David Gauntlett• “identities are not ‘given’ but areconstructed and negotiated.”• “Identity is complicated. Everybodythinks they’ve got one. Artists play withthe idea of identity in modern society.”
Kruger, Rayner and Wall“narrative is an important sourceof reassurance in a hostileuniverse.”
Some narrative techniques• Enigma – a puzzle, a narrative technique designed tointrigue the viewer and encourage them to watch further.• Retardation – Holding back key information from theaudience so they are unsure what is happening and likely towatch further to find out.• Ellipsis - a basic narrative technique used in classicalcontinuity editing which sees time compressed in order forthe narrative to progress more quickly (editing out the boringbits!)• Twist – an unexpected turn of events designed to shock theaudience.
Classic Hollywood Narrative• This is a typical Hollywood narrativestructure, whereby the story is driven by theprotagonist (main character) and there is astrong sense of closure: all enigmas that areraised are resolved at the end. You need to beaware of this traditional structure so you cancomment when a film does not do this, e.g. itleaves some loose ends or leaves the audience insuspense. Examples are The Italian Job orLock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels.
Causality• This is the term given to the relationshipbetween two events. It is what makes a narrative.For example, the king dying and then his wifedying is not a narrative. There has to be somekind of cause and effect. Therefore, the kingdying and the queen dying of grief is a narrative.If you find this hard to remember, just try toremember that narratives are made up of causeand effect and you won’t go far wrong.