Podcasting for middle and high school teachers


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This is the final project of my EDTECH 503 class. This project sees the idea of developing a podcast professional development course through the initial stages of learner assessment through to course development and evaluations.

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Podcasting for middle and high school teachers

  1. 1. Professional Development: Podcasting for Middle and High School TeachersApplying Podcasting tools and techniques to curriculum content Steven Poast EDTECH 503Boise State University5/11/2010<br />Table Contents<br />Reflection Paper ……………………………………………………………………………. 4<br />Part 1: Topic………………………………………………………………………………….. 6<br />Part 1a: Learning Goal……………………………………………………………………… 6<br />Part 1b: Description of the audience…………………………………………………….. 6<br />Part 1c: Rationale……………………………………………………………………………. 6<br />Part 2: Front-end Analysis………………………………………………………………….. 7<br />Part 2a: Needs Analysis…………………………………………………………………….. 7<br />Part 2a.1: Needs analysis survey ……………………………………………................... 7<br />Part 2b: Description of the Learning Context…………………………………………… 8<br />Part 2b.1: Learning context………………………………………………………………… 8<br />Part 2b.2: Transfer context…………………………………………………………………. 9<br />Part 2c: Description of the Learners……………………………………………………… 9<br />Part 3: Planning…………………………………………………………………………….. 10<br />Part 3a: List of learning objectives………………………………………………………. 11<br />Part 3b: Matrix of Objectives, Bloom’s Taxonomy, and Types of Learning……… 11<br />Part 3c: ARCS Table………………………………………………………………………... 12<br />Part 4: Instructor Guide……………………………………………………………………. 14<br />Part 5: Learner Content……………………………………………………………………. 18<br />Part 5a: Learning materials……………………………………………………………….. 18<br />Part 5b: Formative and/or Summative Assessment materials……………………… 18<br />Part 5c: Technology Tool Justification…………………………………………………. 24<br />Part 6: Formative Evaluation Plan………………………………………………………. 24<br />Part 6a: Expert Review……………………………………………………………………. 24<br />Part 6b: One-to-One Evaluation…………………………………………………………. 24<br />Part 6c: Small Group Evaluation………………………………………………………… 25<br />Part 6d: Field trial…………………………………………………………………………... 25<br />Part 7: Formative Evaluation Report……………………………………………………. 26<br />Part 7a: Evaluation Survey or Rubric…………………………………………………… 26<br />Part 7b: Report the results of the expert review………………………………………. 28<br />Part 7c: Comments on Change…………………………………………………………… 28<br />Part 8: AECT Standards Grid……………………………………………………………... 29<br />Appendix A ………………………………………………………………………………….. 35<br />Appendix B ………………………………………………………………………………….. 40<br />Reflection Paper<br />Looking back on this course I see many comparisons to triathlon. Now on the surface the sports metaphor may seem easy, but triathlon is very complex. A triathlete trains for three separate disciplines so knowledge in multiple areas is important. Endurance base building is comparable to learner evaluations. During the base training phase the athlete is taking stock of what is working and deciding if changes or adaptations to training need to be made due to injury. The instructional design gathers data from the target audience looking for any changes or adaptations based on the learners’ prior knowledge. Speed training can be one of the least favorite parts of triathlon training. So like the learner who needs to refocus during instruction, triathletes also need to be motivated to focus on proper form and technique during a speed building workout. <br />One of the most important workouts as triathlete can do is the “brick” workout. This consists of combining two of the three sports into one workout, simulating race-day situations. During this time the triathlete is evaluating the progress of his or her training and possibly getting feedback from a coach or training partner. The instructional designer’s feedback and evaluations take place at a similar rate. Expert evaluations and group work provide designers with critical feedback needed to elevate the level of instruction. During the racing season, triathletes use specific races to gauge their level of improvement. This is closely mirrors the field tests done by instructional designers. Only in authentic situations can one tell if changes made result in positive outcomes. Finally, nutrition is the research of the triathlon world. Actually research in nutrition is a huge part of triathlon. The better the body works and the mind can focus, the better the athlete can perform. So the same can be said for the instructional designer. More research in new and emerging theories and technologies provides a designer better opportunity for instructional success. I would label the instructional designer the “triathlete” of the educational world.<br />My understanding of theory and its importance to instructional design is an area of which I feel I have greatly changed. Prior to this course I may not have been able to distinguish between a behaviorist and a constructivist approach and their importance to understanding my target audience. Both ID Projects 1 and 2 gave me a close look into the detail needed to accurately develop an instructional plan. It is important to have different instructional models in order to fit the needs of the target audience. Instructional Design by Smith and Ragan will be a valuable resource as I continue with my educational technology career. I have been able to cite my work in this class during various discussions with colleges at Ohio State. My background in this course can serve to open opportunities to help bring Ohio State up to the level of e-learning and instructional design of a Boise State University. Immediately after I complete this coursework I will be preparing to give a presentation to members of the Ohio State community on my experience as an online distance learner. My unique experience has been sought out to be part of a panel discussion during this year’s INNOVATE conference. I am excited to build upon the foundation of theory, structure, and design experience I have gained through this course. <br />Resource:<br />Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional Design 3rd Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons.<br />Part 1: Topic<br />Part 1a: Learning Goal<br />When given the use of PC computers, microphones, Audacity software and access to school and classroom websites, learners will be able to plan, produce, publish, and promote Podcasts.<br />Part 1b: Description of the audience<br />The target audience for this professional development project will consist of middle and high school teachers. Teachers from all content and grade levels will participate in this three hour professional development course.<br />Part 1c: Rationale<br />Need<br />There is a need for more accessible classroom content for students absent from the classroom setting. During the school year many students miss instruction time due to illness, extra-curricular activities, or family events. Podcasting can provide students the opportunity to stay current in their classes, even when they are not in attendance. The district is also looking for cost effective ways to implement technology into the content curriculum. Many online resources for publishing and storing content are available at a minimal cost. The website Audacity offers free open source software downloads for both Mac and PC. The school district uses PC computers, but many teachers possess Mac computers; the use of Audacity provides continuity for all teachers. <br />Overall Strategy<br />Approximately 80 percent of the instruction for this project will be in supplantive form, while the final 20 percent will be generative instruction. Many of the teachers are not familiar with podcasting, let alone how to use it within their course curriculum, therefore the district has requested this professional development course. The instructional design of this course will follow a supplantive model by scaffolding information, supplying educational goals, monitoring understanding, and suggesting ways to transfer information learned to another context (Smith and Ragan 2005). As learners become comfortable in operating the Audacity software to record and edit information, a generative approach will be employed. Learners will take the information and skills learned to create a short 5 minute podcast with material from their specific curriculum.<br />Instructional Strategy<br />This instructional design project will follow a learning procedure strategy. Learners will apply declarative knowledge and skills to a sequence of steps, resulting in the production of a podcast. <br />Part 2: Front-end Analysis Report<br />Part 2a: Description of the Need<br />Part 2a.1: Needs analysis survey <br />Learner Assessment of Podcast Survey<br />Part 2a.2: Results of Needs analysis survey<br />The learner assessment survey was sent via email to the 148 teachers participating in the professional development course. 127 teachers responded to the online survey. As anticipated most of the respondents have not used Audacity software or created a podcast. This will limit the amount of peer-mentoring to be expected for this course. While most of the teachers are not familiar with podcasting most are familiar with using the internet and making audio recordings directly to their computer.<br />Many of those who responded listed that they visited several websites which contain links to podcasts. This can assist in providing familiarity and motivation for teacher with apprehensions about learning to create a podcast. <br />Website Use<br /><ul><li>YouTube83%
  2. 2. Blogger50%
  3. 3. Wordpress17%
  4. 4. Podcast Directory00%
  5. 5. Podcast Alley17%
  6. 6. NPR .org50%
  7. 7. ESPN.com83%
  8. 8. VideoPodcasts.tv33%
  9. 9. iTunes33%
