Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs 
Presented by 
Asma Jabeen 
M.Phil Psychology
 Quasi is 
◦ “resembling” 
 Quasi experiments involve procedures 
that resemble those of true experiments.
Include intervention 
or treatments but 
lack degree of 
“control”. 
e.g. Lack of 
Randomization
Why do we need quasi experiments 
?
Types of Quasi Experiments 
One group pre-test post-test design 
Non equivalent control group design 
Interrupted time ser...
 One group pretest- post test design 
represents a 
pre- experimental design 
 May be called a bad experiment 
O1 X O2 
...
History 
Maturation 
Testing 
Instrumentation 
Experimenter 
expectancy effects 
Novelty effects
Nonequivalent Control group 
design(Campbell & Stanley, 
1966)
 Manipulation of the independent variable 
 Pretest for all of the comparison groups 
 Posttest for all of the comparis...
It was hypothesized that 
Environmental changes associated with old 
age contribute, in part, to the feelings of 
lose, ...
 Responsibility induced 
condition. 
 Participants were given 
a plant to take care of 
it(if they decided to 
accept it...
 Questionnaire were given that contained 
the items related to “ how much control 
they felt over general events in their...
Results 
 Residents in responsibility induced 
group were more happier, active and 
alert. 
 Movie attendance favored 
r...
It was suggested that negative consequences of 
aging can be reversed or reduced by giving the 
elderly opportunity to mak...
Threats to the internal validity in non equivalent 
control groups 
(Langer and Rodin Study ) 
Non equivalent control grou...
External Validity 
 Replication of the study is necessary 
 One researcher must live with the fact that one 
study is no...
Activity # 1
Interrupted time series design 
 A time series is simply a set of 
measurements of a variable taken at 
various points in...
 An interrupted time-series design, a time series 
like this (the dependent variable) is interrupted 
(usually near the m...
Graph showing effect of changing 
paint color on students mood during 
semester
 Simple interrupted time series design 
can be used to assess the effect of a 
treatment in a situation such as when 
 A...
Graph showing suspension of 
license after reforms
Threats to internal validity and external validity
Time Series with Nonequivalent Control Group 
 In a time series with nonequivalent 
control group design, researchers mak...
Activity#2
 Easy to conduct 
 Lack of Randomization (no ethical concerns) 
 Can be performed in natural settings 
 Performed with...
 Potential for Non-Equivalent Groups 
 Potential for Low Internal Validity
Researches 
 Echabe, (2013) used quasi experiment to analyze the 
effect of the catastrophe of Japan on previous 
stereot...
 Participants were asked to indicate the extent to which they thought 
 A)Japan was more powerful and influential in the...
 the earthquake and its after-effects changed, at least temporarily, 
their perception of the power of Japan and the comp...
Cont… 
Impact of legislation requiring moped and 
motorbike riders to wear helmets (Balart & Riba 1995). 
Research design ...
References 
Ballart, X. & Riba , C. (1995). Impact of legislation requiring moped 
and motorbike riders to wear helmets. E...
Referenes 
Glass, G. V, Wilson, V. L., & Gottman, J. M. ( 1975). Design and 
analysis of time-series experiments. Boulder,...
Quasi Experimental Method
Quasi Experimental Method
Quasi Experimental Method
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Quasi Experimental Method

22,525 views

Published on

Quasi Experimental Research Design

Published in: Education
  • John Buffi is a retired police offer who lost his home to Superstorm Sandy. He now uses the "Demolisher" system to help take care of his 91-year-old father and children. John says: "My only statement is "WOW"...I thought your other systems were special but this is going to turn out to be the " Holy Grail" of all MLB systems, no doubt! ◆◆◆ http://t.cn/A6zP2wH9
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Dating for everyone is here: ♥♥♥ http://bit.ly/39mQKz3 ♥♥♥
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Dating direct: ❶❶❶ http://bit.ly/39mQKz3 ❶❶❶
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Quasi Experimental Method

