practice by your madhhab and when you extensively study a particular matter and you feel confident that you digested the controversy, and if you found that your madhhab is in some conflict with the revelation, then you ought to give precedence to the revelation; after all we all say: Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. • 2- As for the public, they follow their local scholars,
  9. 9. Moderation is to follow the revelation, without deviating to the right or left. It is not to take the religion lightly. • Allah says: ( 63 :‫) ُ ُوا َ َ ْ َ آ ْ ِ ُ ة َاذْآ ُوا َ ِ ِ َ َ ُ ْ َ ُ ن( )ا ة‬ َ ُ ‫ٍو‬ ُ And remember We took your covenant and We raised above you (The towering height) of Mount (Sinai) : (Saying): quot;Hold firmly to what We have given you and bring (ever) to remembrance what is therein: Perchance ye may fear Allah.quot; • Allah said: ِ ُ َ ً ُ َ َ ِ َ َ ُ ُ ََ ‫)وآ َِ َ َ َ ْ َ آ ْ أ ً و َ ً ِ َ ُ ُ ا ُ َ َاء ََ ا س و َ ُ ن ا ُ ل ََ ْ ُ ْ َ ِ ا و َ َ َ ْ َ ا ْ ِ َْ َ ا ِ آ ْ َ ََ ْ َ إ‬ ِ َ َ َ َ ْ ُ َ َ ‫ِ َ َْ َ َ ْ َ ِ ُ ا ُ ل ِ ْ َ ْ َِ ُ ََ َ ِ َ ْ ِ وإنْ آ َ ْ َ َ ِ َة إ ََ ا ِ َ ه َى ا ُ و َ آ ن ا ُ ِ ُ ِ َ إ‬ ًِ َ َِ َ (143:‫ِن ا َ ِ س َ َ ُو ٌ ر ِ ٌ( )ا ة‬ َ ‫ِ ؤ ف‬ ‫إ‬ Thus, have We made of you an Ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves; and We appointed the Qibla to which thou wast used, only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels (From the Faith). Indeed it was (A change) momentous, except to those guided by Allah. And never would Allah Make your faith of no effect. For Allah is to all people Most surely full of kindness, Most Merciful. 2/143 • In other words Islam is already moderate and doesn't need to be diluted.
  10. 10. No less than a scholar • Knowledge helps the scholars well grounded in it to provide the allowable flexibility without compromising the deen, thus it is quiet essential to seek their help in understanding the religion and implementing it. ْ‫)و َ أرْ َ ْ َ ِ ْ َ ِْ َ إ ر َ ً ُ ِ إَ ْ ِ ْ َ ْ َ ا أه َ ا آ ِ إن‬ ِ ْ َْ ِ ِ ِ َ َ (43: ‫آ ْ ُ ْ َ َْ ُ ن( )ا‬ َ ُ And before thee also the apostles We sent were but men, to whom We granted inspiration: if ye realise this not, ask of those who possess the Message. An-Nahl 16/43
  11. 11. Some people because of their lack in knowledge may cause you severe hardships So don't be satisfied with a fatwa from less than a scholar particularly in serious matters with long term consequences. .quot; ‫آ أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن ا ري: quot; إ ا‬ ‫لا م‬ The great Imam Sufyan ath-Thawri said: quot;Verily knowledge to us is a concession from the trustworthy scholar. As for excessive strictness, that is perfectly doable by allquot; Is there excessiveness? Yes, and the Prophet warned us from it, he said: ‫د‬ ‫ََ َ ُ َ َ ُوا‬ ‫َ أ ٌَ إ‬ ِ َ َ ‫َ ا ُ ََ ْ ِ و َ َ َ ل ِن ا َ ُ ْ ٌ وَ ْ ُ َ د ا‬ ‫َ إ‬ َ ِ ‫َ ْ أ ِ ه َ ْ َة َ ْ ا‬ َ ُ َ ِ َ ْ ‫و َ ر ُ ا وأ ْ ِ ُوا َا ْ َ ِ ُ ا ِ ْ َ ْوة َا وْ َ ِ و َ ْء ِ ْ ا‬ ٍ َ ‫َِ و‬ ‫و‬ ََ ِ َ This religion is a religion of ease, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Religion is very easy and whoever overburdens himself in his religion will not be able to continue in that way. So you should not be extremists, but if you cannot be perfect, then try to be near to perfection and receive the glad tidings that you will be rewarded; and what helps you to persist in worship is to do it at times when you have most energy, such as at the beginning of the day, after the sun has passed its zenith and at the end of the night.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari from Abu Hurairah).
  12. 12. Not excessiveness No one is to be blamed for taking the stricter opinion, or even recommending it to people, but Excessive strictness is not to avoid the suspicious matters, neither is it to stay away from some permissible things out of fear that they may lead to that which is permissible, For avoiding suspicious matters is the way of our most beloved, the final Messenger, Muhammad (May Allah bless him and give him peace) He said: ْ ََ ُ َ َ َ ‫َ ْ ا ْ َ ن ْ ِ َ ِ ٍ َ ل َ ِ ْ ُ ُ َ ُ ل َ ِ ْ ُ ر ُ ل ا ِ َ ا ُ ََ ْ ِ و َ َ َ ُ ل وأه َى‬ ُ َ ِ ِ َ ‫ت‬ َ َ ‫َإ‬ َ ‫ِ ُُ إ‬ ُ ‫ا ْ َ ن ِِ ْ َ َ ْ ِ إَ أذ َ ْ ِ ِن ا ْ ََ ل َ ٌ وِن ا ْ َ َام َ ٌ و َ ْ َ ُ َ ُ ْ َ ِ َ ٌ َ َ َْ ُ ُ آ ِ ٌ ِ ْ ا س‬ َ ِ َ ِ َ َ َ ْ َ ِ ‫َ َ ْ ا َ ا ُ َ ت ا ْ َ ْ َأ ِ ِ ِ ِ و ِ ْ ِ ِ و َ ْ و َ َ ِ ا ُ َ ت و َ َ ِ ا ْ َ َام آ ا‬ َ َ ِ ِ َ َ ْ ‫َ ْل ا ْ ِ َ ُ ِ ُ أنْ َ ْ َ َ ِ ِ أَ وِن ِ ُ َِ ٍ ِ ً أَ وِن ِ َ ا ِ َ َ ر ُ ُ أَ وِن ِ ا‬ ‫ِ َ َإ‬ ‫َ َإ‬ ‫َ َإ‬ َ َ ُ ْ َ ْ ‫ُ ْ َ ً إ َا ََ َ ْ ََ َ ا ْ َ َ ُ آ ُ وإ َا َ َ َتْ َ َ َ ا ْ َ َ ُ آ ُ أَ وه َ ا‬ َِ َ ُ ‫ُ َِذ‬ ‫ِذ‬ Which means: Verily, what is Halal is clear, and what is Haram is clear. But in between there are doubtful things, unknown to many people. So whosoever avoids things that are doubtful, he has purged himself and his deen (from sins and accusations). But whosoever frequently takes things that are doubtful, then he has clearly fallen into the state of haram. Agreed upon, and this is Muslim's wording.
