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Impada o1 a2-focus groups data analysis

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Focus_groups_data analysis; Intellectual Output realized within the project IMPADA - Improving the Effectiveness of Adult Education for Disadvantaged Groups. Erasmus Plus KA2 PROJECT. http://www.impada.eu/

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Impada o1 a2-focus groups data analysis

  1. 1. IMPADA Focus groups data analysis Output type: Intellectual Output PROMEA May, 2016
  2. 2. 2 Project acronym: IMPADA Project name: Improving the effectiveness of adult education for disadvantaged groups Project code: 2015-1-UK01-KA204-013666 Document History Versions Date Changes Type of change Delivered by Version 1.0 29/02/2016 Initial document - PROMEA Version 1.1 17/05/2016 Revision Amended annexes PROMEA Document Information Document ID name: IMPADA_O1-A2_Focus groups data analysis _2016_05_17 Document title: Focus groups data analysis Output Type: Intellectual Output Date of Delivery: 17/05/2016 Activity Type: Report Activity Leader: PROMEA Dissemination level: Public Disclaimer The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. The project resources contained herein are publicly available under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International.
  3. 3. Contents 1. Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................5 1.1 Purpose and context of the document.......................................................................................................5 1.2 Focus groups description................................................................................................................................5 2. Methodological approach of the focus groups analysis ...............................................................9 2.1 Categorical content analysis..........................................................................................................................9 2.2 Description of the analysis procedure and presentation style .......................................................10 3. Presentation of the analysis categories and subcategories ....................................................11 3.1 Question 1 ...............................................................................................................................................................11 3.2 Question 2 ...............................................................................................................................................................14 3.3 Question 3 ...............................................................................................................................................................18 3.4 Question 4 ...............................................................................................................................................................20 3.5 Question 5 ...............................................................................................................................................................21 3.6 Question 6 ...............................................................................................................................................................24 3.7 Question 7 ...............................................................................................................................................................25 3.8 Question 8 ...............................................................................................................................................................26 4. Synopsis of the categorical analysis of the focus groups .........................................................27 4.1 Presentation of the main qualitative and quantitative outcomes .....................................................27 5. Annex ..................................................................................................................................................................32 5.1 PROMEA’s synthesized focus group data form ..........................................................................................32 5.2 DACES’s synthesized focus group data form............................................................................................39 5.3 ENAEA’s synthesized focus group data form ............................................................................................71 5.4 IBE’s synthesized focus group data form ....................................................................................................77 5.5. UPTER’s synthesized focus group data form...........................................................................................100
  4. 4. 4 Acronyms & abbreviations IMPADA consortium DACES Derbyshire Adult Community Education Service IBE Educational Research Institute UPTER People’s University of Rome ENAEA Estonian Non-formal Adult Education Association PROMEA Hellenic Association for the promotion of Research & Development Methodologies Other abbreviations AF Application Form EACEA Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency SC Steering Committee ECORYS The British National Agency
  5. 5. 5 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose and context of the document The purpose of this document, is to present the categorical analysis of the 5 focus groups conducted in the 5 partnership countries, within the context of the IMPADA project’s Intellectual Output O1 (activity O1-A2), namely “Criteria for measuring adult education effectiveness on disadvantaged groups”. This focus groups analysis report aims to support the purpose of Intellectual Output O1, which is to elaborate criteria that influence the effectiveness of adult education providers towards disadvantaged learners. The qualitative data presented in this document provide evidence to support IBE in the drafting of a report on the criteria for measuring adult education effectiveness on disadvantages. 1.2 Focus groups description Following the work plan of the IMPADA project as described in the Application Form, and the methodology instructions and methodological tools provided in the methodology report developed by PROMEA, the partnership conducted 5 focus groups (of 1.30-2.30 h duration), in each partnership country. The participants of the focus groups where: a) adult education experts, and b) decision makers in the field of adult education, ideal for providing exclusive insight on the elaboration of criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of adult education for disadvantage groups. Key individuals from the field of Adult Education were nominated and invited by the partnership organizations, taking into account their high level of expertise and familiarity with the topic. The following table presents the number and main characteristics of participants for each focus group conducted by each partner organization.
  6. 6. 6 Project Partner Number of focus group participants Responsibility and subject related expertise DACES 9 P1: Position/Expertise: Programme Development Worker and ICT Tutor. Specialist in planning and delivering employment and work-ready programmes and setting up individualised learning programmes for learners aged 14-19 with complex learning barriers/difficulties/disabilities. Experienced in using Social Pedagogical approaches with learner groups. P2: Position/Expertise: Programme Development Manager. Managing Learner Support provision for adults who require additional learning support. Extensive experience in working with vulnerable groups of learners, particularly in Family Learning and basic literacy and numeracy. P3: Position/Expertise: Adult Education Tutor. Specialist in teaching IT and employability skills to extremely vulnerable unemployed adults. Former Secondary School Head teacher, teaching children aged 11-18. P4: Position/Expertise: Learning and Skills Manager with responsibility for planning and developing Engagement and Inclusion provision across the County – to include planning learning for targeted disadvantaged groups, to include Care Leavers, Adults with Learning Difficulties and Disabilities and targeted Family Learning. An active member of DACES’ Equality, Diversity and Inclusion action group. P5: Position/Expertise: Programme Development Worker. Manages Learner Support across the East of the County – which has the most disadvantaged wards and learners. Extensive experience of working with vulnerable groups of learners, including offenders and ex-offenders. Is one of 3 members of staff who is trained to screen learners for dyslexia and other learning difficulties, and linking with exam boards/awarding bodies to enable these learners additional time/resources in National examinations. An active member of DACES Equality, Diversity and
  7. 7. 7 Inclusion action group. P6: Position/Expertise: Programme Development Manager, specialist in programming employability and work-ready programmes for vulnerable and disadvantaged learners. An active member of DACES Equality, Diversity and Inclusion action group. P7: Position/Expertise: Art Tutor, Learner Support Assistant and Assessor. Extensive experience working directly with disadvantaged learners, especially young learners with very complex learning behaviors and barriers, on the Pre-Apprenticeship Support/Study Programme. P8: Position/Expertise: Learner Support Assistant and Examination Invigilator with specialist skills in maths, English and ICT. Extensive experience working directly and supporting disadvantaged adult learners. Also works for a Mental Health support charity. P9: Position/Expertise: Programme Development Manager and East Area lead for Employability and Workplace learning; Adult Education Tutor, assessor and IQA (Internal Quality Assurance) verifier/moderator. Very extensive experience in working with and developing programmes for disadvantaged learners. Plans, develops and delivers staff training to tutors and Learner Support Assistants on effectively embedding EDI practice into teaching, learning and assessment. Member of EDI action group. An active member of DACES Equality, Diversity and Inclusion action group. IBE 6 1. Psychologist, therapist and expert in the field of adult education for people with autism and Asperger’s syndrome. 2. Psychologist, expert in the field of adult education, First Vice-Chairman of The Foundation for Social and Economic Initiatives
  8. 8. 8 3. Trainer, coach, former career counselor, expert in the field of adult education (including e.g., education for people aged 50 years and over), Member of the Board of Polish Association of School and Career Counselors 4. Expert in the field of education, responsible for developing implementation rules of adult education programs – Polish Ministry of Development, Department of European Social Fund 5. Position/Expertise: Trainer, coach, expert in the field of adult education, Chairman of the Board of Polish Chamber of Training Companies 6. Expert in the field of European cooperation in education (including Lifelong Learning Strategy) – Polish Ministry of Education, Department of Strategy and International Cooperation UPTER 7 1. Professor Adult Education, Rome University 2. Epale Ambassador; Adviser Municipality of Bologna 3. Project Manager; Guiding Counsellor for entrepreneurial choice 4. Third Sector Organizations’ Manager 5. Expert in policies of multi-ethnicity and integration of immigrants 6. Freelancer - Monitoring and evaluating European projects, education and migration area 7. Psychologist ENAEA 6 P1: Position/Expertise: headmaster of Adult Gymnasium (2nd chance school) P2: Position/Expertise: project manager /project for AL
  9. 9. 9 with lower education P3: Position/Expertise: project manager / projects for AL with lower education P4: Position/Expertise: headmaster of Adult Gymnasium (2nd chance school) P5: Position/Expertise: head of adult learning department P6: Position/Expertise: teacher PROMEA 6 1. Social psychologist, Professor Adult Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens 2. Professor Adult Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Project manager of Adult Education projects related to the ROMA group needs 3. Education expert and training provision evaluator, Professor Adult Education, Open University of Athens 4. Trainer, Adult Education expert 5. Trainer, Adult Education expert 6. Trainer, Adult Education expert 2. Methodological approach of the focus groups analysis 2.1 Categorical content analysis Data analysis for all focus groups was based on the data forms provided by each partner after the conduction and individual analysis of their own focus group. The content analysis of each focus group, was based on a synthesized data form/template for
