The	  Power	  of	  Thought	  Rob	  Lievesley	  (Nuffield	  Orthopaedic	  Centre)	                              Emlyn	  Clay	...
Presentation summary•  Rob Lievesley  –  Overview of BCIs  –  Achievements of and developments of BCIs  –  Suitability of ...
Section 1: Overview of BCIs•  What is a BCI•  How detect intentions at the brain•  EEG                                    ...
What is a BCI?•  Brain Computer Interface                  BCI                              4
What is a BCI?•  Brain   –  We make conscious decisions   –  Intentions sent via nerves   –  Movements made with muscles• ...
How detect intentions at brain?•  100 billion neurones in brain•  Electrical signal when each fires•  EEG (ElectroEncephal...
Invasive detection•  Electrode array implanted directly on brain  –  More precise understanding of what happens     at bra...
Non-invasive detection•  Surface EEG                         8
Surface EEG•  Electrodes on scalp  –  Each electrode detects electrical signal from     billions of neurones  –  Electrica...
Summary of Section 1•  BCIs (Brain Computer Interfaces) aim to  –  Detect intentions at the brain  –  Send them to compute...
Section 2: Achievements and developments of BCIs•  Methods of interpreting EEG signal  –  Sensorimotor Rhythms  –  P300 si...
Sensorimotor Rhythms•  Recorded near motor and sensory areas   of brain•  Relies on visual imagery•  Requires training    ...
Sensorimotor Rhythms•  Toyota / Rikken group video                                 13
Sensorimotor Rhythms •  Users think “left” or “right” 100 times    each •  BCI system learns to distinguish between    the...
Sensorimotor Rhythms                       15
Sensorimotor Rhythms•  EPOC Neuroheadset (Emotiv, USA)•  $299•  MSc project  –  3 non-impaired subjects had 95% success in...
P300 Evoked Potentials•  Peak in EEG signal•  300 ms after stimulus presented•  Signal evoked automatically - no training ...
P300 Evoked Potentials                         18
Section 2 Summary•  There are methods of determining intent   from EEG signal•  Demonstrated ability to:  –  Spell  –  Dri...
Section 3: Suitability of BCIs for AT•  Negatives•  Positives                                    20
Negatives•    Difficult to set up•    Slow to make a selection•    Relatively unreliable•    Relatively slow progress     ...
Negatives•  Target audience – locked in syndrome?  –  Eye gaze  –  Switch access / eye blink•  Sensorimotor – locked in sy...
Positives•  Popular equipment  –  Starting to come out of research labs  –  Mass production reduces costs•  European proje...
Positives•  Auditory P300•  Enormous potential  –  Prosthetic arm  –  Human trials  –  Word detection                     ...
intendiX demo                25
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Rob livesley intro to bci

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Rob livesley intro to bci

  1. 1. The  Power  of  Thought  Rob  Lievesley  (Nuffield  Orthopaedic  Centre)   Emlyn  Clay  (OpenVivo)   Access  Group  Training  Event  May  2012  
  2. 2. Presentation summary•  Rob Lievesley –  Overview of BCIs –  Achievements of and developments of BCIs –  Suitability of BCIs for AT•  Emlyn Clay – OpenVivo –  Demonstration of intendiX 2
  3. 3. Section 1: Overview of BCIs•  What is a BCI•  How detect intentions at the brain•  EEG 3
  4. 4. What is a BCI?•  Brain Computer Interface BCI 4
  5. 5. What is a BCI?•  Brain –  We make conscious decisions –  Intentions sent via nerves –  Movements made with muscles•  If something goes wrong –  Brain functions perfectly –  Unable to control movements –  Locked in•  Detect intentions at brain –  Send to computer –  From there •  Wheelchairs, environmental controls, communication, prosthetic arms… 5
  6. 6. How detect intentions at brain?•  100 billion neurones in brain•  Electrical signal when each fires•  EEG (ElectroEncephaloGraphy) –  Invasive –  Non-invasive 6
  7. 7. Invasive detection•  Electrode array implanted directly on brain –  More precise understanding of what happens at brain –  Requires brain surgery 7
  8. 8. Non-invasive detection•  Surface EEG 8
  9. 9. Surface EEG•  Electrodes on scalp –  Each electrode detects electrical signal from billions of neurones –  Electrical signal is very small at scalp 9
  10. 10. Summary of Section 1•  BCIs (Brain Computer Interfaces) aim to –  Detect intentions at the brain –  Send them to computer –  Use to control AT devices•  Most suitable method is currently Surface EEG 10
  11. 11. Section 2: Achievements and developments of BCIs•  Methods of interpreting EEG signal –  Sensorimotor Rhythms –  P300 signals•  Control of AT devices•  Commercial developments 11
  12. 12. Sensorimotor Rhythms•  Recorded near motor and sensory areas of brain•  Relies on visual imagery•  Requires training 12
  13. 13. Sensorimotor Rhythms•  Toyota / Rikken group video 13
  14. 14. Sensorimotor Rhythms •  Users think “left” or “right” 100 times each •  BCI system learns to distinguish between these two thoughts •  6 healthy subjects drive wheelchair to endpoint on left or right •  80% successTanaka K, Matsunaga K, Wang H (2005) Electroencephalogram based control of an electricwheelchair, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 21(4) p762-6. 14
  15. 15. Sensorimotor Rhythms 15
  16. 16. Sensorimotor Rhythms•  EPOC Neuroheadset (Emotiv, USA)•  $299•  MSc project –  3 non-impaired subjects had 95% success in choosing between “push” and “neutral” after 1 week 16
  17. 17. P300 Evoked Potentials•  Peak in EEG signal•  300 ms after stimulus presented•  Signal evoked automatically - no training required 17
  18. 18. P300 Evoked Potentials 18
  19. 19. Section 2 Summary•  There are methods of determining intent from EEG signal•  Demonstrated ability to: –  Spell –  Drive wheelchair•  Commercial products are appearing –  Often cost effective 19
  20. 20. Section 3: Suitability of BCIs for AT•  Negatives•  Positives 20
  21. 21. Negatives•  Difficult to set up•  Slow to make a selection•  Relatively unreliable•  Relatively slow progress –  25 years old –  Moore’s law – computer processor power doubles every 2 years 21
  22. 22. Negatives•  Target audience – locked in syndrome? –  Eye gaze –  Switch access / eye blink•  Sensorimotor – locked in syndrome –  Motor imagery difficult? –  Training effort difficult? 22
  23. 23. Positives•  Popular equipment –  Starting to come out of research labs –  Mass production reduces costs•  European projects –  TOBI – (Tools for Brain Computer Interaction) •  P300 Brain painting •  Document browsing –  DECODER •  Detect consciousness •  Provide Yes / No response 23
  24. 24. Positives•  Auditory P300•  Enormous potential –  Prosthetic arm –  Human trials –  Word detection 24
  25. 25. intendiX demo 25

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