  13. 13. So what is excessiveness? It is to always take the stricter opinion just because it is so. It is to force people to take the stricter opinion. It is to consistently forego the concessions given to us by Allah. And most certainly it is to make haram that which Allah hasn't.
  14. 14. As for the new Muslim, the way of the Prophet was to guide them gradually and gently to the shore of safety. Al-Bukhari reports from 'Aisha, she said: ‫إذا ب ا س إ‬ ‫وا ر‬ ‫ذآ ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫]ا ن[ رة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل أول‬ ‫quot;إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ او‬ ‫عا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اا‬ ‫ل أول ء‬ ‫م ل ا ل وا ام و‬ ‫ا‬ quot;‫ع ا أ ا‬ ً ‫ا‬ The first part of the Quran to come down was a chapter from al-Mufassal, in which there was a reminder about the paradise and the hell fire, so when the people returned [to their lord] the verses pertaining to the lawful and unlawful were revealed and had it been that the first revelation was don't drink wine, they would have said: we shall never forego wine, and had it been, don't commit fornication, they would have said we shall never give up fornication.quot; Thus don't overwhelm new Muslims early with details. You may also assign a certain knowledgeable person to mentor that new Muslim, something like big brother or big sister. That is likely to cause less confusion for him or her and to be consistent. If the job can't be done by one, then may be two or three.
  15. 15. Now, the story But before we take our seats next to our new brother and sister, let me tell you a few things about the story. We will have different figures in this story mainly Brother new / sister new / brother knowledgeable / sister knowledgeable / brother Hassan / sister Amal / brother X / sister X and others I don't mean to ridicule anyone or stereotype any particular or prototype. Through our journey for the acquisition of knowledge we go through different stages, and as we learn more, we change our ideas and approach to various issues. So if I talk about brother X in a way that may be prototyping, or stereotyping that is for the sake of the story and to make it engaging, and I hereby admit that I may have been that brother at some point or another in my career of involvement in Da'wah, whether that was here or back in Egypt, but the bottom line is that I do review some of my past statements and ideas and say to myself how ignorant were you. • Also, I have to emphasize that I am talking from personal experience, and fortunately I am more surrounded by brothers who are more practicing and keener to follow the straight path, so my examples are drawn from what is see or hear. I know quiet well that in some other places the new Muslims may be surrounded by people who will give them the impression that life will carry on without any significant changes in their life except for getting used to stuffed grape leaves, basmati rice and curry chicken; and coming to worship on Friday instead of Sunday if even that.
  16. 16. Legal Principals: Deeds are but by their intentions Certainty is not negated by doubt Hardship must bring about easing No harm and no reciprocating of harm Customs are giving consideration The use of all statements takes precedence over overlooking some All actions belong to one of the following categories Mandatory Preferable Permissible Disliked Forbidden Halal is any one of the first three or four. The rule is that all things are permissible until proven otherwise. And all worships are not to be performed until clear evidence on their sanctity is established. Fiqh is not an orphan science, Wrong doesn’t mean invalid. Ibn Taymiyah says: A non-Muslim cannot conduct a marriage on behalf of a Muslim woman; neither in the capacity of being her guardian nor in the capacity of being her guardian’s appointed representative. However, it does not appear that such a contract will be invalid, since there is no specific evidence in Islamic Law to indicate its invalidity. [al-Ikhtiyarat (206)]
  17. 17. Day one • Brother/sister new had read some about Islam and came to realize its beauty and decided to accept the last revelation from God to mankind. Masha'Allah. • S/he came to the masjid and talked to someone in the bookstore about their interest in converting, brother X was there and he told him/her you first need to go home and wash and then come back at noon and declare your Islam before the congregation, he also said: you are lucky, for today is Friday and we will have a big crowd. • What is wrong so far? • It is a grave mistake to defer someone's acceptance of Islam until they wash • Had brother knowledgeable was there, he would have shown great pleasure in that fellow's interest in Islam and would have immediately helped him pronounce the shahadah, and then talked to him about Islam and what made him arrive at the right destination, and exchanged contact information with him/her and asked her, if that was convenient to have a complete ablution, and sometimes, preferably remove the body hair, not including the hair of the scalp for women. And then come back to declare the testimony of faith after jumu'ah if brother/sister new were of the outgoing type or after 'Isha if they were somewhat people shy. • Now, let us talk about the rulings pertaining to taking shahadah and the rites associated with that.
  18. 18. Taking shahadah For any unbeliever to become a Muslim, s/he must pronounce the two statements of the Shahadah: quot;I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.quot; A person who has previously been Jew or Christian may also add: quot;And I bear witness that Jesus is the servant of Allah, His Messenger, and His word which He gave to Mary, and a spirit from Him.“ The Prophet (May Allah bless him and give him peace) said: ‫أن إ إ ا‬ ‫لأ‬ quot;: ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل: ل ر ل ا‬ ‫دة ا‬ ‫روا‬ ‫وروح‬ ‫ا وا أ وآ أ ه إ‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫ور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫و‬ quot;‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أي أ اب ا‬ ‫أد ا‬ ‫وأن ا ر‬ ‫وأن ا‬ quot;Whoever testified that there is no god but Allah, alone, without partners with him, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger and Jesus is His servant and His word which He has thrown into Mary, and a spirit from Him, and that Paradise is true and that Hell is true, Allah will admit him into Paradise from any of its 8 gates he pleases.quot; (Bukhari, Muslim)
  19. 19. Witnesses to Conversion • The presence of witnesses is not a condition in the taking of shahadah, yet the new Muslim should proclaim Islam in front of Muslims to be recognized as a member of the Muslim fraternity and to be given their rights in full. It is also necessary that we indicate in writing our conversion and that in case of our death, the Islamic rulings will be followed in burial and division of estate etc. that can be done by leaving a notarized statement with one's lawyer and the more documentation, the better.
  20. 20. Ghusl (Full Ablution) Once the Shahadah has been pronounced the new convert becomes subject to the rules of Islam. If the new Muslim is an adult, male or female, Ghusl is obligatory to enable the person to perform his or her prayers. Summary Full ablution is not a condition for the conversion bt agreement. The ruling regarding it is controversial, the opinion that is most consistent with the proofs is that it is mandatory for adult converts.