  10. 10. 10 analysis, provided by PROMEA and followed a question by question, pre-defined structural categorization of themes in order to achieve a coherent and consistent categorical analysis style, shared among partners for the purposes of the IMPADA project and the idiosyncratic nature of an EU and culturally diverse partnership. The synthesized data analysis of all focus groups followed the content analysis approach. It involved coding participant’s open-ended talk into closed categories, which summarize and synthesized the data. The end point of the categorical content analysis was to illustrate each category by means of representative subcategories derived from the data forms, presented in the form of a table of main categories and subcategories following the question by question structure of the focus group interview guide. 2.2 Description of the analysis procedure and presentation style Following the methodology and instructions for the conduction of the focus provided by PROMEA, and the completion of all 5 focus groups by all partners (DACES, IBE, ENAEA, UPTER, PROMEA) in the 5 partnership countries, PROMEA proceeded to the final and synthesized analysis of the collected data based on the filled-in data forms sent by all partners. In particular, PROMEA:  Studied, compared and contrasted results by thematic categories of individual focus groups  Looked for emerging themes by question and then overall  Constructed typologies  Described findings using indicative titles to illustrate basic themes  Prepared the report using a bulleted style, organizing the narrative meanings of the collected data into themes  For the presentation of the categorical analysis followed a question by question sequence
  11. 11. 11 3. Presentation of the analysis categories and subcategories 3.1 Question 1 What could be improved in the adult education programmes for disadvantaged groups in order to improve its effectiveness? 1.1. Identification of learners’ needs and general inclusive practice (DACES, PROMEA, IBE, ENAEA, UPTER) - Understanding of particular educational needs according to the characteristics of each group of learners - Identification of learners needs using ethnographic and qualitative methods such as cultural mediators interference, in vivo interviews and observation - Surveying/door knocking local areas to identify local needs and spot/recruit unidentified local disadvantaged groups. - Motivation is the key to success – the component of change (learners’ beliefs and attitudes) should be prior to the component of delivering new knowledge and skills. - Consideration of inclusion of the disadvantaged into mainstream learning cohorts and bespoke provision with careful consideration to needs - Using Social Pedagogy to ensure personalised study - Flexible programme for Roll on Roll off learning - Collaborative setting of ground rules - Effective welcoming and induction of learners in the classroom - Acknowledgement of challenges and barriers to the general inclusive practice, including in time costs and planning - Extensive Learner Support Assistants in place, selected carefully to match learner needs/personality and not simply equal work to each educational programme. 1.2. Additional support for learners (DACES, PROMEA, ENAEA)
  12. 12. 12 - Support in place, that can be signposted and applied, including: childcare, financial (e.g. funding exams and transport costs), adaptive equipment, and especially study rooms available for missed attendance (e.g. illness, clashes with work schedule). - Check facilities for learners – not just statutory DDA compliance, but practically helpful e.g. hearing loops available etc. - Additional learner mentoring from staff (allocated at start of programme) including pastoral care out of class to encourage engagement and attention – especially for young disengaged learners. - “Buddy up” systems in class, with mixing of buddies (weekly) to increase integration, social/soft skills, achievements. 1.3. Partnership working – linking with public and private stakeholders (DACES, PROMEA, EANEA) - Adult education providers should work closely with a variety of local partners to understand local area needs. - Partnership working enables the most disadvantaged learners to be identified and supported into learning where they would not otherwise take the initiative/have the confidence to look for Adult Education programmes. - Partnership working to increase learner progression to other learning and services provided outside of the educational organisation offer. E.g. local colleges etc. - Better understanding of JobCentre+ regulations and systems to reduce incongruences of rules/ systems negatively impacting learners. - Noted that cuts in funding for local government and partners means less resource and time to form and nurture partnerships. - Noted that referrals from the JobCentre+ are placed on course and then JobCentre remove them (under threat of sanctions) partway through courses as now deemed fit to work, or schedule unmissable appointments during class times, thereby disrupting their learning. - Linking formal and non-formal learning 1.4. Local community provision (DACES)
  13. 13. 13 - Noted that many of the most disadvantaged learners can’t or won’t travel outside their immediate local area so need to bring more provision to them (specifically tailored to local needs). - Noted that this is especially an issue due to rural isolation and costs/availability of transport in rural areas. - An alternative proposed is to arrange and fund transport but this is not optimal compared with local provision (costs, time, learner reluctance). 1.5. Cost to learners (PROMEA, DACES) - Subsidized costs tailored to economic and community needs (to encourage the learners that most need it to enrol). - Provision of additional financial incentives to learners to get motivated to follow Adult Education courses. 1.6. Cost to service (DACES, PROMEA) - Resources are focused to where there is the most disadvantage, in line with funding. Reaching the most disadvantaged can be costly (especially in terms of time) to the service but the outcome of engaging these learners and improving their lives and the communities is worth it. - Discussion as to whether programmes should be mapped out according to need and then see whether they can be funded, or whether funding criteria come first and then areas with need are identified. - Discussion on the ability of training providers to find ways to get funding to support their programmes – strong debate point if this is effective and if should be included in the evaluation criteria of the training provision. 1.7. Customer Service and nurturing learners (DACES) - Customer service and nurturing skills from tutors and from Business Services centre staff. Ensuring that customer service is always excellent.
  14. 14. 14 - Discretion taken when cancelling classes due to low numbers – consider the implications for the learner (being put off attending in future) etc. when classes are cancelled. 1.8. Tutor skills (DACES, ENAEA) - Increase tutor knowledge and skills through EDI and inclusivity training, Social Pedagogy learning and skills in personalised programming. 1.9. Need to define ‘disadvantaged’ groups (UPTER, PROMEA) - Need to define what we mean by ‘disadvantaged groups’, because the evaluation of educational actions can be done only by taking into account the particular needs of individuals. 1.10. Context and pre-condition of Adult Education to disadvantaged groups (UPTER, IBE, ENAEA) - Develop a culture of Adult Education in public, especially in the most disadvantaged citizens. - Develop a culture of education of adults in local institutions in general, and especially in education to disadvantaged groups. - Raise awareness regarding the Adult Education of disadvantaged groups in the third sector organizations. - Change of Adult Education programmes’ mentality and paradigm ; from teaching to learning - Lack of continuity in the political approach of Adult Education for the disadvantaged 3.2 Question 2 What should be included in the adult education for the disadvantaged training programmes? Probe: What are the training needs of adult learners from disadvantaged groups?
  15. 15. 15 2.1. Focusing course aims on ‘soft’ skills and general well-being rather than just outcome qualifications (DACES, PROMEA, UPTER, ENAEA, IBE) - To include: communication, confidence, safeguarding, self-esteem, personal development. - Embed and encourage the use of learning opportunities to include healthy eating, relaxation, creativity, outdoor activities. - Moving from a traditional model only cognitive to one that includes the person in a holistic way. - Knowing the learners and making sure the content is appropriate to them, e.g. skills for local need in a rural area, and ensuring that contextual learning is appropriate to their lives and situations. - Active social life skills - Civil live and community skills 2.2. Improving learners’ progression routes (DACES, PROMEA, UPTER, IBE) - Focusing on the big picture of the learner journey. - Individualized approach/ Working with each learner to ensure they know what’s next for them, including linking with employability, and careers advice. - Linking educational projects to labour market – e.g., with mentors who have real opportunity to engage learners in activities of NGOs or private companies (including offering employment after the end of the project); it is important to schedule in such projects actions aimed at preparation mentors/leaders to perform this function. - Extending the use of free, accessible Making Choices courses to get disadvantaged (usually jobseekers) into learning. - Embedding ‘soft skills’ habits into learning to prepare learners for progression to other learning, work and everyday life and practice. - Supporting the learners need to belong in a community, and to be recognized as members of this community.
  16. 16. 16 2.3. Using Social Pedagogy - Supporting the process of learning (DACES, PROMEA, IBE) - Establishing one to one time with tutors to concentrate on each learner and their wider situation, not just reviews in class. - Applying buddying systems/ Identifying – in each group – those learners who are able to act as ‘knowledge distributors’. - Use of extensive and effective icebreakers for induction. - Pastoral care. - Use of cultural mediators to obtain information about learners needs from the inside during the educational process and after its completion. - Searching for 'knowledge distributors' also within learners’ social environment (including neighbors or local authorities). - Working with members of families (e.g., they could help trainer motivate learner to learn, as well as control his/her progress). 2.4. Programming - Flexibility: individual educational path for learners (DACES, IBE, PROMEA) - Should be pre-determined at the beginning of the process, but there should be also possibility of adapting it to the changing needs of learner (if necessary) – e.g. on the occasion of scheduled project’s checkpoints (perceived as opportunities to make decision whether the path should be modified – e.g., complemented by specific workshops – or remain unchanged). - Modularity: building educational paths with a wide palette/cafeteria of possibilities – so that each participant could follow the path adapted to his/her individual educational needs (the palette should include optional activities such as: various trainings, career counseling, coaching etc., various forms of activities – individual and collective). - Ensure that programming plans in learning in bite-sized chunks so that learners enjoy regular achievements. - Ensure that programming allows flexibility (e.g. work patterns, other commitments, zero hours contracts), including resource centre/drop ins for learners to use to work.
