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EMPATIC - Exploitation Strategy


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EMPATIC - Exploitation Strategy

  1. 1.    Exploitation  Strategy  Author:     Sabina  Cisek  Contributing  Authors:     Carla  Basili,  Monika  Krakowska,  Carol  Priestley,  Maria  Próchnicka,     Magdalena  Wójcik,  Bulent  Yilmaz       Ver:  0.3     This  project  has  been  funded  with  support  from  the  European  Commission     1        
  2. 2.              Empower Autonomous Learning through Information Competencies          Exploitation  Strategy    Author:     Sabina  Cisek,    Contributing  Authors:     Carla  Basili,  Monika  Krakowska,  Carol  Priestley,  Maria   Próchnicka,  Magdalena  Wójcik,  Bulent  Yilmaz                    This  project  has  been  funded  with  support  from  the  European  Commission    This  publication  reflects  the  views  only  of  the  authors,  and  the  Commission  cannot  be  held  responsible  for  any  use  which  may  be  made  of  the  information  contained  therein               2    
  3. 3.  EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY    The  present  report  constitutes  the  delivery  D7.1  of  the  Work  Package  7:  Exploitation  strategy.    The  core  objectives  of  the  EMPATIC  project  are  to:   1. draw   together   and   valorise   the   results   of   previous   Information   Literacy   initiatives   and   projects  across  the  school,  university,  adult  and  vocational  learning  sectors;     2. use  this  evidence  to  influence  policy  makers’  perceptions  and  actions  to  support  a  marked   increase  in  piloting  and  mainstreaming  of  Information  Literacy;   3. have   a   significant   impact   on   validating   new   learning   paradigms   and   strategic   thinking   on   curriculum  reform.  Within  the  work  plan  of  EMPATIC,  the  Work  Package  7  is  aimed  to  provide  a  strategy  and  set  of  recommendations   setting   out   ways   and   means   to   improve   the   spread   and   level   of   Information  Literacy  at  both  transversal  level  and  across  the  four  sectors.  It   also   proposes   a   future   means   of   stakeholder   community   ownership   and   maintenance   of   the  portal  environment.         3    
  4. 4.  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS      EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY  .................................................................................................................  3  SECTION  1:  INTRODUCTION  .........................................................................................................  5  SECTION  2:  STRATEGY  ..................................................................................................................  6  2.1.     EmPatic  impact  and  sustainability  ..........................................................................................  6  2.2.     strategy  of  il  promotion  ....................................................................................................  7  SECTION  3:  SUMMARY  FINDINGS   .................................................................................................  7  3.1.     SUMMARY  FINDINGS  –  INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  SCHOOL  SECTOR  ...........................  7  3.2.     SUMMARY  FINDINGS  –  INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  HIGHER  EDUCATION  SECTOR  ........  8  3.3     SUMMARY  FINDINGS  –  INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  VOCATIONAL  EDUCATION  AND   TRAINING  SECTOR  ...................................................................................................................  9  3.4     SUMMARY  FINDINGS  –  INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  ADULT  EDUCATION  /  LIFELONG   LEARNING  SECTOR  ................................................................................................................  10  SECTION  4:  RECOMMENDATIONS  TO  POLICY  MAKERS  ...............................................................  11  4.1     CONTEXT  ...............................................................................................................................  12  4.2     Information  Literacy  in  the  school  learning  sector  –Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  (the   Comenius  programme  area)  .................................................................................................  