  21. 21. Shaving the Head, Removing Bodily Hair It may be recommended for the new convert to shave his head (men only) and to remove body hair from the armpits and the private parts (men and women). It is reported that Abu Kulayb and another person came to the Prophet to declare his Islam, and to one he told him to shave his hair, and to another convert he said: َ َ َ َ ِ ‫َ ا ُ ََ ْ ِ و َ َ َ َ ل َ ْ أ ْ َ ْ ُ َ َ ل َ ُ ا‬ َِ َ َ ُ ِ ‫َ ْ ُ َ ْ ِ ْ ِ آَ ْ ٍ َ ْ أ ِ ِ َ ْ َ ِ أ ُ َ ء إَ ا‬ ِ ْ ََ ُ ‫َ ا‬ ِ ‫َ ُ َن ا‬ ‫أ‬ َ َ ِ َ َ ْ ‫َ ا ُ ََ ْ ِ و َ َ أ ْ ِ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ ا ْ ُ ْ ِ َ ُ ل ا ِْ ْ. َ ل و أ‬ ُ َ َ ْ ِ َ ْ ‫و َ َ َ ل ِ َ َ َ َ ُ أ ْ ِ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ ا ْ ُ ْ ِ َا‬ ‫و‬ َ َ َ quot;Clean off the hair which grew while you were a disbeliever, and get circumcised.quot;(Reported by Abu Dawood and deemed sound by al-Albani) Al-'Adheem Abaadi in 'Awn al-Ma'bood had indicated that the command may have been because certain unbelievers had certain hairstyles, so these were marks on disbelief. It is not unlikely, given that the prophet didn't require that of every convert.
  22. 22. Prayers After taking shahadah and shouting the usual takbeer (saying Allahu Akbar, which means God is Great), which is not a prescribed sunnah for every conversion, yet it is a manifestation of happiness, so it can not be condemned. But may be used judiciously and wisely, particularly since it may scare some, even tough may be good for others. Now brother knowledgeable or sister knowledgeable will step in to teach the new Muslim a few things about Islam, and they agree to see one another before 'Asr. (They should have been taught enough to pray jumu'ah) and they will go through the pillars and conditions of the prayer, and if brother/sister new can absorb more, they will cover the mandatory acts of the prayer. The question that always arises is, what do I have to say in Arabic and what can I say in my own language. The summary, Quran must be recited in Arabic. Until you know how, you may say dhikr Takbeer must also be recited in Arabic according to the vast majority, if some one is completely incapable, and then they may say it in a different language. The routine dhikr in the prayer aside from the Quran and takbeer there is more controversy; however it is very important that you learn as much as you can in Arabic to perfect your prayer, since that is the most important deed in Islam after the pronouncement of shahadah. Supplication (Du'a') may be said in any language. It is to be known that the supplications of the Quran and those of our most beloved, the final messenger, Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and give him peace) are the most perfect and it is very recommended that we learn them and say them in their exact wording.
  23. 23. Discussion, Al-Fatihah First, the Fatihah must be said in Arabic, and there is no controversy regarding this. With regard to reading Quran, the majority say that it is not permissible to read it in any language other than Arabic. The evidence for this is many proofs including this verse: ‫إ أ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ْ ً َ َ ِ ًّ َ ُ ْ َ ْ ُِ ن‬ َ َ ِ “Verily, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’aan…” [Yoosuf 12:2] Moreover, the Quran is a miracle in its wording and its meaning; if it is changed, this is no longer the case, and it is no longer Quran but an interpretation (tafseer). In the following ahadeeth, our most beloved, the final messenger, Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and give him peace) will tell us what to do until we learn al- Fatihah Abu Dawood from Rifaa’ah ibn Raafi’, who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “When you get up to pray, if you know some Qur’aan, recite it, otherwise say al-hamdu Lillaah (praise be to Allah), and La ilaaha ill-Allah (there is no god but Allah), and Allahu akbar (Allah is Most Great).” In another incident, Abu Dawood reported that a man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and said: “I cannot learn anything of the Quran. Teach me something that will suffice me.” He said, “Say Subhaan Allah wa’l-hamdu Lillaah wa Laa ilaaha ill- Allah wa Allahu akbar wa Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa Billaah.” (Glory be to Allah; praise be to Allah; there is no god but Allah; Allah is Most Great; and there is no strength and no power except with Allah). He should also recite as much as he needs to make it equivalent in length to Soorat al- Faatihah.
  24. 24. Takbeer The majority of fuqaha’ say that if the non-Arab can speak Arabic, he should not recite Takbeer (saying “Allahu akbar (Allah is Most Great)”) in any other language. The evidence for this is that the texts instruct this particular wording, which is Arabic, and that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not do it any other way. But if a non-Arab cannot speak Arabic and is unable to pronounce it, then according to the majority of fuqaha’ it is OK for him to say the Takbeer in his own language after it has been translated from Arabic, according to the statements of the Shaafa’is and Hanbalis, no matter what the language is. The Takbeer is remembrance or mentioning of Allah, and Allah can be remembered or mentioned in every language, so a language other than Arabic is an alternative, and the person has to learn how to say it in the other language. Other adhkaar There is some controversy as to whether all of the adhkaar of the prayer, such as tashahhud, qunoot, du’aa’, and the tasbeehaat in rukoo’ and sujood may be said in languages other than Arabic. Supplication (du'a') According to the majority, It is permissible to make du’aa’ in a language other than Arabic, if one does not speak it.
  25. 25. The first night Going back home, brother new found his girlfriend waiting for him (that is not saying everybody will), Now, what should he do if he had the knowledge? He must not sleep in the same house. Why? Because being in seclusion with a foreign woman is a sin, and it leads to the committing of the major sin of fornication. The Prophet (May Allah bless him and give him peace) said: quot;‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أة إ آ ن‬ ‫نر‬ ‫quot;أ‬ quot;When a man and a woman are alone together, the third person is Shaitaan.quot; Reported by Abu Dawood What could be next for them? A man and woman who have committed fornication with one another may not marry one another unless they both repent. Then, if they repent, the question remains as to whether it would be lawful for them to marry while the woman is pregnant or still in her waiting period (`iddah). The majority of the scholars would say no (because they believe the child is not his); however many scholars would allow them to marry. No one would allow the fornicator to marry another person during her period. As for the duration of the waiting period (`iddah) for a woman who has fornicated, it is the duration of one menstrual cycle, unless she is pregnant. In the case of pregnancy, the woman’s waiting period comes to an end only upon delivery.
