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Brain Computer Interface and Artificial Brain: Interfacing Microelectronics and the Human Visual System


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Signals from the brain can be processed to improve quality of human life. Such is the aim of biotechnology, to harness cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies that can improve human life. How can brain computer interface (BCI) and artificial brain achieve that?

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Brain Computer Interface and Artificial Brain: Interfacing Microelectronics and the Human Visual System

  1. 1. BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE AND ARTIFICIAL BRAIN: INTERFACING MICROELECTRONICS AND THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM Mapúa Institute of Technology // 4th term, SY 2013-2014 // BIO20-1/A7 Rigor, Lady Krista V. // YANG, Reth Jeron H.
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Definition of Terms  Human Visual System  Brain Computer Interface  Artificial Brain  Summary  Final quote  Download links
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Biology TechnologyBiotechnology Human Eye Brain Computer Interface Artificial Brain Microelectronics Brain Computer Interface and Artificial Brain: Interfacing Microelectronics and the Human Visual System
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF TERMS  biotechnology  technology based on biology  harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet  used in diseases, environmental footprint, food, energy, and industrial manufacturing processes
  5. 5. DEFINITION OF TERMS  interface  shared boundary or connection between two dissimilar objects, devices or systems through which information is passed  the physical boundary between two subsystems or devices  a part or circuit in some subsystem that sends or receives signals to or from other systems or subsystems
  6. 6. DEFINITION OF TERMS  electronics  a branch of physics that deals with the emission, behavior, and effects of electrons and with electronic devices  semiconductors: diodes, transistors  microelectronics  study and manufacture of very small electronic designs and components  ICs
  7. 7. HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM: HOW DO WE SEE? 1. Light is focused primarily by the cornea. 2. The iris controls the amount of light reaching the back of the eye by automatically adjusting the size of the pupil. 3. The eye's crystalline lens is located directly behind the pupil and further focuses light. This lens helps the eye automatically focus on near and approaching objects. 4. The light reaches the retina which converts optical images into electronic signals. 5. The optic nerve then transmits these signals to the visual cortex the part of the brain that controls our sense of sight.
  9. 9. HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM: SENDING THE SIGNAL 1. Optic nerve 2. Optic chiasm 3. Optic tract 4. Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) 5. Optic radiation 6. Visual cortex
  11. 11. BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE Introduction Description Process Types of BCI Bionic Eye Video
  12. 12. BCI: INTRODUCTION  BCI is a system for controlling a device such as computer by human intention which does not output pathway of peripheral nerves and muscle.
  13. 13. BCI: DESCRIPTION  It is the process of interacting between human brain and machines such as computer  Allow disabled patients to control a computer by conscious changes of brain activity  Provide a means of communication to completely paralyzed person  Can be used to control or select
  14. 14. BCI: PROCESS
  15. 15. TYPES OF BCI  invasive  implant electrodes directly onto a  non-invasive  scanning devices that read brain signal
  16. 16. BIONIC EYE  The first advanced prototype:  contains 98 electrodes  is capable of allowing patient to distinguish light and dark  can help patient navigate around large objects  could improve the quality of life for the patients with severe mobility and light perception issues
  17. 17. BIONIC EYE
  18. 18. ARTIFICIAL BRAIN Description Neuromorphic Hardware Neural network simulation Related Research Other projects Implications
  19. 19. AB: DESCRIPTION  also called artificial mind and artificial general intelligence (strong AI)  used to describe research that aims to develop software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain  According to Markram and Kurzweil, the whole brain simulation could be completed around 2020
  20. 20. NEUROMORPHIC HARDWARE  DARPA SyNAPSE Program  Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics  an electronic microprocessor system that matches a mammalian brain in function, size, and power consumption  a digital neurosynaptic core is used to process neurons  memristor chip is used for simultaneous memory storage and logic processing
  21. 21. NEURAL NETWORK SIMULATION  Blue Brain Project  attempt to reverse engineer the human brain and recreate it at the cellular level inside a computer simulation  goal: to gain a complete understanding of the brain and to enable better and faster development of brain disease treatments  may exceed human intellectual capacity by around 2015  we will be able to download the human brain at some time around 2050
  22. 22. NEURAL NETWORK SIMULATION  Blue Brain Project  data is acquired by taking brain slices, placing them under microscope, and taking needed measurements  typed by morphology/shape, electrophysiological behaviour, location within the cortex, and their population density  observations are translated to algorithms  simulation by NEURON  visualization by RTNeuron  Blue Gene/P supercomputer
  23. 23. RELATED RESEARCH  Google X  secretive part of Google that experiments with ambitious future technologies  thought to include projects relating to artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics  co-founders of Google both said that their ultimate aim is for Google Search to become AI-complete  Google Glass, driverless car, Majel (virtual assistant in Android phones like Siri)
  24. 24. OTHER PROJECTS  Neuromorphic hardware  SpiNNaker Machine, BrainScaleS project, CogniMem, Brain Corporation, Neurogrid, Biomimetric Real-time Cortex (BioRC), MIT's Silicon Synapse, Intel's neuromorphic hardware  Neural network simulation  Spaun, DigiCortex, OpenWorm, IBM Neural Simulator, Synthetic Cognition at LANL  Related research  Vicarious, OpenCog, MoNETA, Neurona@Home, Russia2045
  25. 25. IMPLICATIONS  Two things can only happen:  Quality of life will be greatly improved  Robots might take over the world
  26. 26. SUMMARY  Biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet.  processes before we can see using our eyes.  BCI using signals from the brain. Bionic eye is created using BCI.  There are still ongoing projects on forming artificial brain. Once completed, it could either be constructive or destructive to human life.
  27. 27. FINAL QUOTE Everything we do, every thought we've ever had, is produced by the human brain. But exactly how it operates remains one of the biggest unsolved mysteries, and it seems the more we probe its secrets, the more surprises we find.  Neil deGrasse Tyson