  1. 1. Quasi-Experimental Research Designs Presented by Asma Jabeen M.Phil Psychology
  2. 2.  Quasi is ◦ “resembling”  Quasi experiments involve procedures that resemble those of true experiments.
  3. 3. Include intervention or treatments but lack degree of “control”. e.g. Lack of Randomization
  4. 4. Why do we need quasi experiments ?
  5. 5. Types of Quasi Experiments One group pre-test post-test design Non equivalent control group design Interrupted time series design Time series with non-equivalent control group designs
  6. 6.  One group pretest- post test design represents a pre- experimental design  May be called a bad experiment O1 X O2 e.g Children’s attitudes toward drugs.
  7. 7. History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Experimenter expectancy effects Novelty effects
  8. 8. Nonequivalent Control group design(Campbell & Stanley, 1966)
  9. 9.  Manipulation of the independent variable  Pretest for all of the comparison groups  Posttest for all of the comparison groups  No random assignment to the comparison groups (which as you can imagine is going to cause some problems with this design as compared to the strong “randomized” experimental designs.
  10. 10. It was hypothesized that Environmental changes associated with old age contribute, in part, to the feelings of lose, inadequacy, and low self esteem among the elderly. Quasi experiment was carried out in nursing home Two groups were used one experimental and one comparison group.
  11. 11.  Responsibility induced condition.  Participants were given a plant to take care of it(if they decided to accept it).  No responsibility induced condition  Participants were given a plant (whether they chose to have one or not), nurses have to take care of the plant
  12. 12.  Questionnaire were given that contained the items related to “ how much control they felt over general events in their life and how happy and active they felt (Langer & Rodin,1976)  Ratings by staff members on traits e.g alertness, sociability and activity.  Posttest measure of social interest by a competition  So there was a list of dependent variables perception of control happiness , activity, interest level and so forth.
  13. 13. Results  Residents in responsibility induced group were more happier, active and alert.  Movie attendance favored responsibility induced group  10 residents from this group entered in jelly bean competition but only one from control group.
  14. 14. It was suggested that negative consequences of aging can be reversed or reduced by giving the elderly opportunity to make personal decisions and to feel competent
  15. 15. Threats to the internal validity in non equivalent control groups (Langer and Rodin Study ) Non equivalent control group designs generally control for all the major classes of potential threats to the internal validity excepts those due to additive effects of  Selection-maturation  Selection-history  Selection-instrumentation  Differential statistical regression (Cook & Cambell, 1979).
  16. 16. External Validity  Replication of the study is necessary  One researcher must live with the fact that one study is not likely to answer all questions about a research hypothesis
  17. 17. Activity # 1
  18. 18. Interrupted time series design  A time series is simply a set of measurements of a variable taken at various points in time.  e.g mood of students during semester
  19. 19.  An interrupted time-series design, a time series like this (the dependent variable) is interrupted (usually near the middle) by the manipulation of the independent variable. O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 X O6 O7 O8 O9 O10  multiple pretests  a treatment (i.e., an intervention to be studied)  multiple posttests (Gribbons & Herman, 1997)
  20. 20. Graph showing effect of changing paint color on students mood during semester
  21. 21.  Simple interrupted time series design can be used to assess the effect of a treatment in a situation such as when  A new product is introduced  A new social reform is instituted  Special advertising begun
  22. 22. Graph showing suspension of license after reforms
  23. 23. Threats to internal validity and external validity
  24. 24. Time Series with Nonequivalent Control Group  In a time series with nonequivalent control group design, researchers make a series of observations before and after treatment for both a treatment group and a comparable comparison group. O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 X O6 O7 O8 O9 O10 ------------------------------------------------ O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8 O9 O10
  25. 25. Activity#2
  26. 26.  Easy to conduct  Lack of Randomization (no ethical concerns)  Can be performed in natural settings  Performed with groups  Efficient in longitudinal study  Provide comparisons ( treatment and control groups)
  27. 27.  Potential for Non-Equivalent Groups  Potential for Low Internal Validity
  28. 28. Researches  Echabe, (2013) used quasi experiment to analyze the effect of the catastrophe of Japan on previous stereotypes about Japanese people sample, entitled Stereotype, emotion, and behavior: a quasi-experiment on the effects of Japan’s earthquake.  Sample  N= 238 adults  Two phases of the study  126 adults (month and a half to a week before earth quake  112 adults two weeks to month and a half after earth quake.
  29. 29.  Participants were asked to indicate the extent to which they thought  A)Japan was more powerful and influential in the world that their own country  B) had incompatible and conflicting political and economic goals and interests relative to their own country or  Participants were then asked to express their image (stereotype) of Japanese people (warmth & competent)  Participants were also asked to express their overall attitude toward Japanese people
  30. 30.  the earthquake and its after-effects changed, at least temporarily, their perception of the power of Japan and the compatibility between its interests and those of participants’ own country.  As a result, the stereotype of Japanese people became warmer but less competent.  The emotional reactions aroused by Japanese people became more positive. After these events, participants felt more respect and sympathy and less disdain and indifference.  Finally, the participants manifested a stronger willingness for cooperation and lower disposition toward competition and avoidance
  31. 31. Cont… Impact of legislation requiring moped and motorbike riders to wear helmets (Balart & Riba 1995). Research design Interrupted time series design with non equivalent groups to investigate the effect of these measures on the number of serious injuries and number of deaths. The results indicate a significant decrease in the number of serious cases in the treated group (smaller motorcycles and mopeds) , which does not occur in the control group (larger motorcycles).
  32. 32. References Ballart, X. & Riba , C. (1995). Impact of legislation requiring moped and motorbike riders to wear helmets. Evaluation and Program Planning,18 (4), 311-320 Campbell, D., & J. Stanley. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental Designs. Chicago: Rand McNally. Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues for field settings. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books/about/Quasi_experimentation.ht ml?id=OKdEAAAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y Echabe, A. E. (2013).Stereotype, emotion, and behavior: a quasi-experiment on the effects of Japan’s earthquake. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 2083–2089. doi: 10.1111/jasp.1216.
  33. 33. Referenes Glass, G. V, Wilson, V. L., & Gottman, J. M. ( 1975). Design and analysis of time-series experiments. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. Gribbons, B., & Herman, J. (1997). True and quasi-experimental designs. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 5(14). Retrieved from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=14 Shaughnessey, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2012). Research methods in Psychology. USA: McGraw-Hill company.

×