  26. 26. On a different track, Sister new will go back home and find her husband. Summary It is the agreement of the vast majority of the scholars that a woman who converts to Islam will have her marriage nullified from her non Muslim husband. She will have to wait for three months or one menstrual period or until child birth if pregnant before she can marry someone else. If her husband converted during that time, their marriage is valid. If he didn't, then she is free to marry whomever she pleases after the end of her period. That is given she had her legal civil divorce. Discussion, If a non-Muslim woman married to a non-Muslim man converts to Islam, then her marriage contract is invalid. Allah says: ٍ َ ِ َ َ َ َ َ ِ َ َ ‫)و َ ْ ِ ُ ا ا ْ ُ ْ ِآ ت َ ُ ْ ِ وَ َ َ ٌ ُ ْ ِ َ ٌ َ ْ ٌ ِ ْ ُ ْ ِآ ٍ وَ ْ أ ْ َ َ ْ ُ ْ و ُ ْ ِ ُ ا ا ْ ُ ْ ِآ َ َ ُ ْ ِ ُ ا وَ َ ْ ٌ ُ ْ ِ ٌ َ ْ ٌ ِ ْ ُ ْ ِك‬ (221:‫وَ ْ أ ْ َ َ ُ ْ ُوَ ِ َ َ ْ ُ ن إَ ا ر َا ُ َ ْ ُ إَ ا ْ َ ِ َا ْ َ ْ ِ َة ِ ِذْ ِ ِ و ُ َ ُ َ ِ ِ ِ س َ َ ُ ْ َ َ َآ ُون()ا ة‬ َ ِ َ ِ ‫و‬ ِ ‫ِو‬ َِ ‫أ‬ َ َ Which means: “A man slave who believes is better than an unbeliever even though he may allure you. Unbelievers do (but) beckon you to the Fire, but Allah beckons by His grace to the Garden and forgiveness and makes His signs clear to mankind: that they may receive admonition” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 221] *************
  27. 27. Hiding your Islam Sister new Muslim teenager came back home and felt intimidated talking to her parents. She prayed in her room and when she felt the footsteps of her Dad are approaching her room, she interrupted her prayers and ran to her bed, was it Ok for her to do that? If she is afraid to tell her family about her Islam, she may do that. The obligatory prayer may never be interrupted except in one of the following conditions: • Fear of being harmed by an enemy or a wild animal. • Fear for one's wealth or property, such as if a person is praying and someone comes who wants to take his property, or he fears that his mount will run away. • Stopping the prayer in order to save someone from a fire or from drowning, or fear that a blind man may fall into a well.[i] Can she combine the prayers? Yes. Can she skip prayers? No. Yet, our most beloved, the final messenger, Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and give him peace) had accepted Islam from certain people who said they wouldn't pray but two prayers, but he never gave them his approval.
  28. 28. Day two 'Asr prayer Sister new Muslim was approached by a nice Sister Knowledgeable, who gave her a hijaab as a gift. Was that Ok? Yes, since hijaab is one of the main obligations of Islam. Is it not pushy? No, because she will not scorn her if she saw her the next day without it, otherwise, it would be pushy. Discussion, Women must cover themselves completely in front of all men besides their husbands and those who are non-marriageable-kin ( mahram) to them. The husband is allowed to see every part of his wife. Men who are non-marriageable-kin (mahram) to her may see her in her normal house dress and she may uncover in front of them that which is customarily uncovered, such as the face, hands, forearms, feet, and so on. However, if there is a danger of temptation with respect to certain unscrupulous mahram relatives, then she must cover in front of them as if they were strangers. Allah said: َ ً َ ََ َ َ َ َ ِ َ َ ‫و‬ َ (ً ِ ‫) َ أ َ ا ِ ُ ْ ِ َزْ َا ِ َ و َ َ ِ َ و ِ َ ء ا ْ ُ ْ ِ ِ َ ُ ْ ِ َ ََ ْ ِ ِ ْ َ ِ ِ ِ ذِ َ أدْ َ أنْ ُ ْ َ ْ َ َ ُ ْذ ْ َ وآ ن ا ُ َ ُ را ر‬ (59:‫اب‬ ‫)ا‬ ‘O Prophet, tell your wives and daughters and the believing women that they should cast their outer garments over their persons (when out of doors): that is most convenient, that they should be known (as such) and not molested. And Allah is Oft-forgiving, most merciful’ [al- Ahzaab/59], they immediately covered their heads so you see nothing but a black view.” Abu Dawood.
  29. 29. Conditions of hijaab It does not matter what style of dress you adopt. However, the clothing must be: Thick enough not to show the color of your skin. Loose enough to completely conceal your form. And not too attractive in themselves. They must also be different from the clothes of men, and the clothes particular for a certain religion aside from Islam. Different cultures have different customs in this regard, and those customs may be respected as long as the woman is properly covered. If you are wearing wide pants and your shirt covers you completely down to the bottom of your thighs, then this should be sufficient. What about covering the face and hands?
  30. 30. Brother new figured he would wear his best clothes to the masjid and put on his nice tie, and when he arrived, and after the prayer he was approached by brother Hassan who told him, I like how you are diligent in observing the congregational prayers, it is so unfortunate that many Muslims don't observe them, even though they are mandatory. And because I think you are strong I have an advice for you if you didn't mind, I believe it is not appropriate to wear a neck tie. Is praying in congregation mandatory? • The disagreement between the scholars on this issue is huge and I am not in the caliber to settle it, • yet I believe they are very emphasized but short of mandatory. • This is particularly true in the world of today and more so in the west, where it would take up your entire day to pray the five daily prayers in the masjid, and there is a recognizable difference between someone who lives next to the masjid and one who is far away.
  31. 31. Dress code, including neck ties. The basic principle concerning garments is that they are permissible, Allah said: quot;‫quot; ُ ْ َ ْ َ م ز َ َ ا ّ ِ ا ِ َ أ ْ َج ِ ِ َ د ِ وا ْ َ ت ِ َ ا زْق‬ ِ ِ َ ِ َ َ ِ َ “Say (O Muhammad): Who has forbidden the adornment with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for His slaves, and At-Tayyibaat [all kinds of Halal (lawful) things] of food?” [al- A’raaf 7:32] yet there are some guidelines, including: • covering for men and women and • the prohibition of wearing the clothes of the other sex or • those particular for a certain religious group, and • the prohibition of wearing silk for men. • the prohibition of extravagance and seeking celebrity.
  32. 32. Discussion The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade us to resemble the non Muslims in general – quot; ‫م‬ quot; “Whoever imitates a people is one of them.” Narrated by Abu Dawood[i] He also specifically forbade us to resemble them in clothing. It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn al- ‘Aas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saw him wearing two garments dyed with safflower and he said to him: “These are the garments of the unbelievers; do not wear them.” Narrated by Muslim, 2077. Yet, the garments of the unbelievers which the Muslims are forbidden to wear are those which are worn exclusively by the unbelievers When imam Malik was asked about the burnus he allowed it. The inquirer said to him it is worn by Christians. Malik said it is worn here.[ii]
  33. 33. Wearing silk is forbidden for men, Abu Moosa (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Gold and silk have been permitted for the females of my ummah and forbidden for the males.” The scholars allowed men to wear silk in certain exceptional circumstances* The scholars also allowed men to wear garments containing four fingers’ width of silk, because of the hadeeth of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade the wearing of silk except for an area the width of two fingers, or three or four.” (Reported by Muslim, 3/1644).