  10. 10. Other50%</li></ul>*Users could select more than one option so results can add up to more than 100%<br />While many of the respondents replied not subscribing to RSS feeds, the information from Website use can help make a connection and provide for familiarity during that portion of the course. A surprising 100 percent of respondents marked they use their class websites for posting announcements, providing student resource links, and displaying student projects. This will prove useful when these same teachers create announcements about their podcasts and post the link and notes directly to their websites. <br />Part 2b: Description of the Learning Context<br />Part 2b.1: Learning context<br />The learners will be using the school’s computer lab for direct instruction. The lab contains 30 PC desktop computers, all with broadband connection and internet access. The lab has a projection screen so the lead instructor can provide visual direction for the learners. Learners will use their classroom computers to create individual Podcasts for evaluation and publication to school and/or classroom websites. Teachers who teach outside of a traditional classroom will be provided access to wireless microphones and computers located in the computer lab for Podcast evaluation and publication. All PCs will have links to the Audacity website for simple access. This will allow for learners to create and edit Podcasts in various locations. Learners will have password protected access to the Audacity software and the school server. The security protects the learner’s content from being manipulated by an unauthorized user.<br />Part 2b.2: Transfer context<br />The learners will be able to use the materials and resources immediately after completing the professional development workshop. By using the technology directly located in their classrooms, the learners will have direct experience in planning, producing, publishing and promoting Podcasts for their classroom. Learners will be able to instantly provide additional resources for their students by publishing selected content from class instruction to school and classroom websites. This allows stakeholders in the school such as; parents, students and community members direct access to important pieces of information that can assist in student learning. An archive of Podcasts can become a positive review tool during mid-term and final examinations. The learners themselves will serve as positive examples for utilizing technology to enhance learning.<br />Part 2c: Description of the Learners<br />The learners consist of middle school and high school teachers in all content areas, including music, art, P.E., and media specialist. Teaching experience ranges from first year to master level teachers. While most teachers use computer technology, not all are experienced in podcasting or subscribe to any podcasts really simple syndication (RSS) feeds. The majority of the teachers use either classroom websites or the school’s website for posting information for parents and students. A small group of teachers have used microphones to record audio information to a computer. Most teachers have little to no experience using microphones in the classroom or recording audio to a computer. Several teachers have expressed interest in serving as peer mentors for those individuals with less computer experience. This will help to enhance learning and provide efficient instruction for all learners during this workshop.<br />Part 3: Planning<br />Part 3a: List of learning objectives<br /><ul><li>Plan a topic, develop a format and choose a location for podcast
  11. 11. 1a. Design a podcast format from a content lesson
  12. 12. 1b. Identify a location for recording podcast
  13. 13. Using Audacity software, a PC computer, and microphone, learners will construct a podcast</li></ul>2a. Use Audacity software<br />2b. Use a microphone to record podcast<br /><ul><li>Manage a podcast by naming the podcast, selecting a host, writing show notes, posting show notes, and uploading podcast</li></ul>3a. Create a name for podcast<br />3b. Select host for podcast<br />3c. Compose show notes <br />3d. Setup show notes to website<br />3e. Arrange upload of podcast<br /> <br /><ul><li>Promote podcast by attaching link to school or class website, sending out an email announcement, and creating an RSS feed</li></ul>4a. Construct a podcast link to School and/or class website<br />4b. Create and distribute an email announcement<br />4c. Create an RSS feed for podcast<br />Part 3b: Matrix of Objectives, Bloom’s Taxonomy, and Types of Learning<br />Matrix of Objectives, Bloom's Taxonomy, Instructional Strategies, and Types of Learning<br />Objective Number (1)Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification (2)Strategy to be employed to teach the objective (3)Type of Learning (4)1SynthesisGProblem Solving1aSynthesisGProblem Solving1bComprehensionGDeclarative 2ApplicationGProcedural2aApplicationGProcedural2bApplicationGProcedural3SynthesisSProcedural3aSynthesisGProblem Solving3bEvaluationSProcedural3cSynthesisGProblem Solving3dSynthesisSProcedural3eSynthesisSProcedural4SynthesisGProcedural4aSynthesisGProcedural4bSynthesisSProcedural4cSynthesisGProcedural<br />Part 3c: ARCS Table<br />ARCS Motivational Strategies Plan<br />Project Goal Statement: When given the use of PC computers, microphones, Audacity software and access to school and classroom websites, learners will be able to plan, produce, publish, and promote Podcasts. <br /><ul><li>ATTENTIONA.1 Perceptual ArousalCourse begins with musical selection and introduction of Podcast development workshopA2. Inquiry ArousalFocus Activities provide learners to examine different steps within the development of a podcastA3. VariabilityLearners will have the opportunity to select partners to develop podcastLearners will work to complete introductory activities in each section
  14. 14. RELEVANCER1. Goal orientationNeeds analysis aids to connect learners’ experience and prior knowledge to skills needed for podcast development.R2. Motive matchingExamples of current podcasts representing each educational content area will be presented Learners will use content material from their classroom to develop podcastsR3. FamiliarityFocus Activities will be used to help learners make a connection between prior knowledge and methods, and the development of podcasts.
  15. 15. CONFIDENCEC1. Learning requirementsPrior knowledge is researched and connected to requisite skills The podcast development process is broken down into small sections, allowing for questions and feedbackC2. Success opportunitiesFeedback will be provided throughout the learning processExamples will be provided to guide learners in each stage of developmentC3. Personal controlLearners will be brainstorming ideas in Focus Activities to be used in podcast developmentA rubric will be provided outlining course expectations for success
  16. 16. SATISFACTIONS1. Natural consequencesLearners will work with partners to brainstorm ideas for podcast developmentLearners will create their own content for podcast productionLearners will be encouraged to be creative when developing the introduction and conclusion of their podcastS2. Positive consequencesLearners will be able to listen to their final project during the production processInstructor and peer feedback will be provided throughout the development processLearners will publish their podcasts to class websites by the end of the courseS3. EquitySmall sections provide opportunity for regular feedback from instructorLearners will be asked how they can use podcasts in their classroomAt the conclusion of the course, learners will be able to ask questions about their learning experience</li></ul>Keller, J. M. (1987). The systematic process of motivational design. Performance & Instruction, 26 (9/10), 1-8.<br />Part 4: Instructor Guide<br />Introduction<br />I. Gain attention of audience with short musical selection (10-15 seconds) and an announcement stating the workshop is beginning.<br />II. Inform Learners of Purpose: To create and publish a podcast for a specific content area. This three hour course will cover the production of podcasts. The steps included in creating a podcast include: planning, producing, publishing, and promoting. Learners will be working in groups of two or three create one podcast.<br />III. Stimulate Learners’ Attention/Motivation:<br /><ul><li>*Display a list of educational and mainstream topic podcasts. Educational podcasts should include at least one example from each of the content areas being taught at that particular school. (Appendix A)
  17. 17. Play a sample of a mainstream podcast (1-2 minutes) to orient learners with the format, purpose, and style of a podcast.
  18. 18. Learners will brainstorm (1 minute) topics being or soon to be covered within their individual classrooms.
  19. 19. The brainstormed list is now the starting list for podcast topics. The instructor should point out that this method is a strategy similar to that in the writing process.</li></ul>IV. Provide Overview:<br /><ul><li>Introduce and explore what a podcast is, who creates them, and why people use them in and outside of education.
  20. 20. Explore the free-source software "Audacity" that will be used to record and edit learner-created podcast.
  21. 21. Introduce and apply the planning and production process of podcasting. This will begin with choosing a topic from the learner's brainstorm list and creating a run-down list, and continue through the recording and editing phase.
  22. 22. Publish (Post), and promote the Podcast. The learner's podcast will be posted directly to his or her classroom website. Part of this phase will involve creating a "Resource" page where podcasts and notes are made available.</li></ul> <br />Body<br />Stimulate recall of prior knowledge:<br /><ul><li>Discuss procedures for creating a lesson plan.