  17. 17. 17 2.5. Language skills (UPTER, PROMEA, DACES) - There is a difficulty in adults belonging to disadvantaged categories, in the ability to understand and use the language. This applies not only to immigrants, but also for categories that have less schooling, often linked to fewer economic opportunities and social hardship. 2.6. Embedding eLearning and IT (DACES, PROMEA, ENAEA) - Promoting the use of apps for English and maths skills, for learners on all programmes, and assistive apps e.g. Dragon for dyslexia. - Use of IT to enable flexible learning, blended learning and catch up while on programme - Overcoming tutor reluctance to use/promote IT through CPD, service marketing of IT - Extend/promote ‘borrow an iPad’ scheme. 2.7. Developing Parenting and Family skills (DACES, PROMEA) - To include Keeping Up with the Kids learning, Family Learning and parenting skills. - Use an ethnographic approach and cultural mediators to keep contact with learners who are parents to identify their parenting and family skills needs and to help them apply this kind of skills in their environment. 2.8. Supporting Personal planning and learning skills (DACES, ENAEA) - Embed personal planning skills across the curriculum, including financial inclusion, budgeting and household management. - Learning to learn courses 2.9. Focus of the labour market needs and Increased Joint Practice Development between practitioners (DACES, PROMEA, ENAEA) - Establish/ascertain focal coordination between partners in local areas to increase referrals of disadvantaged people, MATs.
  18. 18. 18 - Ensure curriculum planning to directly meet the needs of referrals from partner agencies. - More labor market related topics in the programmes - Good research, analysis and knowledge about labor market needs - Providing entrepreneurship education to learners 2.10. Learner reviews/tutorials (DACES, PROMEA) - Plan in less structured one to one or 3 way with LSA learner reviews so that wider challenges for disadvantaged (e.g. financial) can be identified, (and then later addressed to improve the effectiveness of the learning). 2.11. Uniqueness of Adult Education offer (DACES) - Ensure that the learning offer is not a duplication of what is available through other providers. - Work with local partners to tie together learning offer and refer. - Ensure that the learning offer is not generic and represents the geographical uniqueness – rurality as well as working within government funding priorities and national need. 3.3 Question 3 What kind of knowledge, skills and competences do trainers for adult learners need in order to provide effective education to learners from disadvantaged groups? 3.1. Empathy and understanding (DACES, PROMEA, ENAEA, UPTER, IBE) - Building relationships with learners - Awareness of learners diversity - High levels of tolerance and respect - Communications and listening skills - Ability to stimulate adult learners to have faith in their ability to learn and change - Ability to create relationships of trust with learners, as a pre-condition to the effectiveness of the learning process.
  19. 19. 19 - Approachable; Ability to reduce – by using the appropriate appearance and behavior – the distance between trainer/teacher and project’s participants (proper clothes, attitude, way to communicate etc.) - Personal skills: psychological resistance, inner-direction, sense of mission, ability to separate work from personal life, maturity, stability, high level of energy, mindfulness etc. 3.2. Teaching skills (DACES, PROMEA, UPTER, ENAEA, IBE) - Ability to teach through active methodologies and methods adapted to adult learners. - Knowledge of different learning styles and learner differences. - Ensuring the learning is flexible, dynamic and fun. - Experience as a key success factor (far more important than any kind of degree or diploma). - Classic training skills. - Coaching skills – including ability to ask the right questions. - Knowledge of motivation factors. - Ability to understand and influence the group process. - Ability to create training situations conducive for the group engagement. - Ability to create alternative learning situations. 3.3. Equality, diversity and inclusion skills (DACES, PROMEA, IBE) - Compulsory training on working with learners with the ‘‘9 protected characteristics’’. - Experience of working with people from a range of disadvantaged groups, e.g. autism, schizophrenia, bipolar, depression, anxiety and sharing good practice. - Compulsory training on Prevent, CSE, safeguarding. - Share good practice with inclusivity. - Skills and experience in working with and integrating younger learners. 3.4. Organisational, fundraising and community skills (ENAEA, PROMEA, UPTER)
  20. 20. 20 - Planning skills and skills in preparing programmes. - Skills to find ways to ensure and sustain funding for the running of programmes. - Ability to stimulate social change in the community and the territory as a constitutive aspect of educational action (educators as "territorial agitators"). 3.5. Provision of support to trainers (DACES, PROMEA, IBE) - Incentivizing and motivating tutors to upskill, partake in work shadowing and JPD and other good practice sharing (rather than just courses). - Provision of couching support, counselling, weekly individual or group meetings to discuss current personal and training issues. - Providing financial incentives from the organisation (which were identified as also helping tutors to feel valued) and intrinsic and career motivations. - Encouraging junior managers and tutorial staff to generate demand for and interest in initiatives, to enable them feel valued and to nurture staff creativity – then better impacting on the disadvantaged learners. - To provide to novice trainers/teachers many opportunities to participate in internships and perform real professional tasks with the support of experienced professionals. 3.4 Question 4 What kind of qualifications, should trainers hold in order to provide effective adult education to disadvantaged groups? 4.1. Teaching qualifications (DACES, PROMEA, IBE, ENAEA) - Must have level 4 or 5 subject qualification as a minimum. - Discussed that QTLS status still exists and guarantees yearly CPD, this is not currently requisite. 4.2. Subject knowledge (DACES, PROMEA) - Must be qualified to one level above that teaching or have significant experience as appropriate.
  21. 21. 21 4.3. Additional qualifications/developing competencies (DACES, PROMEA, UPTER) - Mental Health First Aid Training - Assessors qualifications - Prevent and safeguarding - EDI - CSE - Diversity and inclusion 4.4. Learner Support qualifications (DACES, IBE) - Bring back a requirement for LSAs to have a Learner Support qualification. This will incentivise applications. Noted that many applicants don’t have supporting adults experience, only nursery. - Establish a tiered system of Learner Support where established and qualified LSAs are at a higher level and can help and mentor other LSAs. - LSAs should also have Level 2 English and maths where possible. 4.5. Soft training qualifications (UPTER, PROMEA) - Training in some fundamental soft skills, with the aim of developing those relational and communication skills necessary to establish a relationship of trust, listening, and communication. - Awareness of having to do with adults, teaching specific ways. 4.6. Minimum Core: English, maths and ICT (DACES) - Tutors must have level 2 in English, maths and IT. Noted that English and maths at Level 2 are a requirement to sign up for the Certificate in Education and Training course. 3.5 Question 5 What characteristics should training institutions have in order to provide effective adult education for the disadvantaged?
  22. 22. 22 Probes: In terms of training staff, infrastructure, values, funding? Other? 5.1. Good organisation qualities and characteristics (DACES, PROMEA, ENAEA, UPTER, IBE) - An organisation known to listen to learner voice. - Takes action to make improvements based on feedback. - Feedback mechanisms after end of programme and after ½ a year. - Robust and effective Quality Assurance Procedures. - High learner confidence in the organisation as a result of all the above. - Respect and responsibility toward individuals. - Innovation and reliability (ability to demonstrate experience in effective management of educational projects). - Varied team (trainers and teachers) in terms of age, experiences and skills. - Flexible approach in learning activities (programmes). - Offering continuing education courses for teachers. 5.2. Experienced, dedicated staff, ensuring that they are looked after (DACES, PROMEA, UPTER, IBE, ENAEA) - Learner centred. - Effective and close-knit team. - Not financially motivated workforce. - Employer needs to meet the needs of the tutors so the good tutors feel valued, have flexibility as needed and dependable income as needed. - Encourage trainers/teachers to support each other in performing their everyday duties. Organizing periodic meetings enabling staff to talk about current issues and challenges, as well as new ideas and successes, should be a common good practice. 5.3. Infrastructure and venues in the community (DACES, PROMEA, IBE, ENAEA) - Infrastructure adapted to the specifics of implemented actions and to the needs of their participants (trainers, teachers and learners).
  23. 23. 23 - Small, accessible venues in the communities with the most disadvantage and the greatest need. - Learning that is based where the learners are (not necessitating travel to a campus). - Small scale and cozy buildings, less intimidating to disadvantaged than big institutions. 5.4. Successful training networks and partnerships (DACES, PROMEA, UPTER, IBE) - Good liaisons with the industry and labour stakeholders. - Collaboration with other educational stakeholders such as universities. - Strong connections with the community. 5.5. Marketing (DACES, PROMEA) - Discrete courses are not marketed at all and courses available to everyone are marketed but the USPs mentioned in all points raised are not utilised enough for marketing. 5.6. Class sizes (DACES) - Small classes – between 8-12 maximum intake depending on type of cohort – accessible and attractive to disadvantaged learners and means more support time for those in most need. 5.7. Interventionist approach (DACES) - Targeted advertising. - As part of a County Council, knowledge that helping disadvantaged people with early intervention will reduce cost on other services and society further down the line. - An ethos of ‘bending over backwards’ to meet the needs of learners. - USP of taking learners with high needs and from disadvantaged groups that their organisations e.g. colleges would leave behind in mainstream provision.