  34. 34. Brother Hassan then took him to the bazaar in the lobby of the Islamic center and bought him a qamees and hat. Is he wrong? No, because it is definitely permissible to wear them. When would it be excessive? If he told him he must wear them. What is the ruling regarding these? habits not the religious practices, No one among the scholars said that covering the head is obligatory for men. Some scholars have said that it is mustahab. They describe baring one’s head in front of people as being one of the things that undermine man's status and character, especially for scholar. Yet, that is based on the culture. Al-Shaatibi (may Allah have mercy on him) divided people’s customs into two categories: 1 – there is shar’i evidence as to whether it is good or bad. In this case refer to shari’a 2 – Things which are customary among people and there is no shar’i evidence to prohibit it or enjoin it. Such things are of two types: (a) Established customs that do not change, such as the desire for food and drink. (b) Customs that change, such as whether an action is regarded as good or bad, which varies from one society to another. Al-Shaatibi described this type by saying, “Such as uncovering the head, which varies from one place to another; in the lands of the east (i.e. Egypt and lands to the east) it is reprehensible for people of prominent status, and in the lands of the west (i.e., North Africa and Islamic Spain) it is not reprehensible. The shar’i ruling varies accordingly; for people in the east it is to be regarded as undermining a man’s status and character, whereas in the west it is not.[i]
  35. 35. And before Brother Hassan said good bye to him, he told him, I am quiet sure the brothers must have already told you about the beard. Is it the right time? Probably not, soon he will ask, and then you will tell him the truth. What is the truth? Shaving the beard is unlawful in Islam. Abu Hurayrah related from the Prophet that he said: quot;‫س‬ ‫اا‬ ‫و‬ ‫quot; ا ا ارب و أ ا ا‬ “Clip your moustaches and let your beards grow. Be different than Magians.quot; Muslim and similar by al-Bukhari. It is the agreement of the madhahib that shaving the beard is forbidden. Ibn `Umar as reported by the al-Bukhari cut what ever hair was showing of his beard after he held it with his fist. This was approved by some Companions, Successors, and scholars. Does it have to be the size of one's fist?
  36. 36. Sunday school for Muslim kids Being so excited about this enormous transformation in his life brother new decided to come to the Sunday school for muslim kids at the masjid. One of the kids noticed his pony tail and made fun of it. So, what is the deal with pony tails? Anas ibn Maalik (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The hair of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came down between his ears and his shoulders. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5565; Muslim, 2338. It was narrated that Umm Haani’ (may Allah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Makkah and he had four braids. Narrated by al-Tirmidhi[i] Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said: This is to be understood as referring to times when he was so preoccupied that he could not take care of his hair for a long time, such as when traveling and the like.[ii] Ibn Abdul-Barr went farther to say: Nowadays no one braids their hair except soldiers who have long hair; people of righteousness, modesty and knowledge have turned away from this custom, until that has become one of their distinguishing features. Nowadays long hair has virtually become the characteristic of the foolish. It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever imitates a people is one of them – or will be gathered with them (on the Day of Resurrection).” Al-Tamheed, 6/80 Yet, I believe, that this is something that should never be condemned or advised, I would certainly discourage my close brothers against it.
  37. 37. Another kid notices his tattoo, and tells his teacher on him. They notice that and ask the teacher about tattoos and whether they are haram. The teacher tells him they are. And he asks him, by the way, it is important for Muslim males to have circumcision. Was it the right time? No, it is not. Why? Because we said we will sail with him slowly to safety and an overdose of instructions may be overwhelming mentally and emotionally. Discussion, Tattooing is haraam in all forms, because it involves changing the creation of Allah, The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) cursed the one who does tattoos and the one for whom that is done. ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “May Allah curse the women who do tattoos and those for whom tattoos are done, those who pluck their eyebrows and those who file their teeth for the purpose of beautification and alter the creation of Allah.” Agreed upon.
  38. 38. Circumcision The male convert should be circumcised, given it is medically safe, as this is part of the natural manners of purification recommended in Islam. Our most beloved, the final messenger, Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and give him peace) said: َ َ َ ‫َ ا ُ ََ ْ ِ و‬ َِ ِ ‫َ ْ ُ َ ْ ِ ْ ِ آَ ْ ٍ َ ْ أ ِ ِ َ ْ َ ِ أ ُ َ ء إ َ ا‬ َ َ ُ ُ َ َ ‫َ ا ُ ََ ْ ِ و َ َ أ ْ ِ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ ا ْ ُ ْ ِ َ ُ ل‬ ِ ‫َ َ ل َ ْ أ َْ ْ ُ َ َ ل َ ُ ا‬ َ َ َ ِ ْ ‫َ ا ُ ََ ْ ِ و َ َ َ ل ِ َ َ َ َ ُ أ‬ َ َ َ ِ ‫َ ُ َن ا‬ ‫أ‬ ِ َ َ ْ ‫ا ْ ِ ْ. َ ل و أ‬ َ َ ْ ِ َ ْ ‫َ ْ َ َ ْ َ ا ْ ُ ْ ِ َا‬ ‫و‬ quot;Clean off the hair which grew while you were a disbeliever, and get circumcised.quot;(Reported by Abu Dawood and deemed sound by al-Albani)
  39. 39. Sister new was on the other side of the masjid in the wash rooms of sisters and was trying to make wudu', that is when sister knowledgeable saw her and noticed that she has nail polish. sister knowledgeable said to her I like your nail polish, it is Ok to wear it for the husband, but you will need to remove it before you make any ritual ablution because it obstructs the water from getting to the nail. It is permissible for a woman to color her nails for the purpose of adornment, with materials that do not cause harm, and there is nothing wrong with her praying with that, unless it is a substance that prevents water from reaching what is beneath it, in which case wudoo’ and ghusl are not valid unless it is removed. If the wudoo’ is not valid then the prayer is not valid. It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 5/218:
  40. 40. On Sunday night, Brother new comes back to the same masjid and chats with one of the fellows about his eventful weekend and how tired he is and moreover he has to go back to work early in the am at 6 because they work in a deli, the brother/sister asks whether they sell pork and/or beer, and they say yes! Was it the right time? No, I think that the weekend was full enough of dos and donts that it would have been nice to give him a break. Now, since it happened, what should he do? First, The haraam jobs would include Criminal professions or those requiring the committing of sins Unlawful transactions are usually unlawful because they involve one of the following injustice which includes deception, undue risk taking or usury Selling or buying of haram products Helping others upon haraam and injustice
  41. 41. It is beyond the scope of today's lecture to address in details the unlawful jobs, but as a principal You must desist from criminal activities If you need your job for survival, and it doesn't entail criminal activity (the necessity that would allow such activities is very limited, and it would be acceptable by all people, like the case during the hurricane) Now, if your job is not criminal in nature, but still sinful, you may talk to the local scholar and discuss your individual case with them and put them in the picture and see what they tell you. The money earned from haraam sources: 1-Your money from before Islam is yours 2-Your money after Islam and before knowing is yours 3-Your money after Islam and before repenting is controversial.