  23. 23. Discuss procedures for creating a unit for a topic.
  24. 24. Examine yearly content and topics.</li></ul>Present information and examples:<br />1. PLAN: Learners will open a Podcast folder on their computer, which will contain both a Podcast "Run-down Template" file and a "Run-down Sample" file. The Run-down sample will illustrate a 5-10 minute Podcast subject and time list. This 5-10 minute time frame is the same time frame learners will use to develop their podcasts. The template will be used to help guide the learners through the content production of their Podcast. The learners will rename the template file using the last names of each person in the group.<br />*Focus Activity: (5 minutes) Instructor will provide a sample of class content (science, history, or music) and a semi-completed Run-down template. The instructor needs to define a Run-down list as an outline with specific times for each segment. Ask learners to work with their partners to fill in the missing sections of the Run-down list.  At the end of five minutes, display a copy of the semi-completed Run-down list and ask learners to help fill in each section.<br />After "Focus Activity” the learners will complete the following items:<br />Write one to two sentences stating the purpose, format, and audience of the podcast (example will be provided)<br />Name the podcast <br />Create a Run-down outline (general statements, bullet points, order of presentation)<br />Create an opening and closing to be used in all other podcasts<br />2. PRODUCTION: Audacity Demo - Learners will open Audacity from their computer and create a new project. File will be saved as “last name Audacity demo 1.” Learners will be provided with a microphone to use for recording onto the Audacity software. <br />*Focus Activity: (10 minutes) the instructor will provide a sample script for each learner to practice recording onto Audacity. Learners need to focus on clear speech and steady tempo. <br />Learners will complete the following tasks:<br /><ul><li>Record their script.
  25. 25. Record an introduction and conclusion for their podcast.
  26. 26. Type notes of interest for their podcast</li></ul>3. PUBLISH: The learner will link the Podcast to the school server and create a link on the "Resource" page of his or her class website. <br />*Focus Activity: (5 minute activity) Brainstorm what has been easy, difficult, new, and/or familiar about planning, and producing a podcast. Create and display a "master" list for each category from learner input. <br />Learners will complete the following tasks:<br /><ul><li>Upload podcast recording to school server.
  27. 27. Create link to podcast on class website.
  28. 28. Upload podcast notes to school server.
  29. 29. Create link to podcast notes on class website. </li></ul>4. PROMOTE: The learner will compose an announcement to be posted on the front page of his or her class website. This announcement can be posted in the classroom, emailed to students and parents, and promoted on other designated school websites. <br />*Focus Activity: (10-15 minute activity) Learners will share their podcast with others in the class. Each learner should listen to two to three different podcasts.<br />After listening to different podcasts, learners will compose announcements to use in class, on their websites, or via emails. The announcement serves to educate and engage the learner's audience in this new resource provided.<br />Learners will complete the following tasks:<br /><ul><li>Compose a detailed but succinct announcement regarding their podcast
  30. 30. Print a copy of their announcement to post in their classroom
  31. 31. Compose an email draft which includes the announcement
  32. 32. Post the announcement to the front page of their class website
  33. 33. Create a really simple syndication (RSS) feed</li></ul>Provide Feedback:<br />Peer-evaluation: Learners will have the opportunity to evaluate the announcement and podcasts of two other learners in the course. Comments and feedback will be shared to help improve the final product.<br />Conclusion<br />Re-motivate and Close:<br />Share quotes and information from the article, Podcasting Craze Comes to K-12 Schools: Educators discover value of Internet audio programs by Rhea R. Borja of Arlington, Virginia (Appendix B). The article shows how middle school students are using podcasting in their classes. Borja provides a first-hand look on how podcasting can enhance education.<br />The instructor will review the information and processes covered during the course and learners will be reminded to continue to publish their podcast on a regular basis as a continual part of their formative evaluation. Each learner will receive a copy of the article and will gather into small groups (4-5 participants) to discuss how podcasts could be implemented into their classes.<br />Summarize and review:<br />Once the peer-evaluation section is complete, the group will gather and there will be time to answer questions about the podcast process. Next, the group will be asked to view a video podcast. After viewing the video podcast, the learners will break into small groups of 4-5 each to discuss how this medium could be used in their classes and throughout the school district.  Following this discussion, the instructor will create and display a list of ideas originating from the small group discussions. The final list will be printed off so each participant has a copy for reference.  <br />Transfer learning will take place with each consecutive podcast the learners create. New topics will help to guide the learners in their evolution of producing and publishing future podcasts. <br />The instructor will review the process of developing a podcast and ask for any questions from the participants. <br />This concludes the podcast professional development course.<br />Part 5: Learner Content<br />Part 5a: Learning materials<br />The following material will be used during instruction.<br />Learning MaterialPurposeInstructional ManualTo be used by teacher or instructor as a lesson plan for the courseScript SamplesProvide learners with examples for scripting different segments of a podcastRun-down SampleProvide learners with an example of the outline format of a podcast Focus Activity TemplatesProvide learners the opportunity to apply knowledge in practice situations <br />Part 5b: Formative and/or Summative Assessment materials<br />This rubric may be used for self-assessment and peer feedback. <br />Rubric for Podcasts <br />CATEGORYExemplary Proficient Partially Proficient Incomplete POINTSIntroduction9 points 6 points 3 points 0 points   Catchy and cleverintroduction. Provides relevant information and establishes a clear purpose engaging the listener immediately.Describes the topic and engages the audience as the introduction proceeds. Somewhat engaging (covers well-known topic), and provides a vague purpose.Irrelevant or inappropriate topic that minimally engages listener. Does not include an introduction or the purpose is vague and unclear.Tells who is speaking, date the podcast was produced, and where the speaker is located.Tells most of the following: who is speaking, date of the podcast, and location of speaker.Alludes to who is speaking, date of the podcast, and location of speaker.Speaker is not identified. No production date or location of the speaker is provided.Content9 points 6 points3 points 0 points   Creativity and original content enhance the purpose of the podcast in an innovative way. Accurate information and succinct concepts are presented.Accurate information is provided succinctly.Some information is inaccurate or long-winded. Information is inaccurate.Vocabulary enhances content.Vocabulary is appropriate.Vocabulary is adequate.Vocabulary is inappropriate for the audience.Includes a wide variety of appropriate, well-researched and informative sources and has well-edited quotes from “expert” sources. Quotes and sources of information are credited appropriately and accurately.Includes appropriate and informative quotes from “expert” sources. Source quotes are credited appropriately.Includes some variety of informative quotes from some “expert” sources. Source quotes need some editing and some credits are missing.Includes no source quotes.Keeps clear and professional focus on the topic.Stays on the topic. Strays from topic.Does not stay on topic.Conclusion clearly summarizes key information.Conclusion summarizes information.Conclusion vaguely summarizes key informationNo conclusion is provided.Delivery3 points 2 points 1 point 0 points   Well rehearsed, smooth delivery in a relaxed and engaging style.Rehearsed, smooth delivery.Appears unrehearsed with uneven delivery.Delivery is hesitant, choppy, and sounds like the presenter is reading. Highly effective enunciation, expression, and rhythm keep the audience listening with focus.Enunciation, expression, pacing are effective.Enunciation, expression, and rhythm are sometimes distracting.Enunciation of spoken word is not clearly understandable or expression and rhythm are distracting throughout the podcast. Flawless grammar is consistently used throughout the podcast.Correct grammar is used during the podcast.Occasionally incorrect grammar is used during the podcast.Poor grammar is used throughout the podcast.Interview6 points 4 points 2 points 0 points   Open ended questions and follow-up questions draw interesting and relevant information from the interviewee.Open ended questionsand follow-up questions are used often and appropriately. Open ended questionsand follow-up questions are occasionally irrelevant to the topic.Only yes-or-no questions are used. No follow-up questions are asked. Graphic and Music Enhancements6 points 4 points 2 points 0 points   The graphics/artwork