  24. 24. 24 3.6 Question 6 What could be improved in the adult education provided to disadvantaged groups in order to deal with the issue of group heterogeneity? 6.1. Effective teaching (DACES, UPTER, PROMEA, ENAEA) - Finding out about learner backgrounds and experiences. - Setting and maintaining targets. - Using Social Pedagogy. - Using teaching points/contextual learning topics where disadvantaged learners have the knowledge/experience. - Community learning. - The potential for moving outside of a courses/class model into community projects to engage people that might not be attracted by a traditional course format and so skills can be exchanged. - The active teaching methods and approaches to work with heterogeneous groups, to hold together the needs of the individual and the group. 6.2. Targeted appropriate support and differentiation (DACES, PROMEA, IBE, ENAEA) - Good understanding of individual needs for each group of learners. - Pairs and buddying Mentoring. - Childcare and other support. - Financial support. - Flexible and targeted learning resources. - Meeting individual learner needs using a personalized approach. - Learning achievements are individual, effective extension activities and overt differentiation that is person centred and not just level labelled. - Recognition of prior knowledge of the groups of learners. 6.3. Ethnographic approach (PROMEA, DACES, IBE) - Use of ethnographic methods (interviews, observation, cultural mediators) to understand each group of learners’ needs.
  25. 25. 25 - Links with the community. The community development approach includes, in a structural attention to the heterogeneity, coexistence and dialogue of differences. - Effective and flexible icebreakers according to group characteristics e.g. What’s in the news? - Non-judgmental teaching attitudes. - Challenging stereotypes. - Agreed and learner owned ground rules - Focus on the kinds of problems to solve, rather than on characteristics of specific groups dealing with this problems. 6.4. Behavioural safety (DACES) - Effective implementation of Safer Learner. - Risk assessments. - Level the playing field. 3.7 Question 7 As concerns the effect of adult education provision in the learners’ life: what are the areas that could provide input for the assessment of the education provided? 7.1. Measures of soft skills (DACES, PROMEA, IBE) - To include: Confidence, Anxiety, Friendship, Social skills, Self-belief, Mental health, Physical health, Wellbeing, Attendance, Better routine. - Use of the RARPA process to make soft skills measurable. - Active participation in social life. 7.2. Progression and destinations (DACES, PROMEA, IBE) - Follow up with learners after the end of the course – what else would be suitable for them individually? - Understanding that learning one subject can open up possibility – different for each learner and in different but mutually beneficial ways. - Continuing further adult education programmes.
  26. 26. 26 - Improvement and use of ICT skills. 7.3. Employability – life transformation (DACES, PROMEA, IBE) - Employability as a key measure, but not the only measure, see soft skills. - Holistic approach to the learners – working with partners to help people change their lives. 7.4. Family learning and Bringing up the Kids (DACES, PROMEA) - Family learning linked with social cohesion. - Use of cultural mediators to keep contact with the learners and follow up on their progress in family issues and bringing up children. 7.5. Celebrating achievement (DACES) - Ensuring that all learners’ achievements are celebrated locally and more widely e.g county and National Adult Learners’ Week. 3.8 Question 8 Do you have any other ideas, proposals, suggestions, and second thoughts on the improvement of criteria for adult education effectiveness on disadvantaged? 8.1. Ongoing support and follow up support after the end of the course (DACES, PROMEA, ENAEA) - The importance of checking progressions months after the end of course to make sure that the learning was effective, identify improvements and to add to the learners’ journey/signpost where appropriate. 8.2. Marketing (DACES, PROMEA) - Better marketing and dissemination of the educational programmes to reach the targeted learners. - More extensive use of social media and YouTube. - More dedicated marketing staff out in the community.
  27. 27. 27 8.3. Developing entrepreneurial skills (DACES, ENAEA) - Learners building resilience through risk taking and creativity. - Teaching entrepreneurial skills as well as the subject, e.g. Dry Stine Walling. - Recognising that a lot of disadvantaged learners have entrepreneurial skills from car boot/eBay selling etc. and that this is a route out of benefits for some. - Recognise relying on JobCentre referrals might miss some disadvantaged people who are entrepreneurs. 8.4. Signposting (DACES) - A key tutor skill is knowing how to signpost effectively and knowing a big range of signposting options. - Using gateway opportunities e.g. Making Choices to get people into learning and then signpost more learning and support. 8.5. Outdoor learning/outdoor classrooms (DACES) - Recognising that learning opportunities and experiences don’t have to be confined indoors or in typical class formats. 8.6. The voice from the previous cohort (DACES) - Potential to invite representative from previous cohort to talk to new learners at the beginning of the course. 4. Synopsis of the categorical analysis of the focus groups 4.1 Presentation of the main qualitative and quantitative outcomes The question by question analysis of the 5 focus groups in main categories can be presented qualitatively (main categories/themes per question) and quantitatively
  28. 28. 28 (instances; number of partners that appeared to have discussed the theme in the focus group they organized in their country) as follows in the table. Code Main categories/themes – Qualitative analysis Instances (n/5) Question 1 1.1 Identification of learners’ needs and general inclusive practice 5 1.2 Additional support for learners e.g. in place support, “Buddy up” systems in class, social skills, integration etc. 3 1.3 Partnership working – linking with public and private stakeholders 3 1.4 Local community provision 1 1.5 Cost to learners 2 1.6 Cost to service 2 1.7 Customer Service and nurturing learners 1 1.8 Tutor skills 2 1.9 Need to define ‘disadvantaged’ groups 2 1.10 Context and pre-condition of Adult Education to disadvantaged groups 3 Question 2 2.1 Focusing course aims on ‘soft’ skills and general well-being rather than just outcome qualifications 5 2.2 Improving learners’ progression routes 4 2.3 Using Social Pedagogy - Supporting the process of learning 3 2.4 Programming - Flexibility: individual educational path for learners 3 2.5 Language skills 3
  29. 29. 29 2.6 Embedding eLearning and IT 3 2.7 Developing Parenting and Family skills 2 2.8 Supporting Personal planning and learning skills 2 2.9 Focus of the labour market needs and Increased Joint Practice Development between practitioners 3 2.10 Learner reviews/tutorials 2 2.11 Uniqueness of Adult Education offer 1 Question 3 3.1 Empathy and understanding 5 3.2 Teaching skills 5 3.3 Equality, diversity and inclusion skills 3 3.4 Organisational, fundraising and community skills 3 3.5 Provision of support to trainers 3 Question 4 4.1 Teaching qualifications level 4 or 5 subject qualification as a minimum 4 4.2 Subject knowledge higher education qualifications 2 4.3 Additional qualifications/developing competencies such as Mental Health First Aid Training, Assessors qualifications, Prevent and safeguarding, Diversity and Inclusion etc 3 4.4 Learner Support qualifications 2 4.5 Soft training qualifications 2 4.6 Minimum Core: English, maths and ICT 1 Question 5 5.1 Good organisation qualities and characteristics e.g. feedback mechanisms, adaptation to learners’ needs, innovation and reliability, flexibility, respect and 5
  30. 30. 30 responsibility, continuing education to teachers/trainers 5.2 Experienced, dedicated staff, ensuring that they are looked after 5 5.3 Infrastructure and venues in the community adapted to the local needs and learner’s needs 4 5.4 Successful training networks and partnerships e.g. liaisons with labour and education stakeholders and with the community mechanisms 4 5.5 Good marketing 2 5.6 Small classes size (8-12 maximum) 1 5.7 Interventionist approach 1 Question 6 6.1 Effective teaching 4 6.2 Targeted appropriate support and differentiation 4 6.3 Ethnographic approach to learners’ needs 3 6.4 Behavioural safety 1 Question 7 7.1 Measures of ‘soft skills’ to include: Confidence, Anxiety, Friendship, Social skills, Self-belief, Mental health, Physical health, Wellbeing, Attendance, Better routine 3 7.2 Progression and destinations e.g. flexible and systematic follow up with learners, continue education, use of ICT skills 3 7.3 Employability – life transformation 3 7.4 Family learning and Bringing up the Kids 2 7.5 Celebrating achievement 1 Question 8 8.1 Ongoing support to learners and follow up after the end of the course 3
  31. 31. 31 8.2 Improving the marketing and dissemination approach of the educational programmes to reach the targeted learners using modern communication channels such as social networks and youtube 2 8.3 Assist learners developing entrepreneurial skills 2 8.4 Signposting 1 8.5 Promoting outdoor learning/outdoor classrooms 1 8.6 Promoting the voice and feedback from the previous cohort to current learners 1
  32. 32. 5. Annex 5.1 PROMEA’s synthesized focus group data form Question Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 1. What could be improved in the adult education programmes for disadvantaged groups in order to improve its effectiveness? 1. Categorization of learners’ groups. 2. Prior understanding and identification of learners needs. 3. Improvement of the incentives for learners (credits, money, certification, help in finding a job). 4. Improve methods to approach the group of learners and understand their needs. 5. Quantitative and qualitative criteria for the evaluation of the training results. 6. Flexible, smart and innovative follow up process. ”Which are the groups we are talking about? We must categorize these groups according to their characteristics and needs’’ ”Who are they? We must explore, understand and map the specific learners’ needs for each group prior to any training intervention”. ”Training organizations should approach the groups of learners to explore their training needs using flexible methods and then they should be evaluated based also on their innovation and flexibility. The follow up process should be also innovative, smart and flexible” Regarding the necessity and effect of monetary incentives for learners: ’’Monetary incentives for learners could have a double bind effect, since some learners may choose to look for systematic training and become some kind of “programme junkies’’ just for the money, without focusing on learning and on the other benefits of training provision”. 1. Need to categorize learner’s groups. 2. Need to understand and approach from inside the group of learners group using flexible means of approach such as interviews, observation, cultural mediators, more ethnographic means of mapping and analyzing needs. 1. Internal and external motivation for learning. External motivation should be supported by providing incentives such as monetary, credits, accreditation etc) depends on the cultural identity of learners.
