Brain computer interface


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It consists of all details about BCI which are necessary, I sorted from net and implemented in PPT. For abstract U can mail me

(It is not my own talent,it is a collaboration of 4 to 5 PPT's , wiki and other sites.
But simply awesome )

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Brain computer interface

  1. 1. Brain–computer interface Presented By V.Koushik 10B81A0428 1
  2. 2. What is Brain-Computer Interface(BCI)? • Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a fast-growing emergent technology, in which researchers aim to build a direct channel between the human brain and the computer. • A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a collaboration in which electro-physical signals are passed and controls a mechanical device as a natural part of its representation of the body. • It is also known as Direct Neural Interface (DNI) & Brain – Machine Interface (BMI). 2
  3. 3. History • • • Hans Berger is the scientist who discover the electrical activity of the human brain and developed the electroencephalography (EEG). In 1924 Berger was the first to record human brain activity by means of EEG One wave he identified was the alpha wave (8–13 Hz), also known as Berger's wave. • Neurotrophic-cone is invented by Dr. Philip Kennedy in year 1996 , which consists of electrodes and is used to collect signals from brain. • And their tips are used for nerve growth ( neurites). 3
  4. 4. BCI Research On Animals: Rats first • At first, rats were implanted with BCI. Signals recorded from the cerebral cortex of rat operate BCI to carry out the movement. Monkey second • And latter it was also tried on a monkey in 1990, which results in that it can feed itself with a robotic arm simply by using signals from its brain. 4
  5. 5. HUMAN FOLLOWS…. 5
  6. 6. Types of BCIs: • Invasive BCI Invasive BCIs are implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain during neurosurgery. • Non Invasive BCI Non-Invasive BCIs do not involve neurosurgery. They are just like wearable virtual reality devices. • Partially Invasive BCI Partially invasive BCI devices are implanted inside the skull but rest outside the brain rather than within the grey matter. 6
  7. 7. Invasive with 10 array of electrodes, each separated by 400 μm Non - Invasive 7
  8. 8. Implementation of BCI 8
  9. 9. PARTS • • Signal Acquisition: The signal capture system includes the electrodes themselves and the isolated electronic amplifiers. Signal Processing Unit: • The feature extraction system includes the algorithms for the linear prediction of the signal. • The pattern recognition system often used to be composed of neural networks as to recognize which neurons are producing these signals. • Interfaces have been developed to control different devices . 9
  10. 10. Types of waves from BRAIN 10
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  12. 12. Bionic Eye 12
  13. 13. Output Device • Any controllable machines • For answering yes/no questions • For word processing • Wheelchair • Virtual Reality • Usually, Computer screen and the output is the selection of targets or cursor movement 13
  14. 14. APPLICATIONS • One of the most exciting areas of BCI research is the development of devices that can be controlled by thoughts. • Provide enhanced control of devices such as wheelchairs, vehicles, or assistance robots for people with disabilities. • Monitor attention in long-distance drivers or aircraft pilots, send out alert and warning for aircraft pilots. • Develop intelligent relaxation devices. 14
  15. 15. APPLICATIONS(cont.) • • • • • Provide disabled people with communication, environment control, and movement restoration. Bionics/Cybernetics Memory Upload/Download Dream Capture Provide additional channel of control in computer games. 15
  16. 16. Limitations • • • • At present ,the biggest impediment of BCI technology is the lack of sensor modality that provides safe, accurate, and robust access to brain signals. It is very expensive. Information transformation rate is limited to 20 bits/min. Difficulty in adaptation and learning. 16
  17. 17. Future Concerns • Recently in Aug 2013, brain-to-brain non-invasive interface has been created by researchers at the University of Washington. The researchers are already looking at a two-way system, to allow for a more “equitable” telepathic link between the two human brains. • The laser would be focussed on a single neuron and the neuron’s reflectance is measured by a separate sensor. • When the neuron fires, the light pattern and wavelength it reflects would change slightly This would allow the researchers to monitor a single neuron and require less contact with the tissue. 17
  18. 18. CONCLUSION • A potential therapeutic tool. • BCI is an advancing technology promising paradigm shift in areas like Machine Control, Human Enhancement, Virtual, reality and etc. So, it’s potentially high impact technology. • Several potential applications of BCI hold promise for rehabilitation and improving performance, such as treating emotional disorders (for example, depression or anxiety),easing chronic pain, and overcoming movement disabilities due to stroke. • Will enable us to achieve singularity very soon. 18
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