used creates a unique and effective presentation and enhance the podcast and follow the rules for quality graphic design.The graphics/artwork relates to the audio, reinforces content, and demonstrates functionality.The graphics/artwork sometimes enhances the quality and understanding of the presentation. The graphics are unrelated to the podcast. Artwork is inappropriate to podcast. Music enhances the mood, quality, and understanding of the presentation.Music provides supportive background to the podcast.Music is occasionally distracting to the podcast.Music is continually distracting to presentation. All graphic and music enhancements are owned by the creator of the podcast or are copyright cleared with appropriate & accurate documentation.Graphic and music enhancements are owned by the creator of the podcast or copyright cleared.Use of copyrighted works is questionable.Copyright infringement is obvious.Technical Production6 points 4 points 2 points 0 points   Transitions are smooth and spaced correctly without noisy, dead space.Transitions are smooth with a minimal amount of ambient noise. Transitions are uneven with inconsistent spacing; ambient noise is present.Transitions are abrupt and background noise needs to be filtered. Volume of voice, music, and effects enhance the presentation.Volume is acceptable.Volume is occasionally inconsistent.Volume changes are highly distracting. Podcast length keeps the audience interested and engaged.Podcast length keeps audience listening.Podcast length is somewhat long or somewhat short to keep audience engaged. Podcast is either too long or too short to keep the audience engaged. Podcast linked from a site that included descriptive subject tags.Podcast contained subject tags.Podcast contains limited subject tags.Podcast has no subject tags and difficult to locate online.Podcast occurs as part of a regularly scheduled series.Podcast occurs as part of a series. Podcast occurs randomly.Podcast occurs as a one-time event. Group/PartnerWork6 points 4 points 2 points 0 points   Each team member contributed equally to the finished product and assisted in the editing process by offering critique and sharing in skill development.Members contributed to finished product and assisted partner/group adequately.Some members finished own part but did not assist group/partner.Contributed little to the project. Performed all duties of assigned team role and contributed knowledge, opinions, and skills to share with the team. Excellent level of work.Performed nearly all duties and contributed knowledge, opinions, and skills to share with the team. Completed most of the assigned work. Team member was occasionally a distraction to the team. While performing most duties occasionally actions jeopardized the team’s performance.Did not perform any duties of assigned team role and did not contribute knowledge, opinions or skills to share with the team. Relied on others to do the work.TOTAL POINTS     /45<br />Bell, A. (2007) Rubrics for Assessment. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/rubrics.shtml<br />Part 5c: Technology Tool Justification<br />The following technology tool will used during instruction.<br />Technology ToolRationaleComputer with internet accessLearners will view samples of podcasts, along with publishing their podcasts to the school serverSchool ServerWill be used to host podcastsMicrophone (internal and external)Used to record audio for podcastMicrosoft Word Used to compose content for podcastAudacityUsed to record and edit audio content<br />Part 6: Formative Evaluation Plan<br />Part 6a: Expert Reviewer<br />Linda Grossglass will serve as the expert reviewer for this project. Linda is a high school English and French teacher with over 30 years of classroom experience. Linda has insight into the attitudes and apprehensions of the faculty and staff. She will be able to provide information into appropriate uses for Podcasting within the school district. Students, parents and the community have certain expectations when it comes to the resources of the school. Mrs. Grossglass can elaborate on past technological trends, along with their successes, failures, and insight on how to use this new technology so it may be utilized by all students in the district.<br />Part 6b: One to One Evaluation<br />Ashley Crook will participate in the one to one evaluation. Ms. Crook is a middle school special education teacher and a recent college graduate. Ashley’s current exposure to teaching methods and uses of technology will provide a fresh point of view for the podcast professional development course. There will be time to review the course objectives to see if they align with professional development requirements. Ashley will also review the method of instruction to examine the following: appropriate learning strategies, connection to current teaching practices, practical application to curriculum, and opportunities for feedback and reflection. Ms. Crook will evaluate the material and technological tools being used, and organization of the course. After evaluating each of these sections Ashley will be asked her input on ways to improve the design of the course for more efficient and effective instruction.<br />Part 6c: Small Group Evaluation<br />A small group of middle and high school teachers from Covington school district will participate in the small group evaluation. Approximately 5 to 7 teachers will attend this course, and each will be asked to evaluate each section of the course instruction. The number of participants gives a good sample to observe both individual and group work completed during the course. Each participant will be asked about their entry-level skills, comfort level of instruction, did they feel successful in completing each task, and how would they improve the course for future participants. Participants will also be asked about the use of technological tools for the course. Did they feel comfortable using the editing software Audacity? Were they able to successfully make links to their class websites, and what steps would they like to see added to improve the use of such technological tools?<br />Part 6d: Field Trial<br />After making adjustments to the design of the podcast course using feedback from the small group evaluations, a second group of teachers from the Covington school district will participate in the course. This group will consist of 12 to 15 middle and high school teachers. The instructor for this course will use the revised instructional guide while the designer observes interaction between instructor and students, and in group discussions. Evaluation forms will be used to gain feedback from the participant as to the usefulness and effectiveness of the course. Final podcast projects will serve as samples to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction, the use of technological tools and the creativity of the participants. <br />Part 7: Formative Evaluation Report<br />Part 7a: Evaluation Survey or Rubric<br />The following rubric will be used by the expert reviewer, Linda Grossglass to evaluate the course content, structure, and materials.<br />Beginning1Developing2Accomplished3Exemplary4Score Instruction Goals and Objectives Instructional goals and objectives are not stated. Learners cannot tell what is expected of them. Learners cannot determine what they should know and be able to do as a result of learning and instruction.Instructional goals and objectives are stated but are not easy to understand. Learners are given some information regarding what is expected of them. Learners are not given enough information to determine what they should know and be able to do as a result of learning and instruction.Instructional goals and objectives are stated. Learners have an understanding of what is expected of them. Learners can determine what they should know and be able to do as a result of learning and instruction.Instructional goals and objectives clearly stated. Learners have a clear understanding of what is expected of them. Learners can determine what they should know and be able to do as a result of learning and instruction. Instructional Strategies  Instructional strategies are missing or strategies used are inappropriate.Some instructional strategies are appropriate for learning outcome(s). Some strategies are based on a combination of practical experience, theory, research and documented best practice.Most instructional strategies are appropriate for learning outcome(s). Most strategies are based on a combination of practical experience, theory, research and documented best practice.Instructional strategies appropriate for learning outcome(s). Strategy based on a combination of practical experience, theory, research and documented best practice. Assessment  Method for assessing student learning and evaluating instruction is missing.Method for assessing student learning and evaluating instruction is vaguely stated. Assessment is teacher dependent.Method for assessing student learning and evaluating instruction is present. Can be readily used for expert, peer, and/or self-evaluation.Method for assessing student learning and evaluating instruction is clearly delineated and authentic. Can be readily used for expert, peer, and/or self-evaluation. Technology Used Selection and application of technologies is inappropriate (or nonexistent) for learning environment and outcomes.Selection and application of technologies is beginning to be appropriate for learning environment and outcomes. Technologies applied do not affect learning.Selection and application of technologies is basically appropriate for learning environment and outcomes. Some technologies applied enhance learning.Selection and application of technologies is appropriate for learning environment and outcomes. Technologies applied to enhance learning.Materials NeededMaterial list is missing.Some materials necessary for student and teacher to complete lesson are listed, but list is incomplete.Most materials necessary for student and teacher to complete lesson are listed.All materials necessary for student and teacher to complete lesson clearly listed.Organization and PresentationLesson plan is unorganized and not presented in a neat manner.Lesson plan is organized, but not professionally presented.Lesson plan is organized and neatly presented.Complete package presented in well organized and professional fashion.Total Points<br /> Resource: Tisdell, D. (1999). Integrating technology into your curriculum. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.k12.hi.us/~paia/int/rubtem.html<br />Part 7b: Report the Results of the Expert Review<br />The expert evaluation was thorough and insightful. The rubric proved to be a good guide for my reviewer. One question that came up during our discussion centered on the security of the podcasts. Could an unauthorized user access a teacher’s podcast file and change information? Would it be password protected? Will students be able to create secure podcasts? These are questions that will need to be reviewed with the school district’s computer support team. The description of creativity was another area we discussed on improving. What counts as being creative? Why is creativity important in a podcast? These questions are very important as they can lead to engaging students in the content. The remainder of our time was spent clarifying vocabulary and several grammatical errors. The expert review process was very successful.<br />Part 7c: Comments on Change Report<br />More description will need to be added in the following areas: RSS feeds, examples of creativity, and security. Future surveys will need to go out to the school districts technical support team and administration officials. Most of the changes suggested in the expert review were grammatical and involved minor corrections in the language of the instructional guide. Surveys given out during the small group and field test stage will address the areas of improvement. More examples will also be created to provide positive modeling for the target audience. Observations in the small group will provide more insight into developing more efficient and effective instruction.<br />Part 8: AECT Standards Grid<br />Professional Standards Addressed (AECT)<br />The following standards, developed by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), and used in the accreditation process established by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), are addressed to some degree in this course. The numbers of the standards correspond to the numbers next to the course tasks show on the list of assignments. Not all standards are addressed explicitly through student work.<br />Assignments meeting standard in whole or partStandard 1: DESIGN1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)XID Projects 1 & 21.1.1 AnalyzingXID Projects 11.1.2 DesigningXID Projects 1 & 21.1.3 DevelopingXID Projects 1 & 21.1.4 ImplementingXID Project 21.1.5 EvaluatingXSelected Discussion Forums; ID Project 21.2 Message Design1.3 Instructional StrategiesXID Project 21.4 Learner CharacteristicsXID Project 1Standard 2: DEVELOPMENT2.0 (includes 2.0.1 to 2.0.8)XID Project 022.1 Print TechnologiesXReading Quiz; ID Projects 1 & 22.2 Audiovisual Technologies2.3 Computer-Based TechnologiesX(all assignments)2.4 Integrated TechnologiesStandard 3: UTILIZATION3.0 (includes 3.0.1 & 3.0.2) 3.1 Media UtilizationX(all assignments)3.2 Diffusion of Innovations3.3 Implementation and InstitutionalizationXID Project 23.4 Policies and RegulationsStandard 4: MANAGEMENT4.0 (includes 4.0.1 & 4.0.3) 4.1 Project Management4.2 Resource Management4.3 Delivery System Management4.4 Information ManagementStandard 5: EVALUATION5.1 Problem AnalysisX5.2 Criterion-Referenced MeasurementXID Project 25.3 Formative and Summative EvaluationXID Project 25.4 Long-Range Planning<br />COURSE GOALS & OBJECTIVES<br />The overall goal for the course is for each student to consider and use the systematic process of instructional design to create an instructional product. To achieve this goal, students will engage in activities that promote reflective practice, emphasize realistic contexts, and employ a number of communications technologies. Following the course, students will be able to:<br />Discuss the historical development of the practice of instructional design with regard to factors that led to its development and the rationale for its use<br />Describe at least two reasons why instructional design models are useful<br />Identify at least six instructional design models and classify them according to their use<br />Compare and contrast the major elements of three theories of learning as they relate to instructional design<br />Define “instructional design.”<br />Define the word “systematic” as it relates to instructional design<br />Define “learning” and synthesize its definition with the practice of instructional design<br />Relate the design of instruction to the term “educational (or “instructional”) technology”<br />Describe the major components of the instructional design process and the functions of models in the design process<br /> Provide a succinct summary of various learning contexts (declarative knowledge, conceptual, declarative, principle, problem-solving, cognitive, attitudinal, and psychomotor)<br /> Build an instructional design product that integrates major aspects of the systematic process and make this available on the web.<br />Describe the rationale for and processes associated with needs, learner, context, goal, and task analyses<br />Create and conduct various aspects of a front-end analysis<br />Identify methods and materials for communicating subject matter that are contextually relevant<br />Describe the rationale for and processes associated with creating design documents (objectives, motivation, etc.)<br />Construct clear instructional goals and objectives<br />Develop a motivational design for a specific instructional task<br />Develop assessments that accurately measure performance objectives<br />Select and implement instructional strategies for selected learning tasks<br />Select appropriate media tools that support instructional design decisions<br />Describe the rationale and processes associated with the formative evaluation of instructional products<br />Create a plan for formative evaluation<br /> Identify and use technology resources to enable and empower learners with diverse backgrounds, characteristics, and abilities.<br /> Apply state and national content standards to the development of instructional products<br /> Meet selected professional standards developed by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology<br /> Use various technological tools for instructional and professional communication<br />AECT STANDARDS (Applicable to EDTECH 503)<br />1.0 Design<br />1.1 Instructional Systems Design<br />1.1. a Utilize and implement design principles which specify optimal conditions for learning.<br />1.1. b Identify a variety of instructional systems design models and apply at least one model.<br />1.1.1 Analyzing<br />1.1.1.a Write appropriate objectives for specific content and outcome levels.<br />1.1.1. b Analyze instructional tasks, content, and context.<br />1.1.2 Designing<br />1.1.2. a Create a plan for a topic of a content area (e.g., a thematic unit, a text chapter, an interdisciplinary unit) to demonstrate application of the principles of macro-level design.<br />1.1.2. b Create instructional plans (micro-level design) that address the needs of all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.<br />1.1.2. c Incorporate contemporary instructional technology processes in the development of interactive lessons that promote student learning.<br />1.1.3 Developing<br />1.1.3. a Produce instructional materials which require the use of multiple media (e.g., computers, video, projection).<br />1.1.3. b Demonstrate personal skill development with at least one: computer authoring application, video tool, or electronic communication application.<br />1.1.4 Implementing<br />1.1.4. a Use instructional plans and materials which they have produced in contextualized instructional settings (e.g., practica, field experiences, and training) that address the needs of all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.<br />1.1.5 Evaluating<br />1.1.5.a Utilize a variety of assessment measures to determine the adequacy of learning and instruction.<br />1.1.5.b Demonstrate the use of formative and summative evaluation within practice and contextualized field experiences.<br />1.1.5.c Demonstrate congruency among goals/objectives, instructional strategies, and assessment measures.<br />1.3 Instructional Strategies<br />1.3.a Select instructional strategies appropriate for a variety of learner characteristics and learning situations.<br />1.3.b Identify at least one instructional model and demonstrate appropriate contextualized application within practice and field experiences.<br />1.3.c Analyze their selection of instructional strategies and/or models as influenced by the learning situation, nature of the specific content, and type of learner objective.<br />1.3.d Select motivational strategies appropriate for the target learners, task, and learning situation.<br />1.4 Learner Characteristics<br />1.4.a Identify a broad range of observed and hypothetical learner characteristics for their particular area(s) of preparation.<br />1.4.b Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the selection of instructional strategies.