  33. 33. 33 Question Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 2. What should be included in the adult education for the disadvantaged training programmes? Probe: What are the training needs of adult learners from disadvantaged groups? 1. Specific learning outcomes: knowledge, skills, competences adjusted to their needs. 2. Social inclusion. 3. Psychological support. 4. To belong in a group. 5. To acquire a new kind of knowledge and view of the world. 6. To have and acquire a positive perspective and attitude in life. “It is about the importance of inclusion: not social inclusion necessarily, but the sense of fulfillment and psychological security of the come-back to a school environment”. “It is really important to belong in a group with a common need and purpose and to have someone there (the educator) who knows some things and is in a position to tell you beautiful stories about the world. It is as if you have an access to an interpretation of the world that allows you to filter your reality and your identity from the beginning…”. “Adult education for the disadvantaged first should be a response to the psychological needs of the individual. Did you have a good time? Did you have the chance to be for a while in a nurturing environment n/a 1. Post training evaluation should evaluate (and somehow measure) the level of satisfaction and psychological fulfillment of learners, and not only their acquired knowledge, skills and competences. n/a
  34. 34. 34 Question Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues that helps you breath?” 3. What kind of knowledge, skills and competences do trainers for adult learners need in order to provide effective education to learners from disadvantaged groups? 1. Good understanding of the group of learners they serve and their needs (ethnographic approach, psychosocial perspective, cultural knowledge of the learners’ group). 2. Emotional intelligence skills. 3. Empathy skills. 4. Group management and conflict resolution skills. 5. Competence to get funding for the development of training programmes. 6. Mentoring and teaching skills. ”Educators should be familiar with the culture of the respective group of learners, to “speak and understand” their language; they need to do some kind of research, have a psychosocial understanding of various groups and the flexibility of an ethnographer”. ‘’Above all, the educators need empathy skills and high emotional intelligence”. 3. “It is very important to be in a position to find money for the organisation to develop training programmes”. 1. As regards including self- funding in the evaluation criteria: The ability of educators and training providers to ensure funding for training depending on own resources (e.g. writing proposals) eventually it may harm training providers excluding them from the governmental funding schemes and financial support. In addition, self- funding skills, if included among the evaluation criteria for the effectiveness of adult education programmes, may introduce a biased approach against training providers that although are doing a good job in providing good quality of training, they appear weak in ensuring adequate and continuous funding based on own resources. 1. Psychosocial and emotional intelligence skills, as well as teaching and mentoring skills are considered most important. n/a 4. What kind of qualifications, 1. Relevant to learners needs. ‘’Educators should hold formal qualifications n/a 1. Lifelong Learning education of adult 1. An issue of transparency may arise
  35. 35. 35 Question Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues should trainers hold in order to provide effective adult education to disadvantaged groups? 2. EU accredited (EQF, EQVET) to address their mobility needs. 3. VET qualifications provided by Academic Institutions (Universities, Institutes etc). 4. Lifelong learning education, participation in seminars, training programmes etc. accredited by higher institutions (universities)”. “Because of the increased mobility of educators within EU, it will be better to hold qualifications responding not only to the National Standards but also to the European Qualification Framework (ECVET)”. trainers is necessary and it will be best to be also provided to them by the organisation they serve (via a network of lifelong learning organizations that continuously provide vocational education and training to the organization’s educators and stuff. in some cases and in some countries (e.g. Greece). 5. What characteristics should training institutions have in order to provide effective adult education for the disadvantaged? Probes: In terms of training staff, infrastructure, values, funding? Other? 1. Ability to get consistent and continuous funding. 2. Good definition of scope and plan. 3. Infrastructures adapted to the specific needs and characteristics of learners. 4. Connections with networks for getting pedagogical support for the continuous training of the educators (e.g. universities). ‘’Continuous funding in of major importance for the success of adult education programmes. Many ambitious programmes failed because the funding stopped or because of long breaks of funding”. “To have a project plan, clear aims and objectives, a business plan”. “To have infrastructures adjusted to the needs of learners is very important (he provided an example).” 1. Again the biased issue of including among the evaluation criteria the ability of the organisation to ensure adequate funding based on own resources; a biased approach against training providers that although are doing a good job in providing good quality of training, they appear weak in ensuring adequate and continuous funding based on own resources. 2. The ability of the organisation to keep a 1. Emphasis to the provision of counseling and lifelong learning support to educators by the training organisations. 2. Emphasis to follow the infrastructure standards adapted to the learners needs. 3. Great importance for organizations to exhibit methodological innovation and flexibility as regards the follow up process after the completion of the programme, keeping a n/a
  36. 36. 36 Question Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 5. Network of networks with institutions responsible for employment and social inclusion. 6. Provision of psychological support to educators (e.g. weekly support meetings, couching, counseling etc) to deal with the burn-out or any other issue of this kind. 7. Flexible and innovative follow up structures and methodology (including the use of an ethnographic approach and of a pool of cultural mediators). “The training provider should provide support to the educators in order to deal with the psychological distress and the constant pain of addressing the needs of disadvantaged people. Weekly meetings, individual and group sessions, couching and counseling could be useful to avoid the burn- out of educators and to feed their emotional intelligence and empathy. It should be an evaluation criteria the ability of the programme to cover this need”. network of networks with other organizations (from the private and the public sector) in order to support learners to increase their employability and social inclusion. Just one debate point here: “are training providers a kind of unemployment agencies…?” connection with trainees and gathering qualitative and measurable data regarding the impact of the training they got by the organisation in their quality of life (e.g. involvement of cultural mediators in the case of specific groups of learners such as the Roma, ethnographic observation, often follow up meeting and interviews inside the organisation and in situ in their cultural environment). 6. What could be improved in the adult education provided to disadvantaged groups in order to deal with the issue of group heterogeneity? 1. Good policy plan. 2. Good definition of the training programme’s scope, aim and objectives. 3. Good prior mapping of the learners needs (via flexible methods such as interviews, “They should all begin with a plan and interest from above, the U priorities for adult education for the disadvantaged”. “It is of highest importance for the organisation to have a carefully studied and 1. 2. 3. n. 1. Continuous and post evaluation of educators and programmes by learners will allow the fine-tuning of the programmes’ objectives and pedagogical means according to all participants needs. However, all focus groups participants 1. 2. 3. n.
  37. 37. 37 Question Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues surveys, observation etc). 4. Use of cultural mediators to map the learners needs from an insider’s point of view. 5. Continuous and post evaluation of educators and programmes by learners. structured implementation plan, based on well defined aims and objectives. “The training provider should have a pool of cultural mediators, of people well trained, originating from the group of learners, someone whom the learners trust, in order to approach the group of learners during the selection period, as well during the follow up stage” noted the importance for filtering and categorizing learners in specific groups, according to specific needs. 7. As concerns the effect of adult education provision in the learners’ life: what are the areas that could provide input for the assessment of the education provided? Probes: with regards to employability, financial 1. Qualitative changes in the learners’ life. 2. Well-being and personal fulfillment. 3. Employability improvement (quantitative approach and measurement). 4. Skills improvement (Quantitative approach and measurement). 1. Example of observation of Roma mothers’ change of consumption habits with the help of trained cultural mediators. Technocratic approach (measurement of learners acquired knowledge, skills and competences) Vs humanistic approach (sense of personal fulfillment, empowerment of psychosocial identity and belonging in a group). The focus was on the follow up methodology and the measurement approach as regards the effects of training programmes to learners’ life after the completion of the course. There was an alignment around the opinion that follow up should be based on flexible (according to the learners’ profile) qualitative and quantitative (for large scale mapping) tools. n/a
  38. 38. 38 Question Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues independence, social inclusion, feeling of personal fulfillment, health and wellbeing (physical and psychological) 8. Do you have any other ideas, proposals, suggestions, and second thoughts on the improvement of criteria for adult education effectiveness on disadvantaged? 1. Comparative evaluation: before and after evaluation methodologies. 2. Focus on the mapping of learners’ needs through a process of exploration, and after a period of systematic audience analysis of needs. 3. Penalty organisations for unprepared used of resources after the evaluation process. 1. 2. 3. n. 1. Quantitative measurement of life impact Vs subjective experiential understanding of learners during the follow up. n/a n/a
  39. 39. 39 5.2 DACES’s synthesized focus group data form Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 1 1 General inclusive practice 1 “I’ve seen big differences using the Social Pedagogy approach in inducting them and getting to know them. Rather than the ‘here’s a class’, spending some time with somebody. I spoke to a MAT worker yesterday and told them ‘this is what I’m going to do’ and it was like ‘that’s fantastic’ because if you just say ‘here’s a class’ they will walk out the door. They need a soft soft approach.” “for practitioners planning is also really important in the classroom. Welcoming in the classroom. Developing the inclusive practice so you’ve got variety of things to make sure you are including people. Using good techniques…. Track the support and identify that we do good ground rules. All those things are really good practice. I think they need to be more embedded into planning.” “Straight away nowadays, you get people who are straight onto their mobile phone. Every time you come into the room there’s 9 people in the room just on their mobile phones, no- one wants to talk. Because they need that icebreaker. They need that 1 Allowing roll on roll off programme starts only after holidays, could help to integrate new learners (especially if more than one), but can ‘lose’ learners who have to wait for a start date. 1  Using Social Pedagogy to ensure personalised study  Flexible programme for Roll on Roll off learning  Collaborative setting of ground rules  Planning - being welcoming in the classroom, including effective icebreakers and inductions.  Consideration of inclusion of the disadvantaged into mainstream learning cohorts and bespoke provision where this would not be appropriate for those learners and with careful consideration to needs. 1 The group agreed that there are challenges and barriers to this practice, including in and time costs where programmes are of fixed duration and in planning time.