15  4.3     Informtioan  Literacy  in  the  Higher  Education  learning  sector  (HE)  Recommendations  to   Policy  Makers  (the  Erasmus  programme  area)  .....................................................................  16  4.4     Information  Literacy  in  the  vocational  education  and  training  sector  (VET)   Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  (the  Leonardo  da  Vinci  programme  area)  ..................  17  4.5     Information  Literacy  in  the  adult  learning  sector  –  Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  (the   grundtvig  programme  area)   ..................................................................................................  18  4.6.     Information  Literacy  in  the  four  learning  sectors  (school,  higher  education,  vocational   education  and  training,  and  adult/lifelong  learning)  –  General,  Non-­‐sector  Specific   Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  made  by  the  final  conferences  participants  ...............  19  5.    CONCLUSIONS   .......................................................................................................................  20  REFERENCES  ..............................................................................................................................  21     4    
  5. 5.  SECTION  1:  INTRODUCTION      The   present   text   constitutes   the   Deliverable  7.1   of   the   Work   Package   7  of   the   EMPATIC   project.  It  utilises  the  results  of  all  of  the  project’s  work  and  evidence  gained  to  date  in  formulating  a  set  of  recommendations   to   policy   makers   about   Information   Literacy   (IL).   The   main   purpose   of   those  recommendations  is  to  stimulate  action  at  national  levels.    The   EMPATIC   project   is   funded   under   the   EU   Lifelong   Learning   Programme   (LLP)   and   has   a  transversal   nature.   Consequently,   the   present   document   exposes   the   educational   side   of   the  Information   Literacy   development   and   takes   into   account   four   learning   sectors   encompassed   by  LLP,  related  to  the  four  ongoing  sectoral  programmes,  that  is  school  (Comenius),  higher  education  (Erasmus),  vocational  (Leonardo  da  Vinci)  and  adult  (Grundtvig)  ones.    The   Deliverable   7.1,   embraces   the   IL-­‐related   strategy   and   recommendations,   is   aimed   at   setting  out  ways  and  means  to  improve  the  spread  and  level  of  Information  Literacy  at  both  transversal  level  and  across  the  four  learning  sectors.    As   it   makes   a   part   of   the   larger   work   and   should   be   read   together   with   the   previous   EMPATIC  products,  in  particular  –  the  Deliverable  1.1,  where  the  concept  of  Information  Literacy  (IL)  itself  has  been  discussed  and  defined.  Also,  in  the  Deliverable  1.1,  entitled  “Report  on  current  state  and  best   practices   in   Information   Literacy”,   various   aspects,   dimensions   and   levels   of   IL   have   been  meticulously  characterized  on  the  basis  of  the  extensive  literature  research.    In   addition,   EMPATIC   hosted   two   events   for   the   IL   stakeholders   and   policy   makers   (academics,  educators,   IL   authors,   information   professionals,   librarians,   school   and   HE   authorities,   teachers,  etc.)  to  verify  findings  and  recommendations.    The  first  one  was  the  International  Conference  “Literacy  and  Society,  Culture,  Media,  &  Education”  [],   held   on   9-­‐11   February   2012   in   Ghent,   Belgium,  and  organized  by  the  Department  of  Educational  Studies  of  Ghent  University  in  cooperation  with  the  EMPATIC  and  EMSOC  (User  Empowerment  in  a  Social  Media  Culture,  teams.    The   second   one,   that   of   the   Final   Conference,   was   organized   in   conjunction   with   EMMILE   (the  European   Meeting   on   Media   and   Information   Literacy,   in   Milan,  Italy  on  27-­‐29  February  2012.    This   paper   consists   of   the   four   sections,   although   the   ones   of   main   importance   are   the   sections  “Summary  Findings”  and  “Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers”.       5    