<br />1.4.c Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the implementation of instructional strategies.<br />2.0 Development<br />2.0.1 Select appropriate media to produce effective learning environments using technology resources.<br />2.0.2 Use appropriate analog and digital productivity tools to develop instructional and professional products.<br />2.0.3 Apply instructional design principles to select appropriate technological tools for the development of instructional and professional products.<br />2.0.4 Apply appropriate learning and psychological theories to the selection of appropriate technological tools and to the development of instructional and professional products.<br />2.0.5 Apply appropriate evaluation strategies and techniques for assessing effectiveness of instructional and professional products.<br />2.0.6 Use the results of evaluation methods and techniques to revise and update instructional and professional products.<br />2.0.7 Contribute to a professional portfolio by developing and selecting a variety of productions for inclusion in the portfolio.<br />2.1 Print Technologies<br />2.1.3 Use presentation application software to produce presentations and supplementary materials for instructional and professional purposes.<br />2.1.4 Produce instructional and professional products using various aspects of integrated application programs.<br />2.3 Computer-Based Technologies<br />2.3.2 Design, produce, and use digital information with computer-based technologies.<br />3.0 Utilization<br />3.1 Media Utilization<br />3.1.1 Identify key factors in selecting and using technologies appropriate for learning situations specified in the instructional design process.<br />3.1.2 Use educational communications and instructional technology (SMETS) resources in a variety of learning contexts.<br />3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization<br />3.3.1 Use appropriate instructional materials and strategies in various learning contexts.<br />3.3.2 Identify and apply techniques for integrating SMETS innovations in various learning contexts.<br />3.3.3 Identify strategies to maintain use after initial adoption.<br />4.0 Management <br />(none specifically addressed in 503)<br />5.0 Evaluation<br />5.1 Problem Analysis<br />5.1.1 Identify and apply problem analysis skills in appropriate school media and educational technology (SMET) contexts (e.g., conduct needs assessments, identify and define problems, identify constraints, identify resources, define learner characteristics, define goals and objectives in instructional systems design, media development and utilization, program management, and evaluation).<br />5.2 Criterion-referenced Measurement<br />5.2.1 Develop and apply criterion-referenced measures in a variety of SMET contexts.<br />5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation<br />5.3.1 Develop and apply formative and summative evaluation strategies in a variety of SMET contexts.<br />SMET = School Media & Educational Technologies<br />Appendix A<br />Copyright 2007, ISTE ® (International Society for Technology in Education), Educator’s Podcast Guide, Bard Williams. 1.800.336.5191 or 1.541.302.3777 (Int’l),<br />iste@iste.org, www.iste.org. All rights reserved. Distribution and copying of this excerpt is allowed for educational purposes and use with full attribution to ISTE.<br />Excerpted from<br />Educator’s Podcast Guide<br />Bard Williams<br />Finally—a technology that helps bridge the gap between content delivery and<br />today’s “digital native” students. Podcasting is a method of making audio or video<br />content available regularly via the Web. It blends topical research and knowledge<br />collection with a radio- or TV-style presentation that’s perfect for the attention span<br />and learning style of today’s students. Part user manual, part curriculum planning<br />tool, and part implementation survival guide, The Educator’s Podcast Guide is an<br />essential resource for any educator who would like to integrate this exciting new tool<br />into the classroom.<br />In this excerpt, Bard Williams discusses how to choose the right podcasts for your<br />classroom.<br />44 Educator’s Podcast Guide<br />Part I Podcasting ›› What Are You Waiting For?<br />Copyright 2007, ISTE ® (International Society for Technology in Education), Educator’s Podcast Guide, Bard Williams.<br />1.800.336.5191 or 1.541.302.3777 (Int’l), iste@iste.org, www.iste.org. All rights reserved.<br />Distribution and copying of this excerpt is allowed for educational purposes and use with full attribution to ISTE.<br />Choosing the Right Podcasts<br />for Your Classroom<br />Every evening in most major markets there are more than 200 television shows airing on different regular and cable channels at one time. As anyone with a remote will tell you, often you surf through the channels<br />and find that there’s “nothing on.” Either the content isn’t compelling, or, more often, what’s offered is of low quality. Evaluating podcasts created by your students or by others is not an exact science. Besides looking at overall content and production value, things like the source are important too. Even though we’ve taken steps to qualify the podcasts in this book, as with any resource that enters your classroom, you’ll want to screen and evaluate the content to make sure it meets school and community standards<br />before recommending or using the podcast in your classroom. Since creating a podcast is easy, and the Nintendo generation loves to explore, you’ll find a sizeable (and growing) number of podcasts that probably are not appropriate for classroom use. Many young (and older) folks are using podcasts as audio or video blogs (Web logs) that chronicle their lives or offer opportunities to express opinions. It is very<br />important that you screen any podcast, but especially those created and served up as blogs. Like surfing the Web for other content, you just never know what might pop up in a podcast blog. Top 10 questions to ask as you evaluate podcasts for classroom use: <br />1. Is the content appropriate for your current area of study?<br />Back in the days when desktop computers were introduced into schools, we often felt compelled to use the technology because so many taxpayer resources went into funding them. There was sometimes a notion that if we didn’t use computers every day or provide equity of access across the school that we weren’t justifying the investment. In so many cases we trotted the class down to the computer lab “because it was Tuesday” and not because it necessarily fit well into what we were teaching at<br />the time. Kids left language arts classes to “do spreadsheets” or we scheduled seat time in the lab to appease a watchful PTA. <br />Educator’s Podcast Guide 45<br />Evaluating Podcasts for Classroom Use Chapter 3<br />Copyright 2007, ISTE ® (International Society for Technology in Education), Educator’s Podcast Guide, Bard Williams.<br />1.800.336.5191 or 1.541.302.3777 (Int’l), iste@iste.org, www.iste.org. All rights reserved.<br />Distribution and copying of this excerpt is allowed for educational purposes and use with full attribution to ISTE.<br />OK. Not everyone really did that, but some of us did because we understood both the power and limitations of computer technology in schools. With podcasts it’s kind of the same process. We’ll be tempted to grab podcasts off the Web or assign students to search out podcasts because everyone’s talking about them and so they must be good. The reality is that podcasts are more like resource materials, or,<br />if you’re teaching how to make a podcast, an exercise in technology awareness and skill building. When<br />you browse the podcasts in this book, make sure to think about how appropriate the content in that podcast is for the knowledge needs and grade level of your students. <br />2. Does the podcast add to or enhance your current lesson plan?<br />As with any resource, you’ll find that podcast content can be an excellent way to turbocharge many activities. If you’re a foreign language teacher, for example, you’re highly likely to find a good quality audio or video podcast in your language of choice—perfect for students to use to learn, hone, or review skills. Of course, the trick is to listen to the podcast yourself first and direct the learner toward a goal (some way to demonstrate learning).<br />3. Does the content and production of the podcast meet school and<br />community standards for acceptable use in your school?<br />Freedom of speech is a wonderful and treasured thing. You’ll find examples of people speaking their mind all over the Web in the form of all kinds of digital content. Many people have discovered that they’d<br />rather speak their mind than type their minds and are launching diaries, blogs, and diatribes in the form of podcasts in record numbers. That means, of course, that you’re likely to be able to find and listen to or view just about anything you can imagine (and many things you couldn’t imagine) as podcasts.<br />Example Podcasts<br />Grab two or three examples of exemplary podcasts and burn them to a CD to distribute to other<br />teachers in your school or district. You might also corral other teachers in your subject area and<br />develop lesson plans that logically integrate podcasts.<br />›› TIP<br />46 Educator’s Podcast Guide<br />Part I Podcasting ›› What Are You Waiting For?<br />Copyright 2007, ISTE ® (International Society for Technology in Education), Educator’s Podcast Guide, Bard Williams.<br />1.800.336.5191 or 1.541.302.3777 (Int’l), iste@iste.org, www.iste.org. All rights reserved.<br />Distribution and copying of this excerpt is allowed for educational purposes and use with full attribution to ISTE.