  40. 40. 40 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues person to come and actually say, ‘this is such-and-such, can you work in that group, can you work with them today’. That’s all you need to do. They need a bit of prompting.” “Part of what’s very effective is embedding the ability to integrate everyone into a mainstream programme. And then the alternative is that you have a bespoke programme for a particular cohort, say with mental health issues or being at risk of health issues. So there’s two ways of approaching it.” 2 Additional support for learners 2 “Learner Support can be either the presence of a Learner Support Assistant to work dedicated and attached to a learner to support them with their programme. It could be someone in a mentor capacity who makes contact between classes to encourage and motivate and buddy them to make them feel included; it can be flexible really, It could be support in other ways like childcare or financial support.” “We could do with more staff training for quite a few of the things that we’ve been trained in, dealing more with the 14-19 enquiries in particular, like making them aware of bursaries. 2 2  Support in place and that can be signposted and applied more includes: childcare, financial (e.g. funding exams and transport costs, 14-19 bursaries), adaptive equipment, and especially study rooms available for missed attendance (e.g. illness, clashes with work schedule).  Check facilities for learners – not just statutory DDA compliance, but practically helpful e.g. hearing loops available etc. 2
  41. 41. 41 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues Because everyone’s doing so much, little things get forgotten… A crib sheet would be useful.” “with buddying up …it’s really important outside of the classroom because if the learner misses a session and then somebody can contact them, befriend them … then they can encourage them to come back ‘don’t worry you’ve missed that class, we’ll sort something out, I’ll get your homework to you’. If nobody was to contact them then they would probably just disappear. If someone were to befriend them and buddy them, it’s going to encourage them to keep coming.” “[the tutor] got us to buddy up. I remember their names. We worked in pairs but it wasn’t the same pair every week. By doing that, in the break, we’d have a cup of tea …we got to know each other. I still keep in contact with some of them now. My strengths became their strengths and their strengths became my strengths. I learned from the people in the group. But the group wasn’t cliquey.”  Learner Support Assistants in place could be more extensive, currently selected carefully to match learner needs/personality and not simply equal work to each LSA.  Additional learner mentoring/buddying from staff (allocated at start of programme) including pastoral care out of class to encourage engagement and attention (including people to meet at centre at breaktime/before class) – especially for young disengaged learners.  “Buddy up” systems in class, with mixing of buddies (weekly) to increase integration, social/soft skills, achievements. 3 Partnership working 3 “a lot of the third sector and public sector organisations’ resources are really tight now. So they are in a less 3 Surveying/door knocking local areas to identify 3  DACES already works closely with many partners but could work 3 Noted that cuts in funding for local government and
  42. 42. 42 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues easy position to be communicating with us and referring to us.” local needs and unidentified local disadvantaged groups was discussed. One participant had done this in a previous employ and found it time consuming and costly and was not of the opinion that it would be suitable for the service. Others identified that this is done by partners/local organisations and partnership working helps to tap into that knowledge. more with them to understand local area needs.  Partnership working enables the most disadvantaged learners to be identified and supported into learning where they would not otherwise take the initiative/have the confidence etc. to come.  Partnership working to increase learner progression to other learning and services provided outside of the DACES offer. E.g. local colleges etc.  Better understanding of JobCentre+ regulations and systems to reduce incongruences of rules/ systems negatively impacting learners. partners means less resource and time to form and nurture partnerships. Noted that, on some occasions, referrals from the JobCentre+ are placed on course and then JobCentre remove them (under threat of sanctions) partway through courses as now deemed fit to work, or schedule unmissable appointments during class times (known to them on their systems), thereby disrupting their learning. 4 Local community provision 4 “The courses that we are offering all needs to be accessible, for example rural isolated learners, learners that are on benefits, that might not be able to get to a centre through travel costs. So it all stems from planning where provision is put on.” “we know that learners want to learn but they won’t travel off the estate so 4 4  Noted that DACES’ USP is bringing provision into the community – most especially in the most economically deprived areas. Many of the most disadvantaged learners can’t or won’t travel outside their immediate local area so need to bring more provision to 4
  43. 43. 43 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues we would therefore have to put provision on the estate or put the provision in one of the centres, for example Glossop and possible end up paying for them to travel.” them (specifically tailored to local needs).  Noted that this is especially an issue due to rural isolation in Derbyshire and costs/availability of transport in rural areas.  Agreed that an alternative is to arrange and fund transport but this is not optimal compared with local provision (costs, time, learner reluctance) 5 Cost to learners 5 5 5  Continue to (and review?) offer of provision with subsidised costs tailored to economic and community need (to encourage the learners that most need it to enrol). 5 6 Cost to service 6 “is cost something that informs planning or planning before costs. Obviously we are working with finite resources. Is that dependent on planning or costs? Do we decide what we are going to do and then put the cost in?” 6 Discussion as to whether programmes should be mapped out according to need and then see whether they can be funded, or whether funding criteria come first and then areas with need 6  Resources are focused to where there is the most disadvantage, in line with funding.  Reaching the most disadvantaged can be costly (especially in terms of time) to the service but the outcome of engaging these learners and improving their lives and the communities is worth it. 6
  44. 44. 44 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues are identified. 7 Customer Service and nurturing learners. 7 “Customer service is massively important and we don’t do as much training as we used to do years ago. That front of house, that smile brings that person in… these people clearly are nervous if you are having an off day, say an admin staff is having an off day, that person [learner] might have spent many months trying to get into that. Then they’ve turned them away. I’ve known many people that have been frightened off because of that.” 7 7  Customer service and nurturing skills from tutors and from Business Services centre staff. Ensuring that customer service is always excellent.  Discretion taken when cancelling classes due to low numbers – consider the implications for the learner (being put off attending in future) etc. when classes are cancelled. 7 8 Tutor skills and CPD 8 8 8  Increase tutor knowledge and skills through EDI and inclusivity training, Social Pedagogy learning and skills in personalised programming Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 2 1 Focusing course aims on ‘soft skills’ rather than just outcome qualifications 1 That links into ‘what are the aims of the course’. If it’s to achieve that skill in English or maths or IT, that’s inevitably where the tutor’s going to focus in order to get success. But if the aims of the course is the wider outcomes that we’ve been talking about over the last couple of years, of 1 1  To include: communication, confidence, right and British Values, safeguarding, self- esteem, personal development.  Knowing the learners and making sure the content
  45. 45. 45 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues confidence building, self-esteem, attendance. If we can refocus our tutors to think that those are the things that matter, then they will hopefully take on more of that Social Pedagogic approach because that’s how to achieve that. it’s very easy for us with limited resources to focus on what the key curricular needs around employability being very urban driven and that the Government’s priorities around what people need might be around technology, English and maths for working in large companies, but because we are such a rural area, actually our priority might be about what’s needed in the rural areas for employment. …So where our funding is led by national employability priorities, as a rural area, we also have to respond to our own local needs in our contexts.” is appropriate to them, e.g. skills for local need in a rural area, and ensuring that contextual learning is appropriate to their lives and situations. 2 Progression routes 2 “Appropriately identifying progression routes. If we are identifying students through other agencies, we’ve got to make sure we’ve got diversity within our provision so we can place students appropriately so they are not overtly stressed by the situation and can progress. That will create motivation whilst they are on 2 2  Focusing on the big picture of the learner journey.  Working with the learner to ensure they know what’s next for them, including linking with employability, IAG and careers advice.  Extending the use of
  46. 46. 46 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues programme. If we have clearly identified what the outcome of the programme that we are delivering is going to be and the next steps fully identified, and we’ve made negotiations with other agencies so we’ve got more coordination. Then the student’s got an idea of what they are going to be doing the next academic year or thereafter.” free, accessible Making Choices courses to get disadvantaged (usually jobseekers) into learning.  Embedding ‘soft skills’ habits into learning to prepare learners for progression to other learning and work. 3 Using Social Pedagogy 3 I’ve seen big differences using the Social Pedagogy approach in inducting them and getting to know them. Rather than the ‘here’s a class’, spending some time with somebody.” “using icebreakers, like with your people. I’ve been using the Social Pedagogy approach to find out what’s their big picture. What’s the idea in 5 years, 10 years? What do they want to do? You could then incorporate the employability side of things” “I think with buddying up that you talked about, it’s really important outside of the classroom because if the learner misses a session and then somebody can contact them, befriend them or tutor or admin or whatever, then they can encourage them to come back” 3 3  Establishing one to one time with tutors to concentrate on each learner and their wider situation, not just reviews in class.  Buddying systems (see Q1)  Use of extensive and effective icebreakers  Pastoral care (see Q1)
  47. 47. 47 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues “I think pastoral care definitely. Your mentoring and buddying up and that type of thing. I think it’s absolutely crucial that they know they have somebody that they know is on their side.” 4 Personal planning skills 4 “It’s appropriate content. When I was teaching learners on probation, it would have been highly inappropriate in most instances for me to do a maths activity around planning a holiday because that just wasn’t going to happen for most of them. However, a maths activity around managing day to day budget or a phone contract or whether they were always in and out of the pawn shops to get loans and short term budgeting was appropriate. It is about making the content of the course appropriate to the cohort” 4 4  Embed personal planning skills across the curriculum, including financial inclusion, budgeting and household management. 5 Uniqueness of offer 5 “If you look at the Steers that come through each year, we do look at - the advice given [from DACES SMT] is that you need to know what’s happening locally, you need to work with partners and you need to fill gaps and not duplicate.” “it’s very easy for us with limited resources to focus on what the key curricular needs around employability being very urban driven and that the Government’s priorities around what 5 5  Maximising the USP of being able to effectively include disadvantaged learners into provision  Ensure that the learning offer is not a duplication of what is available through other providers.  Work with local partners to tie together learning offer and refer,  Ensure that the learning offer is not generic and represents the