  42. 42. Monday, Brother new went to work and found a few female colleagues, and as usual one of them approached him to give him the morning message that he is used to. Now what, Let us address some of the principals of interactions between men and women in Islam: It is permissible for men and women to speak to each other if there is a legitimate reason for their doing so and temptation is avoided. Women used to come the Prophet (peace be upon him) and talk to him in the presence of the Companions, and he had never refused to speak with them. Allah says: َ ْ ُ ‫) َ ِ َ ء ا ِ َ ُْ آَ َ ٍ ِ َ ا َ ء إن ا َ ُْ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ ِ ْ َ ْل َ َ ْ َ َ ا ِي ِ َ ْ ِ ِ َ َ ٌ و‬ َ ‫ض‬ ِ ِِِ َ َ (32:‫اب‬ ‫َ ْ ً َ ْ ُو ً( )ا‬ “O wives of the Prophet! you are not like any other of the women; If you will be on your guard, then be not soft in (your) speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease yearn; and speak a good word.” [al- Ahzâb: 32]
  43. 43. Men and women should never be in seclusion alone Men and women should limit their interactions with the opposite sex to needed ones, and they may socialize with the same sex. The proof on this position is numerous verses and ahadeeth including َ ِ ٌ ِ َ َ ‫) ُ ْ ِ ْ ُ ْ ِ ِ َ َ ُ ا ِ ْ أ ْ َ ره ْ و َ ْ َ ُ ا ُ ُو َ ُ ْ ذِ َ أزْآ َ ُ ْ ِن ا‬ ‫إ‬ َ َ َ َ ِِ َ (30:‫َ ْ َ ُ ن( )ا ر‬ َ Allah says in the Quran: “Tell the believing men and women to lower their gaze and protect their chastity, for that is bound to render them purer. Allah is aware of all that they do.”(An- Nurr: 30) Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) said: quot;quot;The best of the men's rows is the first and the worst is the last, and the best of the women's rows is the last and the worst in the first. quot;Narrated by Muslim. Al- Qurtubi, in al-Mufhim and an-Nawawi, in Sharh Saheeh Muslim, said, regarding this hadeeth, that this is due to the closeness of the women's first row to men and vice versa.
  44. 44. Our beloved Prophet said: (Muslim from Usama) “‫ا ل ا ء‬ ‫يأ‬ ‫آ‬ ” quot;I have not left behind me a temptation for men more harmful than that of womenquot; reported by Muslim from Usamah ibn Zaid. For those who believe in science, the BBC reported that a group of researchers at the University of Chicago found that Male sex hormone easily triggered. I find the report quite interesting so I will quote some of it here, and the rest in the footnotes: quot;Scientists have proved that even the most seemingly innocent chat with a woman can be enough to send male sex hormones soaring.quot;[i]
  45. 45. But now he didn't get the message and he had earlier broken up with his girlfriend, now what He is at home tired after a long day of work, so happy to be Muslim, but feels a great need for a companion. We would recommend marriage, but when his life gets back on track and he gets confirmed in his new path and feels stable. One of the main objectives of marriage in Islam is for the husband and wife to satisfy their natural desires in a lawful way. Our Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “O young people, whoever can afford it let him marry, as it will help him to lower his gaze and protect his chastity.” Agreed upon. If you can't afford having kids, you have the right to use birth control if both of you agree. Jabir said: “We used to practice coitus interrupts while the Qur’ân was still being send down.” Reported by al-Bukhari. until he gets married, can he masturbate? The ruling on masturbation is a matter of disagreement. Some scholars say it is lawful, others say it is not preferred, while a third group of scholars says that it is unlawful. The most likely of these opinions - and Allah knows best - is that masturbation is something that is not preferred. In case of a dire need, it becomes lawful, but resorting to it excessively can result in serious problems.
  46. 46. By the next weekend, his/her family members all knew about what is happening to their deer son or daughter. How are they going to handle them? Allah says: َ ْ ‫)وإنْ َ ه َاك ََ أنْ ُ ْ ِك ِ َ َ ْ َ َ َ ِ ِ ِ ْ ٌ َ ُ ِ ْ ُ َ و َ ِ ْ ُ َ ِ ا‬ َ َ َ َ َ َِ (‫َ ْ ُو ً َا ِ ْ َ ِ َ َ ْ أ َ ب إَ ُ إَ َ ْ ِ ُ ُ ْ َُ َ ُ ُ ْ ِ َ آ ْ ُ ْ َ ْ َُ ن‬ َ ُ ِ َِ َ ‫و‬ (15:‫) ن‬ Which means: quot;But if they strive to make thee join in worship with Me things of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not; yet bear them company in this life with justice (and consideration), and follow the way of those who turn to me (in love): in the end the return of you all is to Me, and I will tell you the truth (and meaning) of all that ye did.quot; Our most beloved, the final messenger, Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and give him peace) said: (al- Bukhari) quot;‫ا م‬ ‫quot;ا‬ quot;The maternal aunt is like the motherquot;
  47. 47. Weekend three Next weekend sister new came to the masjid, and sat down next to sister x who asked her what is your name? And she said Jessica. She then said, I meant what is your Muslim name? Was it right to ask that question? What about names? It is preferable for a Muslim to give his child a name that has a good meaning and expresses that child’s Islamic identity. It is not unlawful to give a child a non-Arabic name. Many Muslims give their children Persian or Turkish names and there is nothing wrong with this. It is forbidden, however, to give a child a name with the express intention of imitating or identifying with the unbelievers or if the name has a bad meaning or it is particular for a certain religion, such as Christian and Christina. If his name conveys a bad meaning, he should change it even if it is an Arabic name. The Prophet (May Allah bless him and give him peace) changed the names of some of his Companions who had bad names, even though those names were in Arabic. Otherwise, a new Muslim may change his name only if he wishes to. It is unlawful however to change the family name.
  48. 48. Next brother new brought his kids along to the masjid, Upon more discussion with brother x, he told him that these are not his kids anymore and he must give them up. Why, the new Muslim asks? Because they were born out of the wedlock, brother X replies. Now is that right? Yes and no. The summary A new Muslim will keep his kids and not give them up since many kids were born out of the wedlock before Islam and the prophet didn't separate between those kids and their fathers. If a Muslim had a child out of the wedlock with a woman who is not married he may claim this child and raise it without telling people it was born out of the wedlock, that is called istelhaaq, (claiming the paternity of a child who doesn't have a father) and it is accepted in the Islamic court in all madhahib with different coditions, that is given he will not say it was out of the wedlock. What if he said it was to a judge in an Islamic court, and the woman is unmarried, here it gets to be controversial with the majority of scholars saying it wouldn't be his child, but this is not the case of the new Muslim anyway.