<br />It usually takes about 45 seconds to determine if something just doesn’t feel right for your classroom.<br />Content might be littered with expletives, present ideas uncomfortable or inappropriate for your school or just content that’s non-factual. There’s also the need to watch for the production value of the podcast.<br />If the audio or video is garbled, the speaker speaks too quickly, the volume is impossibly low, there’s<br />background noise that distracts or other annoyances, it’s probably a good clue that you should move on<br />to select another podcast resource. Not to say that all useful podcasts are jazzy Hollywood productions<br />with professional intro music and syrupy-voiced hosts. Some of the best podcasts I’ve heard were very<br />simply presented. A word to the wise is to carefully evaluate the source, credibility, content and presentation of a podcast or podcast provider before you assign the podcast as required or optional listening.<br />4. Is the content of the podcast well organized and easy to follow?<br />A good Web site offers content that is logically organized and always lets the site visitor know where they are in the site structure. Like great Web sites, the best examples of podcasts offer digital signposts such as a specific introduction announcing the topic, date, audience and other information and, in the case of a longer podcast (an hour), several “you’re listening to a podcast from ABC Elementary School, Anywhere, USA” breaks. In addition, if your podcast is over about 15 minutes long, you should probably subdivide your content into logical units and provide an audio table of contents to kick things off. If you’re evaluating rather than creating podcasts, listen for those “digital signposts” and for rambling content. <br />Develop a checklist<br />Check out chapter 3 and work with your students to develop a checklist for evaluating the<br />content and appropriateness of podcasts to be used in your classroom. Post the final checklist<br />on your school’s Web site or find other ways to share it with others.<br />›› TIP<br />Educator’s Podcast Guide 47<br />Evaluating Podcasts for Classroom Use Chapter 3<br />Copyright 2007, ISTE ® (International Society for Technology in Education), Educator’s Podcast Guide, Bard Williams.<br />1.800.336.5191 or 1.541.302.3777 (Int’l), iste@iste.org, www.iste.org. All rights reserved.<br />Distribution and copying of this excerpt is allowed for educational purposes and use with full attribution to ISTE.<br />Think about how audio books are presented (if you’ve not tried audio books, you’re missing something—visit www.audible.com for some free and commercial titles) and try to choose podcasts that employ some of the same organizational methods (chapters, outlines, etc.). <br />5. Is the content of the podcast compelling enough to hold the<br />attention of your audience?<br />It’s no secret that the attention span of our students, just like most of us, seems to be decreasing with time. In this age of immediate information gratification, we’re not used to waiting for anything and we’re<br />not likely to tolerate material that we think is boring. Like most other audio or video media, podcasts span the continuum from can’t get enough to deadly boring. It’s a highly subjective evaluation of course,<br />since something you consider boring might be positively addictive for others. A general rule of thumb is to listen to the podcast and balance your evaluation between the importance of the content and the delivery. Every educational podcast, like every education film, won’t be Top Gun but at least you can toss the ones that drone on more like the teacher in Ferris Bueller’s Day Off… “anyone, anyone?”<br />6. Is the podcast in a digital format that works for your classroom?<br />Most of the downloadable podcasts are MP3 files, the same kind of files you’re used to downloading for your iPod or other MP3 player. There are podcasts that are in other formats such as MOV (QuickTime), MPEG or even AVI. MP3 files are most compatible with the largest number of desktop and mobile devices, and the tools used to create, edit and share podcasts. Stick with MP3 as a format and you should have an easier introduction to podcasting.<br />7. Was the podcast produced by a source you consider credible?<br />Because you’re using (assigning?) podcasts as a replacement or enhancement of other classroom curriculum resources, it is your role to ensure that the content presented is factual and aligned to your classroom and district’s goals and objectives, meets curriculum standards, and that the information doesn’t confuse (or enrage) learners.<br />48 Educator’s Podcast Guide<br />Part I Podcasting ›› What Are You Waiting For?<br />Copyright 2007, ISTE ® (International Society for Technology in Education), Educator’s Podcast Guide, Bard Williams.<br />1.800.336.5191 or 1.541.302.3777 (Int’l), iste@iste.org, www.iste.org. All rights reserved.<br />Distribution and copying of this excerpt is allowed for educational purposes and use with full attribution to ISTE.<br />Just like any article you research in the library or download from the Web, you should always consider the source when selecting a podcast. Tried and true sources like the NEA, CSPAN, CNN, and the Discovery Channel are probably safer than “Todd’s podcast.” That’s not to say that “Todd’s podcast” isn’t good and factual, it’s just a caveat emptor situation. You can assess the credibility of the source by looking at the hosting site (the place you go to actually download the podcast), the author, the group backing the podcast, and the resources cited during the podcast if the podcast is instructional in nature.<br />8. Is listening to the podcast the best method of learning about this<br />topic for your students?<br />As an educator you have the wonderful option of many different ways to convey information. We use video, the Web, textbooks, and even (gasp!) paper handouts. Podcasts, presented in the proper context in a learning environment, are a great way to deliver information, especially for auditory (or visual if it’s a video podcast) learners. The ability to stop, start and replay also makes for a tool appropriate for students with special learning needs or challenges—as well as everyone else who wishes to learn by repetition. As you listen to and review podcasts for use in your classroom, take special care to think about all the tools available and resist the “just because it’s cool” temptation. Podcasts can enrich the learning environment—when they are selected as the right tool for the right job. <br />9. Is the podcast supported by additional online content (a Web site<br />with further resources or archives, for example)?<br />As podcasting takes hold on the Net, you’ll find more and more examples of content-rich Web sites that provide more information about the content you hear in a podcast. In other cases, the Web site gives basic<br />information and the podcast gives you the “advanced” content. Many sites, especially those hosting education-related podcasts, offer rich libraries of print and multimedia content that provide opportunities<br />to broaden learning.<br />Educator’s Podcast Guide 49<br />Evaluating Podcasts for Classroom Use Chapter 3<br />Copyright 2007, ISTE ® (International Society for Technology in Education), Educator’s Podcast Guide, Bard Williams.<br />1.800.336.5191 or 1.541.302.3777 (Int’l), iste@iste.org, www.iste.org. All rights reserved.<br />Distribution and copying of this excerpt is allowed for educational purposes and use with full attribution to ISTE.<br />10. Does the podcast include any usage rights that limit the broadcast<br />or distribution of content?<br />Like radio and TV, podcast content is subject to digital rights management. While the majority of podcasts are distributed as “freeware” (free subscription), some media outlets and professional content providers are beginning to offer podcast content as a paid subscription. That means, of course, that it’s up to you to police the use and distribution of that content. Check the hosting Web site to see if there are any<br />restrictions beyond fair use that might dictate what you do with the podcast content. If you or your students create your own podcasts and wish to establish usage rights, check out Creative Commons (http://creativecommons. org/podcasting/) for a free option for tagging your podcasts to legally<br />protect content. This site offers a set of common sense rules for sharing content (music, blog info, podcasts).<br />Rubrics for Podcast Evaluation<br />Evaluating podcasts as curriculum materials is different from evaluating the content from podcasts brought into the classroom. Most find that, like many other more creative endeavors in the schools, it’s<br />better to use a rubric created by you or your students to assess podcast projects. There are obviously many elements to a podcast, but what follows are three teacher-tested favorites for evaluating podcast content. These rubrics focus on general content, technical content, and related skills. Here are a couple of rubrics you can use to evaluate podcasts created by students or teachers. The rubrics below are a compendium of the 40 or so rubrics submitted or researched for the publication of this book. They each offer a different perspective but are designed to be highly customizable, so don’t be afraid to excerpt these or make your own from scratch.<br />Copyright 2007, ISTE ® (International Society for Technology in Education), Educator’s Podcast Guide, Bard Williams. 1.800.336.5191 or 1.541.302.3777 (Int’l),<br />iste@iste.org, www.iste.org. All rights reserved. Distribution and copying of this excerpt is allowed for educational purposes and use with full attribution to ISTE.