  48. 48. 48 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues people need might be around technology, English and maths for working in large companies, but because we are such a rural area, actually our priority might be about what’s needed in the rural areas for employment. It could be dry stone walling to horticulture to the creative industries, because in the Peak District that’s a really important area of work. Also in the hospitality business. So where our funding is led by national employability priorities, as a rural area, we also have to respond to our own local needs in our contexts.” geographical uniqueness – rurality as well as working within government funding priorities and national need. 6 Wellbeing 6 6 6  Embed and encourage the use of learning opportunities to include healthy eating, relaxation, creativity, outdoor activities. 7 Parenting and Family 7 7 7  To include Keeping Up with the Kids learning, Family Learning and parenting skills. 8 Embedding eLearning and IT 8 “Some tutors are great at embedding the IT, and we’ve tried numerous times. So when smart phones and things came out we were promoting apps. I can remember doing a session I can think of a tutor that was straightaway like ‘I haven’t got a smartphone, I haven’t got the 8 Conversations around hoe smartphones etc. can be a distraction, but also comforting to vulnerable learners, but learners can 8  Promoting the use of apps for English and maths skills, for learners on all programmes, and assistive apps e.g. Dragon for dyslexia.  Use of IT to enable flexible learning, blended learning and catch up 8
  49. 49. 49 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues internet’. And we were ‘well you can borrow an iPad’ … ‘I can’t do that, I don’t know how to do it’.” “I think that, looking at disadvantaged learners, and we are talking about isolation, that is where IT can come in but also we’ve got to be flexible. Not ‘this is when we start in September and this is when we finish in June and if you can’t come on that time and that day there is no way you can use our classes.’ So I think we could use IT to help disadvantaged people. Flexibility is a plus point.” use IT to the detriment of social and communications skills. while on programme  Overcoming tutor reluctance to use/promote IT through CPD, service marketing of IT  Extend/promote ‘borrow an iPad’ scheme. 9 Programming 9 “Bite-sized chunks so that people are achieving frequently and developing confidence.” “We are getting much better at when learners can come and learn. In what I’ve come across, we are quite rigid. Like resource centres where they [learners] can do a bit of work, if they can’t come to class then the tutor can come in and leave them some work for people to do drop in work between classes.” 9 9  Ensure that programming plans in learning in bite- sized chunks so that learners enjoy regular achievements.  Ensure that programming allows flexibility (e.g. work patterns, other commitments, zero hours contracts), including resource centre/drop ins for learners to use to work. 9 1 0 Staff working together  Increased Joint Practice Development between practitioners  Establish/ascertain focal coordination between partners in local areas to
  50. 50. 50 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues increase referrals of disadvantaged people, MATs.  Ensure curriculum planning to directly meet the needs of referrals from partner agencies. 1 1 Learner reviews/tutorial s “we do reviews or [learner] tutorials with a tutor. That could be that during that tutorial they have a chat about ‘how are you getting on’ but they might also flag up ‘how are things going personally?’ or ‘are you aware that you might get financial assistance’. So ‘tutorial time’, I know we talked about mentor time, but actually having tutorial sessions, whether that’s within class or out of class” “I’m thinking ‘how are things going’ so if was that someone might be really skint and says ‘I had problems getting on [paying for] the bus’ and that can turn into ‘well there’s bursaries available or we could help you with transport’ or that lady ‘I’ve lost my job’ suddenly one comment can turn into ‘they’re at a disadvantage, this is available.’” “if there isn’t LSA support in there, say it was about a bus fare, they might say that something else is  Plan in less structured one to one or 3 way with LSA learner reviews so that wider challenges for disadvantaged (e.g. financial) can be identified, (and then later addressed to improve the effectiveness of the learning).
  51. 51. 51 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues going off, they are struggling to buy clothes. I can think of [learner name] and it was down to food, he was struggling to [afford to] eat. We wouldn’t have known that. There was nobody [LSA] in class and he wouldn’t talk to anybody but going out and having that little chat, suddenly there was a lot of a bigger picture going on here. Some people might not like talking but it could open up.” Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 3 1 Empathy and understanding 1 A lot of the issue that we have is the people skills. The empathy and the understanding. Quite often when placing the 14-19 year olds, I can place them into classes but I know I’ve got to be selective which tutor I put them with. “the idea of tolerance within the classroom is also important. Because you will get people with lots of differences and I’ve taught in classrooms where I’ve not found out the disadvantages until a lot further down the line [into the course]. If you put the groundwork in to make sure that you’ve got a group that talk to 1 1  Building relationships with learners  Awareness of learner diversity  High levels of tolerance and respect  Approachable 1 Significant level of discussion was held regarding these areas as to incentivizing and motivating tutors to upskill, partake in work shadowing and JPD and other good practice sharing (rather than just courses). Discussion as to tutor motivations to partake in upskilling and CPD, including financial incentives from the
  52. 52. 52 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues each other, and feel they can come to you, that you can do different activities to integrate people and you develop that respect.” organisation (which were identified as also helping tutors to feel valued) and intrinsic and career motivations. Additionally, the extra perceived workload and pressure from top down initiatives was discussed, and it was discussed that encouraging junior managers and tutorial staff to generate demand for and interest in initiatives are more welcomed, enable them to feel valued and nurtures staff creativity – then better impacting on the disadvantaged learners. 2 Communications and listening 2 2 2  Skilled in effective communication techniques and a listening ear.  Empathy and use of Social Pedagogy.  Time and the right person to build up a supportive learner relationship 2 3 Equality, diversity and inclusion skills 3 “I think that CPD is good, it needs to be in place, but experience in working with those people to understand what skills you have already got and what you can offer some of those groups of people.” “For example say that person has got autism, unless you’ve experienced autism, or had training about autism, you wouldn’t know how to teach that person because the way I teach anybody else would be different maybe to somebody with that. The same with somebody with mental health difficulties, they could be someone with paranoid schizophrenia, with bipolar, depression, anxiety. I’ve touched all of it.” 3 3  Compulsory training on working with learners with the 9 protected characteristics.  Experience of working with people from a range of disadvantaged groups, e.g. autism, schizophrenia, bipolar, depression, anxiety and sharing good practice.  Compulsory training on Prevent, CSE, safeguarding.  Share good practice with inclusivity. 3
  53. 53. 53 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues “The opportunities to share good practice is important. That develops tutor confidence, if they’ve been asked to go and take the opportunity to do some CPD and then they get the opportunity to reinforce their understanding by sharing it with others.” 4 Knowledge of learning styles and learner differences 4 “It’s understanding. It’s knowledge that’s always key. We can only get knowledge through training and awareness.” 4 4  Professional and analytical approaches  Skills of inclusion  Differentiation  Ensuring the learning is flexible, dynamic and fun. 4 5 Skills and experience in working with and integrating younger learners 5 “Working alongside somebody, I think is really good. Not so much a tutor meeting but we have, you’re trying to place a young person in a class and constantly get tutors saying ‘I don’t want them in my group, I’m not trained to teach young people’. Perhaps to have a day with the study programme, or a day might allay all their fears so we might not have to worry so much, like ‘I really enjoyed that, let them come’. It might be something as simple as that.” 5 5  Allaying tutor fear and inexperience of working with younger learners [additional government funding can be obtained for working with this cohort]  Challenging purely negative (behavioural) reports from other tutors who work with young vulnerable learners, balancing with positive things also 5
  54. 54. 54 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 4 1 Teaching qualifications 1 1 1  Must have level 4 subject qualification as a minimum.  Discussed that QTLS status still exists and guarantees yearly CPD, this is not currently requisite. 1 2 Subject knowledge 2 “Because it’s depending on what they’re teaching isn’t it. Because if they are teaching English or maths or whatever, then they need to have the qualification higher than what they’re teaching. If they are teaching jewellery making, it may be that they are an expert and has got their own business. That’s the experience but may not be the piece of paper qualification.” 2 2  Must be qualified to one level above that teaching or have significant experience as appropriate. 2 3 Additional qualifications /developing competencie s 3 “There also has to be evidence of, I don’t like the word CPD, but developing competencies. You don’t just do something in 2007 and it stays there, it’s changing constantly.” 3 3 As appropriate:  Mental Health First Aid Training  Assessors qualifications  Prevent and safeguarding  EDI  CSE 3 4 Minimum Core (English, maths and ICT) 4 “It does depend, of course, on what people are tutoring and how often they tutor. There are practical, outdoors courses that people are tutoring where they have argued that they teach for such short spots of time because they are specialist one day courses that actually it’s not 4 Is it necessary for very occasional sessional tutors who are teaching outdoors subjects to have level 2 4  Tutors must have level 2 in English, maths and IT. Noted that English and maths at Level 2 are a requirement to sign up for the Certificate in Education and Training course.  Noted that, due to 4
  55. 55. 55 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues relevant. I’m not sure that I agree but I think it’s a discussion point, that.” English and maths. How does that effect their ability to embed in short sessions? changing legistation, there may be some existing tutors on the tutor pool who do not have Level 2 in English and maths. 5 Learner Support 5 “I think we should reintroduce the Learner Support qualification. I used to teach that many years ago and it was a really good qualification. City & Guilds. Now, when we recruit learning support, we recruit on their experience of working with adults. We don’t ask for any particular qualification, but we do like Learner Support to have English and maths at Level 2.” “I know we are having cuts, but we shouldn’t be hearing negativity because the disadvantaged groups are hearing that. So I enter the classroom, whatever’s happened at home, I’m there for that student, and other students as well. You hear it from people, they get a bit too friendly, tutors get friendlier and they start saying things they shouldn’t say and LSAs say things as well. It’s boundaries” 5 5  Bring back a requirement for LSAs to have a Learner Support qualification. This will incentivise applications. Noted that many applicants don’t have supporting adults experience, only nursery.  Establish a tiered system of Learner Support where established and qualified LSAs are at a higher level and can help and mentor other LSAs.  LSAs should also have Level 2 English and maths where possible. 5 Discussion around ensuring staff positivity in sessions and ensuring that professional boundaries are maintained re discussing financial cuts etc. in class. Negativity from staff can impact especially on disadvantaged learners.
