water level indicator alarm


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water level indicator alarm

  1. 1. 1 KALASALINGAM UNIVERSITY Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering WATER LEVEL ALARM INDICATORSubmitted By: Guided By:Anish Anand Mr. M. K. Parmathma9911005012 Assistant ProfessorECE „A‟ ECE , KLUAug-12
  2. 2. 2 COMPONENTS REQUIRED IC:-ICNE555 Resistor:-R1(1K),R2(100K) Buzzer:-K1 Capacitor :-C1(2.2µ,63V) Battery:-12Volts Aug-12
  3. 3. 3CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Aug-12
  4. 4. 4 CIRCUIT OPERATION Here is a simple water level alarm circuit that will producean audible alarm when the water level reaches a preset level. The circuit can be powered of a (3 to 12V) battery and is veryhandy to use. The circuit is based on an astable multivibrator wired around IC1(NE 555). The operating frequency of the astable multivibrator here willdepend on capacitor C1, resistances R1,R2 and the resistance acrossthe probes A&B. Aug-12
  5. 5. 5 When there is no water up to the probes,they will be open and sothe multivibrator will not produce oscillations and the buzzer will notbeep. When there is water up to the level of probes,some current willpass through the water,the circuit will be closed to some extend,andthe IC will start producing oscillations in a frequency proportional tothe value of C1,R1,R2 and the resistance of water across the probes. The buzzer will beep to indicate the presence of water up to thelevel of the sensing probes. Aug-12
  8. 8. 8 IC NE555 The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as aflip-flop element. It is a very commonly used IC for generating accurate timing pulses. It is an 8pin timer IC and has mainly two modes of operation:monostable and astable. In monostable mode time delay of the pulses can be preciselycontrolled by an external resistor and a capacitor whereas in astablemode the frequency & duty cycle are controlled by two external resistorsand a capacitor. Aug-12
  9. 9. 9 IC NE555 [PIN DIAGRAM] PIN 1 “GROUND” low level (0 V) PIN 2 “TRIGGER” Voltage below 1/3 Vcc to trigger the pulse PIN 3 “OUT” Pulsating output Aug-12
  10. 10. 10 PIN 4 “RESET” interrupts the timing interval at Output. PIN 5 “CONTROL VOLTAGE” Provides access to the internalvoltage divider; default 2/3 Vcc. PIN 6 “THRESHOLD “ The pulse ends when the voltage isgreater than Control. PIN 7 “DISCHARGE ” Open collector output; to discharge thecapacitor. PIN 8 “VCC” Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V. Aug-12
  11. 11. 11 RESISTOR Resistor is a passive component used to control current in a circuit. Its resistance is given by the ratio of voltage applied across itsterminals to the current passing through it. Thus a particular value of resistor, for fixed voltage, limits the currentthrough it. They are omnipresent in electronic circuits. The different value of resistances are used to limit the currents or get thedesired voltage drop according to the current-voltage rating of the device tobe connected in the circuit. Aug-12
  12. 12. 12 buzzer The piezo buzzer produces sound based on reverse of thepiezoelectric effect. The generation of pressure variation or strain by the application ofelectric potential across a piezoelectric material is the underlyingprinciple. These buzzers can be used alert a user of an event correspondingto a switching action, counter signal or sensor input. They are also used in alarm circuits. The buzzer produces a same noisy sound irrespective of the voltagevariation applied to it. Aug-12
  13. 13. 13 It consists of piezo crystals between two conductors. When a potential is applied across these crystals, they push on oneconductor and pull on the other. This, push and pull action, results in a sound wave. Most buzzersproduce sound in the range of 2 to 4 kHz. The Red lead is connected to the Input and the Black lead isconnected to Ground. Aug-12
  14. 14. 14 CAPACITOR Capacitor is a widely used electronic component. It stores electriccharge and then discharges it into the circuit. It blocks the direct current and allows the alternating current topass through it. A capacitor contains two conductor plates which are generallymade of metal and an insulator between them. The two plates are electrically connected to the external circuitwith the help of two thin metal rods also known as the legs of thecapacitor. One is connected with positive voltage and other one with negativevoltage. A capacitor is characterized by the parameter capacitance.Capacitance is measured as ratio of difference of charges betweenthe plates and total voltage drop between the plates. Aug-12
  15. 15. 15 BATTERY[12V] It is a collection of one or more electrochemical cells in whichstored chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. The principles of operation haven‟t changed much since the timeof Volta. Each cell consists of two half cells connected in series through anelectrolytic solution. One half cell houses the Anode to which the positive ions migratefrom the Electrolyte and the other houses the Cathode to whichthe negative ones drift. The two cells are may be connected via a semi permeablemembranous structure allowing ions to flow but not the mixing ofelectrolytes as in the case of most primary cells or in the samesolution as in secondary cells. Aug-12
  16. 16. 16 application & advantages Water level indicator is used in applications like storagetanks, boilers etc. to indicate level of water inside. Easily indicate when water level is full in tank with beepSound. Low cost Aug-12
  17. 17. 17Aug-12
  18. 18. THANK YOU THE END ANY QUERIES??? Rx Aug-12