<br />Let Bard Williams introduce you to a smorgasbord of educationrelated<br />podcasts sorted by curriculum area! Order now by phone,<br />by fax, or online. Single copy price is $31.95. ISTE member price is<br />$28.75. Special bulk pricing is available. Call 1.800.336.5191 or go to<br />www.iste.org/edpod1/.<br />Appendix B<br />Published: December 7, 2005<br />Podcasting Craze Comes to K-12 Schools<br />Educators discover value of Internet audio programs.<br />By Rhea R. Borja<br />Arlington, Va.<br />The rustle of dry leaves on pavement. The syncopated claps of middle school cheerleaders. The shouts of soccer players at practice, and the resounding thwump of a black-and-white ball kicked down a field. On a balmy November afternoon, Gunston Middle School 8th graders Elizabeth O’Neil and Timothy Touch recorded those typical after-school sounds here with an iPod, the wildly popular recording and listening device from Apple Computer Inc. Using an iPod, 8th grader Elizabeth O'Neil records an interview with classmate Davis Tran as he works on the set design for a play at Gunston Middle School.<br />—Christopher Powers/Education Week<br />Afterward, they ambled into a stuffy computer lab at their suburban Washington school. They uploaded the sounds onto a computer, spliced and edited them, added music, and wrote and recorded an introduction. Then the students released the two-minute snippet over the Internet, to the world beyond their school walls.<br />Voila!: the newest edition of “Buzzwords,” Gunston Middle’s student-run podcast, a free, weekly audio show courtesy of the Internet. Podcasting, a term derived from combining “iPod” and “broadcasting,” is homegrown, 24/7-accessible Web radio for the masses. Listeners can subscribe via free “podcatching” software, which automatically delivers podcasts to their computers. Podcasts exist on just about any subject under the sun: retro television shows, local politics, and marathon running. There’s even “Copcast,” a podcast “for cops, by cops.” Now, a small but rapidly increasing number of K-12 schools are taking part in the trend, experts say.<br />Educators are starting to see how podcasting can help hone students’ vocabulary, writing, editing, public speaking, and presentation skills, said Dan J. Schmit, an instructional-technology specialist at the University of Nebraska’s college of education. Students can also learn skills that will be valuable in the working world, such as communication, time management, and problem-solving, he said.<br />Learning Curve<br />“I’ve been talking to people about podcasting for a year now, and before, they were like, ‘What is it?’ ” said Mr. Schmit, who is also the author of Kidcast: Podcasting in the Classroom, published this year by Bloomington, Ind.-based FTC Publishing Co. “Now we’re getting to the point where [teachers] can see the potential.” Others caution, though, that while podcasting is getting easier as the software and equipment for it<br />becomes more user-friendly, teachers who aren’t techies still need to carve out some time to negotiate podcasting’s learning curve. Many teachers interested in podcasting so far seem to be in English language arts, foreign languages, or social studies. They also tend to be technology mavens.<br />Podcasting Resources<br />How to create a podcast:<br />1: Record sound using a digital audio recorder or an MP3 player with a recording function, such as an<br />iPod, and a microphone. Or, you can skip this step by recording directly onto a computer’s hard drive<br />via the machine's imbedded microphone.<br />2: Transfer the sound from your recording device to a computer.<br />3: Edit the sound and add music, voice-overs, or other audio elements using production software such<br />as Sony Corp.’s Acid Music Studio, Apple Computer Inc.’s GarageBand, or the free, open-source<br />software Audacity.<br />4: Compress the finished product into an MP3 format.<br />5: Post the audio on a Web server.<br />6: Create a Really Simple Syndication, or RSS, feed of the audio file through online services such as<br />www.libsyn.com so listeners can subscribe to the podcast.<br />7: Submit your podcast to podcast directories such as Apple's iTunes Music Store and Podcast Alley.<br />A few online links for more information on podcasting:<br />• http://edtech.ocde.us/ learning/podcasting/<br />• www.apple.com/education/ podcasting/<br />• www.edupodder.com<br />• www.podsafeaudio.com<br />• http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ Podcasting-Education/<br />A few online links to podcasting software:<br />• http://audacity.sourceforge.net/<br />• www.apple.com/ilife/garageband<br />• www.sonymediasoftware.com<br />How to listen to podcasts:<br />Listeners can "subscribe" to podcasts via podcasting software, which uses RSS technology. When a<br />new podcast comes out, the listener's computer automatically downloads it, then subscribers can<br />transfer it at their convenience to an MP3 player, such as an iPod or personal digital assistant (PDA).<br />A few examples of K-12 podcasts:<br />• "Kids in the Coulee"<br />• "Buzzwords"<br />• "Radio WillowWeb"<br />• "Music Appreciation Podcasts"<br />Some links where you can find and subscribe to podcasts:<br />• www.apple.com/itunes/podcasts/<br />• www.podcasts.yahoo.com/<br />• www.podcastalley.com/<br />• www.odeo.com/<br />• www.thepodcastnetwork.com/<br />—Rhea Borja<br />“There’s no one-click solution yet,” said Robert Craven, the coordinator for instructional technology for the Costa Mesa, Calif.-based Orange County Department of Education, which works with 28 school districts. “That’s holding teachers back a bit.” The potential for reaching a larger audience, the creative possibilities of the technology, and students’<br />ease with new technology has sparked widespread enthusiasm for podcasting among Gunston Middle School students, who work on “Buzzwords” after the school day ends.<br />Like many of the schools that podcast, Gunston has only a handful of iPods for student use. A $1,200 Arlington County grant paid for three iPods and microphones, and students produce the podcasts on computers loaded with music-recording software.<br />“This is another form of expression,” said language arts teacher John P. Stewart, the head of Gunston’s “Buzzwords” podcast. “I already run a quasi-underground literary magazine for students. This … takes it to the next level.” The term podcast is somewhat misleading, because an actual iPod isn’t needed. Another name for this cultural phenomenon is “audioblog”—an aural version of Web logs, another sign of the technology zeitgeist.<br />Anyone with a digital audio recorder, an Internet-connected computer, a microphone, and cheap or free recording software can create a podcast. Consequently, the number of education podcasts has exploded over the past year. In Apple’s “iTunes<br />Music Store,” almost 1,000 secondary and higher education podcasts exist. Yahoo.com listed 625 education podcasts last month, and PodcastAlley.com has 360 podcasts in its “education” genre.<br />“The growth has been phenomenal,” said Stan C. Ng, the iPod product marketing director for Apple, based in Cupertino, Calif. “We’ve seen a lot of interest in [K-12] education.” In fact, interest in podcasting was so great at a K-12 educational technology conference in Philadelphia this past summer that a standing-room-only crowd of 200 teachers attended an Apple-sponsored seminar on the subject—and another 200 had to be turned away, said an Apple spokesman. He added that the company held a second workshop to accommodate the remaining teachers.<br />Many education-related podcasts are aimed at college or graduate students, but a growing number are created for and by precollegiate students. Seventh graders at Longfellow Middle School in LaCrosse, Wis., recorded essays and music on their<br />“hopes and dreams,” and photo presentations on crayfish dissection and mealworms’ life cycle in their “Kids in the Coulee” podcasts (www.lacrosseschools.com/longfellow/sc/New/).<br />Students at Willowdale Elementary School in Millard, Neb., wrote and recorded a play on the Revolutionary War on their weekly “Willowcast” podcast. And music-appreciation students at North High School in St. Paul, Minn., waxed enthusiastic on their podcasts about the local heavy-metal music scene and musicians of the 1960s and ’70s.<br />‘Something Incredible’<br />A potential audience of millions inspires the 7th graders at Longfellow Middle School to spend hours of their own time writing, editing, and splicing their podcasts, said language arts teacher Jeanne Halderson, who works with the students in class, at lunch, and after school. “I feel that something incredible is happening here,” she said. “I have kids who want a pass every day for lunch so they can work on their podcasts. So far, there has been no grade or credit for this.” She began the “Kids in the Coulee”—French for “hills”—podcast in September with just a few computers. The students spoke directly into the microphones imbedded in the computers. <br />Since then, the podcast project has become so popular that she ordered 10 iPods, and the class is crafting handmade greeting cards as a fund-raiser to pay for them. Many of the students don’t have their own iPods, which typically retail from $99 to $399. The ones who do own them, keep them at home so they won’t get lost or stolen, several students said. Longfellow 7th grader Alyssa M. Gilbertson described the appeal of creating a podcast. “When you’re writing an essay,” she said, “you don’t try your hardest because after you’re done, you throw it away or put it in a box.” But with podcasts, she said, “now we try a lot harder because we want other people to know that we [can] do more. We want people to hear us.”<br />Vol. 25, Issue 14, Page 8<br />