  56. 56. 56 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 5 1 Venues in the community 1 “Venues in the community. What makes us different from Chesterfield College or Derby College is that we have our own premises in 23 of the towns across the county and we are working in anything up to 100 venues each year and that we will go to where the learners are.” “Scale is another one. Our premises aren’t that big if you compare us with a college. We’re much less intimidating for them.” 1 1  Small, accessible venues in the communities with the most disadvantage and the greatest need.  Learning that is based where the learners are (not necessitating travel to a campus)  Small scale and cozy buildings, less intimidating to disadvantaged than big institutions. 1 2 Class sizes 2 “it’s the class sizes. When I do the tours and I say ‘the biggest class sizes we have are about 8 or 10 or we have an odd childcare that goes to 15’ ‘oh it’s not like college then, it’s not 30’. There’s only like 5 classes at one time going on. ‘I like that’. Some people don’t but for some, that’s a real selling point.” 2 2  Small classes – between 8-12 maximum intake depending on type of cohort – accessible and attractive to disadvantaged learners and means more support time for those in most need. 2 3 Interventioni st approach 3 “a learner commented to us the other week ‘I don’t know anywhere that bends over backwards or helps as much as you do’. Whereas other places have just said no, we need to take them because it’s EDI or it’s not discriminating, whereas somebody else would just say no.” “part of the reason we have that ethos [of inclusivity] is because if 3 Concern that by being so inclusive and catering for all needs could mean that the staff them feel under- resourced and spread too thinly. It was questioned 3  Targeted advertising  As part of a County Council, knowledge that helping disadvantaged people with early intervention will reduce cost on other services and society further down the line.  An ethos of ‘bending over backwards’ to 3
  57. 57. 57 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues we’re not supporting these people then our own organisation will have to support them in other ways. So in a way, we’re a cost cutting option because it’s cheaper for us to teach people than it is to deal with all of the services they might need if they become more disadvantaged.” “a learner commented to us the other week ‘I don’t know anywhere that bends over backwards or helps as much as you do’. Whereas other places have just said no, we need to take them because it’s EDI or it’s not discriminating, whereas somebody else would just say no.” “Quite a lot of our concerns were about levels of resource, and having the time to do it, whereas actually we are in a position where possibly the boundaries that stop us doing aren’t high enough so that we focus in on using our resources more selectively. Because we are being funded and because we are encouraged to do everything for everybody, we do, and we spread ourselves very thinly and then we feel under-resourced.” whether greater specialisation or more specific boundaries would mitigate this. meet the needs of learners  USP of taking learners with high needs and from disadvantaged groups that ther organisations e.g. colleges would leave behind in mainstream provision. 4 Good organisation 4 “It’s a listening organisation. One thing I’ve been very impressed with is when a learner comes forward with an 4 4  An organsation known to listen to learner voice 4
  58. 58. 58 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues issue or a complaint or a comment or a suggestion is dealt with and if it’s not dealt with at this level, it moves up to that level or it moves up to that level, but it’s the sense that the people have the confidence to come forward and not just sit there and mither about it. It’s the sign of a good quality organisation when people feel they can voice something honestly.” “Even though we are very diverse across the county, we do work as a team. That is a big strength of ours. We are not working in isolation. When I worked in a college it was ‘you’re on the second floor, you’re on the fifth floor and we only speck to people on this floor’ sort of thing.”  Takes action to make improvements based on feedback  Robust and effective Quality Assurance Procedures  High learner confidence in the organisation as a result of all the above. 5 Signposting and progression 5 “Having that progression and signposting is important. Knowing that if you do this, you can then do that.” 5 5 5 Marketing was also discussed. It was noted that discrete courses are not marketed at all and courses available to everyone are marketed but the USPs mentioned in all points raised are not utilised enough for marketing. 6 Successful partnerships 6 “I think the way to do that [get the word out there] is to just build more partnerships. It’s through the 6 6 6
  59. 59. 59 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues partnerships that you get your targeted learners. But we don’t seem to have the time to invest in the partnerships.” 7 Experienced, dedicated staff, and ensuring that they are looked after 7 “I think there’s quite a few tutors that don’t do it for the money. They do it because they love doing the job.” “So we have lost quite a few [good tutors] over the last few years. There’s been people who are tutors who now do admin because they’ve got guaranteed work, so you’ve lost a good tutor because they need the income.” “Being a dependable employer is an important characteristic and a well- resourced institution is important too because without that, there’s stresses in all directions.” 7 7  Learner centred  Effective and close-knit team  Not financially motivated workforce  Employer needs to meet the needs of the tutors so the good tutors feel valued, have flexibility as needed and dependable income as needed. 7 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues 6 1 Comprehensi ve inductions 1 “That goes back to where we used to do inductions and meet people first. Because then you could select groups, get to know them, pair people up.” 1 1  Setting and maintaining targets 1 2 Effective teaching 2 “Choosing topics where the disadvantaged people have the 2 2  Finding out about learner backgrounds and experiences 2
  60. 60. 60 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues knowledge so they feel that they are contributing, they are not always the one that doesn’t know the subject.” “With the probation, it’s making it appropriate content. Find out their experiences. I found out that a disproportionate number of learners enjoyed fishing. I know nothing about fishing. So they could easily lead a conversation a literacy activity and feel valued.” “However much a tutor’s skills are in bringing out a learner’s skills, actually if you were, for example, looking at we want to reduce the energy needs of our village hall, your tutor might be the facilitator of the learning that’s shared between the group of people learning in the community who are bringing all sorts of other skills. It’s a more level playing field whereby it’s definitely not tutor focused, it’s community members focused.” “the learning aim is to learn to work together to share ideas, to come up with some practical solution to what might happen in the community. The learning event is that, and yet you wouldn’t describe that as a course, you would describe that as a group  Using Social Pedagogy  Using teaching points/contextual learning topics where disadvantaged learners have the knowledge/experience  Community learning  The potential for moving outside of a courses/class model into community projects to engage people that might not be attracted by a traditional course format and so skills can be exchanged.
  61. 61. 61 Qu Main Points / basic Ideas Indicative quotes to illustrate basic ideas Debate points Aligned Opinions Other significant notes / issues getting together to work through a project.” 3 Targeted appropriate support 3 “Childcare for differentiated groups could be needed at some point. I’ve asked for a long time now because we only have a crèche in three centres, if we can start to use DCC staff on a pool, nursery staff, so that we can have crèches in areas that don’t have childcare facility.” 3 3  Pairs and buddying Mentoring  Childcare and other support  Financial support (see earlier questions re these) 3 4 Dfferentiatio n 4 Learning activity in order that in one classroom different people can start form the same basic starting point but there’s opportunities for people to go much further and extend themselves into more challenging work, and yet it’s not a sense of failure if somebody only goes a short distance along that journey. So the resources that we can provide. Differentiation of resources is a big thing and there are a lot of tutors that are really good at it. They can say well you need this but if you haven’t got that, you bring that. I’ve noticed in the flower arranging class, I was there the other day, she was saying ‘these roses are lovely to put in this display but just go into the hedgerow and get some of this’. She was coming up with various different 4 4  Resources  Meeting individual learner needs using a personalized approach  Learning achievements are individual, effective extension activities and overt differentiation that is person centred and not just level labelled. 4

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