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  1. 1. A Presentation On Prepared by Mr.Rushi PrajapatiMonday, June 04, 2012 BCI A.I.E.T. Jaipur 1
  2. 2. Scope of presentationBasic IdeaGeneric BCI systemTypes of BCI systemEEG techniqueApplicationsAdvantagesDisadvantagesBCI InnovatorsFuture developments Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 2
  3. 3. MAN AND THE WORLDMan interacts with the world using hisfive senses and limb movements Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 3
  4. 4. THOUGHTS faster than ACTIONS Actions are mechanical movements while thoughts are electrical impulses. Thoughts are faster than actions So direct interaction with the world through thoughts would be faster. Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 4
  5. 5. Brain Computer Interface  Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a fast-growing emergent technology in which researchers aim to build a direct channel between the human brain and the computer. BCI- The Ultimate in Human Computer Interfacing Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 5
  6. 6. Components of BCI Generation of signals from brain Preprocessing, Feature extraction, Classification, Device control.Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 6
  7. 7. Generic BCI System Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 7
  8. 8. signal extraction techniquesDifferent neuroimaging methods are used to derivemeaningful interpretations from the brain signals whichare captured by microelectrodes:EEG - Electro encephalographyECoG - Electro cortico graphyMEG - Magneto encephalo graphyBOLD - Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (signal)MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 8
  9. 9. Types of BCIInvasive- inside grey matter of brainPartially Invasive- inside the skull but outside the grey matterNon Invasive- outside the skull, on the scalp Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 9
  10. 10. Invasive BCI S Electrode inserted directly into grey matter Highest quality signal can obtain But are prone to scar- tissue build-up Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 10
  11. 11. Sensors Used in BCI-Microelectrodes Silicon Microelectrode Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 11
  12. 12. MicroelectrodesMicroelectrodes areused to captureelectrical/magneticsignals of the brain.Types:Wire-typeSilicon-basedCeramic-basedPolyimide-based. Diagram of silicon-based ACREO microelectrode arrays Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 12
  13. 13. Microwires emerging from the green and orange tubes connect to twoarrays of 16 microelectrodes embedded in a small mat of clear,rubbery silicone - the larger, numbered electrodes are part of thepatient’s original surgery (Photo: University of Utah Department ofNeurosurgery) Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 13
  14. 14. Partially Invasive BCIs Implanted inside the skull but rest outside the grey matter of the brain Produce better resolution signals than non-invasive BCIs where the bone tissue of the cranium deflects and deforms signals Carry lower risk of forming scar-tissue in the brain than fully-invasive BCIs. Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 14
  15. 15. Non-Invasive BCIs low signal quality due to electrodes are not directly interact with neurons It is safest as no surgery required. EEG is widely used for this technique Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 15
  16. 16. EEG Technique for BCI Electrodes attached to the scalp Electric signals of the brain are amplified. Transmitted to the computer Software converts them into technical control signals ( computer commands) These computer commands controls the computer. June 04, 2012 Monday, BCI 16
  17. 17. EEG WAVES There are 5 major types of EEG waves1. Delta Waves2. Theta Waves3. Alpha Waves4. Beta Waves5. Gamma Waves Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 17
  18. 18. Continuous Brain Waves  Generally grouped by frequency: (amplitudes are about 100µV max) Type Frequency Location Use Delta <4 Hz everywhere occur during sleep, coma Theta 4-7 Hz temporal and parietal correlated with emotional stress (frustration & disappointment) Alpha 8-12 Hz occipital and parietal reduce amplitude with sensory stimulation or mental imagery Beta 12-36 Hz parietal and frontal can increase amplitude during intense mental activity Mu 9-11 Hz frontal (motor diminishes with movement or cortex) intention of movement Lambda sharp, occipital correlated with visual attention jagged Vertex higher incidence in patients with epilepsy or encephalopathyMonday, June 04, 2012 BCI 18
  19. 19. Electrode Placement Standard “10-20 System” Spaced apart 10-20% Letter for region • F - Frontal Lobe • T - Temporal Lobe • C - Center • O - Occipital Lobe Number for exact position • Odd numbers - left • Even numbers - right Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 19
  20. 20. Electrode Placement  A more detailed view: Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 20
  21. 21. Area of implementationMedical science Enabling disabled people o Vision and hearing o Paralysis treatment o Prosthetic devices (legs, hands etc) o Provide a means of communication to completely paralyzed patients o Surgically implanted devices used as replacement for paralyzed patients 04, 2012 BCI Monday, June 21
  22. 22. General applicationControl a robotPlaying gamesFor physically weak persons to handle the computerCursor control o Allow those with poor muscle control to o communicate and control physical devices Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 22
  23. 23. Example of BCIapplication A phsically handicapped man operates a BCI wheelchair Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 23
  24. 24. More examples Japanese student walking in the virtual world with the character controlled by his brain waves.A single handed maninterfaced with BCI Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 24
  25. 25. ADVANTAGES• BCIs will help creating a Direct communication between a human or animal brain and computers.• Also it provides better living, more features, more advancement in technologies etc.• High Precision (can be used reliably)• Low bandwidth Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 25
  26. 26. Difficulty in Implementationof BCI: COST require for BCI is very high. It is RISKy, because it operates with brain. Effective BCI technique requires invasive method. Requires magnetically shielded room and special kind of helmet. It is SLOW Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 26
  27. 27. BCI INNOVATORS  Pioneers  Nasa  Cyberkinetics neurotechnology system,  Japanese reaserch teamMonday, June 04, 2012 BCI 27
  28. 28. Future developments Better signal detection Shortening training time Improvinglearning (neurobiological and psychological basis) New recording methods (NIRS, ECoG) Broaderrange of applications (interface to commercially available assistive devices; treatment of diseases) Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 28
  29. 29. Conclusion BCI is highly promising. Provide high standard of living. Extend our limits. Impart a new level to the popular quote- “I think therefore I am!” Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 29
  30. 30. Monday, June 04, 2012 BCI 30