  49. 49. Weekend four Sister/brother new invited sister x and sister knowledgeable to her home and offered them some candy and sister x started to read the ingredients, And she found that it had monoglycerides or vanilla or something else, and she told her sisters you must watch for these things, and I have a good book on all haram and halal ingredients. Now sister new has one more book to read.
  50. 50. Summary This applies to new and old Muslim; Islam is a religion of ease. Haram food is clearly haram and no one needs a PhD in biochemistry to figure out what is halal to eat and what is not. There is some disagreement regarding this issue between the different madhahib, and all draw from the guidance of our most beloved, the final messenger, Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and give him peace); I will simply state what I believe is correct. Pork and liquor (which is not chocolate liquor by the way) are forbidden by consensus. As well as animals with eye teeth and birds with claws (according to the majority) Lard is haram, but no one uses it anymore, thank God; gelatin is to be avoided as much as possible unless it is in a medicine that doesn't have alternatives; the other ingredients are either Ok in origin, or even if not, they were transformed, and the stronger of the two opinions about transformation is that it makes the impure pure, and sometimes they are in negligible amounts that wouldn't have much effect on the final product. The sin that a person may receive from forbidding good and pure food is equivalent to the sin he gets if he legalizes forbidden food. These days, there are numerous foods, drinks, medicines and other products, which are suspicious and could be included in the instruction of our Prophet (peace be upon him) when he said: “Whoever avoids suspicious matters keeps himself pure from things which could affect his religion and his behavior, and whoever falls into doubtful matters, invariably falls in forbidden things, just like a shepherd who pastures his sheep near private ground will invariably have his sheep stray into it.”
  51. 51. Discussion, Allah says: َ ِ ‫)ا ْ َ ْم أ ِ َ ُ ُ ا َ ت و َ َ م ا ِ َ ُو ُ ا ا ْ ِ َ ب ِ َ ُ ْ و َ َ ُ ُ ْ ِ َ ُ ْ َا ْ ُ ْ َ َ ت‬ ُ ‫و‬ َ َ ‫أ‬ ُ َ ُ َُ (5 ‫ا ْ ُ ْ ِ َ ت َا ْ ُ ْ َ َ ت ِ َ ا ِ َ ُو ُ ا ا ْ ِ َ ب ِ ْ َ ِْ ُ ْ()ا ة: ا‬ َ ‫أ‬ ُ ‫ِو‬ “This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you .The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them” and says: ُ َ ‫) ُ َ ْ ََ ْ ُ ُ ا ْ َ ْ َ ُ َا م وَ ْ ُ ا ْ ِ ْ ِ ِ و َ أه ِ َ ْ ِ ا ِ ِ ِ َا ْ ُ ْ َ ِ َ ُ َا ْ َ ْ ُ ذة َا ْ ُ َ َد‬ ‫َُ و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ُِ َ َ ُ ‫و‬ ْ ُ ِ‫َا ِ َ ُ و َ أآ َ ا ُ ُ إ َ َآ ْ ُ ْ و َ ذ ِ َ ََ ا ُ ِ وأنْ َ ْ َ ْ ِ ُ ا ِ َْزْ م ذ‬ َ ِ ََ ُ َ ‫ذ‬ ِ ََ َ ‫و‬ (3 ‫ِ ْ ٌ()ا ة: ا‬ “Forbidden to you (for food) are : dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah, that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless you are able to slaughter it (in due form), that which is sacrificed on stone altars...”
  52. 52. A few concepts necessary to understand the issues pertaining to food. • Transformation Renders the impure pure according to the majority. • Obliteration by submersion. It is well known in the Islamic law that impurity can be eliminated by adding more quantities or by it becoming obliterated or submerged. The Prophet (peace be upon him) made reference to this concept when he said: “Water will not become impure unless the impurity changes its smell, its taste or its color.” Even though there is weakness in the transmission of this hadeeth, its meaning is true and a matter of scholarly consensus. • Insignificant amounts are disregarded.
  53. 53. Now some examples of the controversial matters: Jallalah (Animals fed animal products) is a matter of disagreement among the scholars. Some scholars consider the flesh of such animals and their milk to be unlawful for human consumption if the majority of their fodder is impure. According to this opinion, if more than 50% of an animal’s fodder is from dead meat, blood, or other impure substances, then its meat and milk are prohibited. If 50% or less of its feed comes from impure substances, then its meat and milk will be lawful. Other scholars hold the view that the meat and milk of such animals will not be prohibited unless the impurity noticeably affects the taste or smell of the animal’s meat or its milk. I prefer the second opinion. If there is any bad taste or smell in the meat or the milk, or if consuming it may cause any kind of sickness, then it is prohibited. Otherwise, its meat and milk are permissible because the impurity that the animal had eaten has been transformed into something else.
  54. 54. • Cheese made with rennet extracted from animals that were illegally slaughtered was deemed permissible by Imam Ahmad, as stipulated in al-Mughnî (1/3). Muslims used to eat the cheese brought from the Magians and other unbelievers. However, The people of knowledge have two opinions: That of the majority is that such rennet is impure[i]. They believed the rennet is impure because it comes from an impure source, the stomach of the illegally slaughtered animal. They say it is a liquid material that touched an impure substance and thus becomes impure. Imam al- Nawawî said: quot;It is part of the animal so it is impure, like all the other parts of the animal.quot; The other saying is that it is pure. This is the opinion of some of the Companions and successors, `Umar, Salmân al-Fârisî, Talhâ, al-Husayn b. `Ali and others. It is also the opinion of the Hanafî school of thought, one narration from Ahmad, and the opinion of Ibn Taymiyyah,[ii] for more on this see the footnote[iii]
  55. 55. • Animals slaughtered by Christians and Jews are lawful for Muslims to eat. This is not contingent on their firmness on their religion, because the the Jews and Christians who lived in the time of our Prophet’s (peace be upon him) had already altered their teachings and deviated from their religion. In spite of this, Allah says: “The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them” [Surah al-Ma’idah: 5] Therefore, the meat they sell in their supermarkets and restaurants is lawful, provided they slaughter their meat properly, and do not use alternative methods like electrocution or suffocation to kill the animal.
  56. 56. They went to sit in the family room and found a TV The ruling for watching television depends upon what is being viewed. Music The majority of Muslim scholars prohibit music and musical instruments. It is mentioned in Saheeh al- Bukhari that Abu Malik al-Ash`ari said: “I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say: “There will be a group of my people who will legalize for themselves adultery, pure silk, intoxicants, and stringed instruments.quot; The exception to this ruling is the duff, a tambourine without bells, and what is like it.