  6. 6.  SECTION  2:  STRATEGY      In  Section  2  we  discuss  two  interrelated  but  not  dissimilar  issues,  that  is:     • How   to   properly   exploit   findings   of   the   EMPATIC   project   after   it   is   completed?   What   steps  can  be  taken  for  continued  sustainability  and  impact  of  EMPATIC?  How  to  make   its  results  lastingly  useful  for  1)  general  public  and  2)  specified  target  groups?     • How  to  promote  the  importance  of  Information  Literacy  to  policy  makers?    What  kind   of  strategy  needs  to  be  implemented  in  this  respect?      2.1.     EMPATIC  IMPACT  AND  SUSTAINABILITY    The  means  and  ways  to  ensure  continued  sustainability  and  impact  of  EMPATIC  are  as  follows:    2.1.1 The  EMPATIC  official  website  http://empat-­‐  and  other  webpages  and  blogs  related  to   the  project  should  be  maintained  and  updated  also  after  the  EMPATIC  project  is  formally   completed.        EMPATIC  PMB  members  discussed  this  point  very  carefully.    Two  possible  hosts  became  possible  to  consider:   a) European   network   for   Information   Literacy   (EnIL):   coordinated   by   one   of   the   EMPATIC   project  partners  CERIS,  and   b) the  European  Conference  for  Information  Literacy  (ECIL)  –  a  new  informal  association   of   significant   persons   and   institutions   committed   to   IL,   with   the   intention   to   host   an   annual   conference   to   discuss   issues   emerging   as   important   or   to   be   resolved   in   the   field.  After   considering   all   aspects,   the   PMB   selected   EnIL   as   the   future   host   of   the   website.    Familiarisation  and  training  was  provided  by  MDR  and  the  maintenance  of  the  website  transferred  to  EnIL  in  March  2012.      2.1.2 Project   members   will   write   articles   related   to   EMPATIC   and   Information   Literacy   and   publish  them  in  professional/scholarly  journals  or  collective  works,  in  different  languages,   not  only  English.    2.1.3 Project  members  will  take  part  in  the  appropriate  national  and  international  conferences   speaking  about  EMPATIC-­‐related  matters.  At  the  time  of  writing  this  report,  events  where   the   findings   and   recommendations   of   EMPATIC   will   be   promoted   and   discussed   already   include:     • QQML4  in  Limerick,  Ireland,  May  2012     • The   Road   to   Information   Literacy:   Librarians   as   Facilitators   of   Learning,   IFLA   Satellite   meeting  in  Tampere,  Finland,  August  8,  9,  10,  2012     • World  Congress  on  Libraries  and  Information  (WLIC),  14-­‐18th  August  2012,  Helsinki   • Media  &  Learning  Conference  2012,  14-­‐15  November,  Brussels   • Collaboration  with  organizations  interested  in  the  IL  development,  both  international,   including  UNESCO,  and  national  like  Komisja  Edukacji  Informacyjnej  SBP  in  Poland.         6    
  7. 7.  A  meeting  with  UNESCO  and  IFLA  has  been  planned  for  14  August  2012,  where  discussion  will  take  place   on   collaboration   between   the   UNESCO   work   in   curriculum   and   IL   indicators   and   potential  EMPATIC  work  in  the  area  of  policy.    2.2.     STRATEGY  OF  IL  PROMOTION    As   many   organizations   are   involved   in   the   field   of   IL,   a   number   of   additional   measures   to   increase  the   involvement   of   communities,   Government,   academic,   non-­‐profit,   and   different   social   groups  through  activities  can  be  employed.  These  should  have  the  aims  to:   •     provide   a  forum  for  discussion  and  for  advice  to  decision  makers,  committees,  or  other   executive  boards;   •     inform  and  advise  on  behalf  of  decision  makers,  including  development  of  good  practice   and  providing  expertise;   •     assist  practitioners  in  developing  policy  and  practice  and  stimulates  further  development   of  policy  and  strategic  thinking;   •     provide  a  route  for  communicating  with  IL  interests  and  professional  groups.      SECTION  3:  SUMMARY  FINDINGS      In   Section   3   we   discuss   summary   findings   of   the   entire   EMPATIC   project   (desk   research,  discussions,  four  sectoral  validation  workshops,  two  international  final  conferences).      3.1.     SUMMARY  FINDINGS  –  INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  SCHOOL  SECTOR    Through   EMPATIC’s   validation   process,   the   important   issues   for   Information   Literacy   (IL)   in   the  Schools  Sector  have  been  identified  to  include:   • IL  development  strategies  in  European  countries  are  “taken-­‐for-­‐granted”  but  valid  IL  policy   assumptions  do  not  necessarily  exist;   • a   detailed   Information   Literacy   strategy   is   needed.   