  57. 57. Figures The ruling regarding image making: Drawing pictures by hand of people and animals is unlawful. This is indicated by clear and unambiguous textual evidence. Ibn `Abbâs relates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: (‫أ ا‬ ‫ا وح ، و‬ ‫ر رة ن ا‬ ) “Whoever makes an image in this world, Allah will torment him until he breathes life into it on the Day of Resurrection, but he will not be able to do it.” Agreed upon. He also said: quot;the people most tormented on the day of judgment are the figure/image makersquot; Making statues of animals and people is the most unlawful aspect of image making, and it deserves the severest punishment from Allah. Drawing pictures comes second. However, the following cases are exempted from this ruling: 1. Images used by children for playing and for learning are lawful. `Aishah said: “I used to play with dolls in front of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) with my friends …” agreed upon. Drawing for educational reasons is under this category. 2. Photography does not come under the category of forbidden image making^^^^^^, 3. Taxidermies are Lawful as per ibn jibreen and others.
  58. 58. On their way out they found a dog's house The Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade keeping dogs as well as selling and buying them. Dogs may be had for hunting, guarding, farming and needs similar in importance and may not be attained by the use of other animals.
  59. 59. A few months later, Their father is bed bound and embarked on writing his will, they tell brother x, who says, you can't get a penny of your father's money. It is true that a Muslim does not inherit from an unbeliever. Usamah b. Zayd related that the Prophet (May Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “ ‫ا‬ ‫و ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ثا‬ ” “The Muslim does not inherit from the unbeliever and the unbeliever does not inherit from the Muslim.quot; agreed upon. However, in the west there is usually a written will. Therefore, therefore brother/sister new are entitled up to one third of the estate unless the other heirs agree to give him more, then he may take more.
  60. 60. First Ramadan • The first Ramadan is here, and sister x is excited to partake in this great pillar of Islam. • Usually fasting is not too difficult. • When they come for the night prayers, and the imam recites half to one part of the Quran’s 30 parts, many get overwhelmed, particularly since they don’t understand the language. In my view, the solution is to hold a translated copy of the Quran and glance at the meanings in english without uttering them. • Also standing for more than one hour may be tough on some, who should then sit down if that will help them contemplate what is said and enjoy their prayers.
  61. 61. It is December now, and all family members, who are already stunned by the changes in brother new's life are celebrating Christmas. Summary it is unlawful to celebrate any public recurring feasts aside from the two Islamic feasts we have, whether they are religious or national or universal such as mother's day. The Islamic feasts have great meanings that are being celebrated. For instance eid al-Fitr is a celebration of success in the test of submission through Ramadan and eid al-Adha is commemorating Ibraheem's example of sacrifice. Many of the other holidays have unwholesome concepts or may be days revered by some and reviled by others. You have to do your best in being kind to family members around those times to soften the blow of having converted and that of not celebrating Christmas for the first time in your life You will need to make it clear that you are now Muslim and Christmas is not your feast; that will help bring the new reality into perspective, and if you do it wisely and kindly, I hope it will not bring about too much negativity. If everybody will be coming home on this day, and you will not see your aunt who came from florida to Wisconsin particularly for the 24th and 25th and will be going back early on the 26th, then you may go visit your relatives, but avoid the times of celebration; you may keep yourself busy cleaning the kitchen for your mother and/or shoveling the snow. Mother's day is a recurring public feast, thus you may not celebrate it, yet you should shower your mother with gifts and the best gift is that of kindness and attention, and do that particularly before and after that day. Your mother's own birthday or wedding anniversary is a personal event, and many Muslim scholars don't feel there is a problem with such celebrations except that they were imported from the west, but it is probably Ok to share your parents their joy on such days, thus making up some for the other days that you can't celebrate at all. It is only the recurring public occasions that have the same qualities as 'eid al-fitr and al-adha, thus these are the only prohibited ones. The prohibition of public recurrent feasts is evidenced by the hadeeth where the Prophet (May Allah bless him and give him peace) arrived at Madinah and found that they had two festive days wherein they would play and enjoy themselves. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Allah – Most Blessed and High – has replaced them with what is better: 'eid al-Fitr and 'eid al-Adhâ.” Reported authentically by Abu Dawood.
  62. 62. Now the sister is getting married to a Muslim man. What should she do in choosing? Please look for commonalities. What does she need to know about her rights? She must be taught about the prenuptial agreements and which of them are valid The principal is: If the guardian of the woman stipulates a condition in the marriage contract that will not make void the main tenets and objectives of marriage, then that condition must be respected. E.g. • If the woman puts a condition to have the right to divorce, then that is permissible and she will have the right to divorce only one time, even though it is not recommended; besides, even without this Islam gave men and women both a way out of a very sour marriage, that is divorce for men and for women khul' (separation initiated by a woman who agrees to return to the man his wedding gift). • She may also stipulate a certain share in their future savings, • or that he doesn't take her away from her hometown; • or that her husband may not marry another woman. Such conditions must be made before the marriage contract or while executing it. If the man violates these conditions, then the woman will have the right to terminate the marriage contract. In the usual conditions, it is best to have no conditions, unless there is fear on the part of the woman from something.
  63. 63. On the day of marriage • It is essential to have a guardian Our Prophet (May Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “Any woman married without the consent of her guardian, then her marriage contract is void, and the ruler is the guardian for a woman who has no guardian.” Reported by Abu Dawood and others • The Guardian must be Muslim^^^^^ In the absence of an Islamic judge, preference will be given to whoever is in some position to act in such a capacity, like the local Muslim leader or the head of the nearest Islamic center. In the absence of even that, she can appoint someone to act as her guardian.
  64. 64. • What should she we do with her father? Since the issue of guardianship is not familiar to non Muslims, hopefully, there won't be any resentment on his part, and he may be included in the process in a way that will be kind and leasing to him. If he conducted the marriage as his daughter's attorney, Ibn Taymiyah says: A non-Muslim cannot conduct a marriage on behalf of a Muslim woman; neither in the capacity of being her guardian nor in the capacity of being her guardian’s appointed representative. However, it does not appear that such a contract will be invalid, since there is no specific evidence in Islamic Law to indicate its invalidity. [al-Ikhtiyarat (206)] Therefore, if a Muslim woman’s guardian is a non-Muslim and he marries her to a Muslim man, then the contract will be legally valid. • After marriage, what do they need to do? ” ‫ر‬ ‫، إن آ‬ ‫آ‬ ” “A believing man should never hate a believing woman; Whenever he dislikes one of her qualities he likes others” Saheeh al-Jame’, from Abu Hurairah.