However,   educational   systems,   information  cultures,  and  experiences  with  IL  development  in  every  EU  country  are  different,   so   what   works   in   one   part   of   Europe   may   not   work   in   the   other.   As   a   result   it   would   be   better   to   formulate   European   Information   Literacy   standards   in   terms   of   learning   outcomes;   these   would   identify   a   set   of   IL   goals   to   be   achieved   in   different   appropriate   ways   and   by   various   means   within   formal,   informal   and   non-­‐formal   learning   environments.   In   other   words,   the   aims   of   IL   should   be   the   same   across   Europe   in   general,   but   IL   development   strategies  need  to  be  national  in  specifics;   • who   is   to   be   responsible   for   the   introduction   and   development   of   Information   Literacy?   Should   it   be   a   central   national   body?   The   answer   is   not   simple.   Generally,   central   bodies   are   appropriate  to  set  goals  but  the  cooperative  work  of  all  interested  parties  and  stakeholders   at  local  level,  in  local  communities,  is  where  real  work  is  or  can  be  achieved;     7    
  8. 8.   • the   young   generation,   so-­‐called   “digital   natives”,   do   not   necessarily   have   an   “inherent”   culture   of   information;   they   also   must   undergo   education   and   training   in   the   field   of   Information  Literacy;     • school  management  and  teachers  are  the  most  important  stakeholders  in  the  schools  sector,   they   must   be   aware   of   what   Information   Literacy   is,   why   it   is   so   important   and   how   to   learn/teach  IL  in  schools;     • librarians  and  information  professionals,  who  are  traditionally  engaged  in  IL-­‐related  matters   everywhere,  must  cooperate  with  all  other  parties/stakeholders  involved  in  the  educational   processes,  to  include:  headmasters,  teachers,  parents,  students,  local  authorities,  and  other   people  having  important  social  functions  in  their  local  communities.      3.2.     SUMMARY  FINDINGS  –  INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  HIGHER  EDUCATION   SECTOR    Developing  lifelong  learners  is  central  to  the  mission  of  higher  education  institutions.  Colleges  and  universities   provide   their   graduates   with   the   foundation   for   continued   growth   throughout   their  future   careers,   as   well   as   in   their   roles   as   informed   citizens   and   members   of   communities   by  ensuring   that   individuals   have   the   intellectual   abilities   of   reasoning   and   critical   thinking,   and   by  helping  them  to  construct  a  framework  for  learning  how  to  learn.  As  has  already  been  stressed,  Information  Literacy  is  a  key  component  of,  and  contributor  to,  lifelong  learning.  Through  EMPATIC’s  validation  process,  it  has  been  determined  that:   • Information   Literacy   is   internationally   recognised   as   a   requisite   of   the   Information   Society   and  of  the  Knowledge  Economy;   • the  labour  market  requires  flexibility  in  terms  of  professional  self-­‐requalification  and  lifelong   learning   attitude.   This,   in   turn,   requires   individuals   –   inter   alia–   to   dominate   the   current   information  environment  in  HE.  The  major  challenge  to  IL  in  the  HE  sector  is  curricular  reform,  where  a  number  of  elements  are  to  be  considered,  including:   • learning  outcomes;   • recognition  of  informal  learning;   • flexible,   modernised   curricula   at   all   levels   which   correspond   to   the   needs   of   the   labour   market  (transversal  skills).   8    
  9. 9.  These  challenges  lead  to  a  number  of  questions:   • is   Information   Literacy   a   discipline   of   study?   A   strong   assumption   underlying   the   institutionalisation   of   IL   is   to   recognise   that   it   is   a   discipline   in   its   own   right,   to   be   conceived   mainly  as  "knowledge"  rather  than  "ability";   • can   Information   Literacy   be   inserted   into   university   curricula,   for   example,   like   Computer   Science?  IL  is  a  diffused  discipline;  it  is  transversal  and  useful  to  every  course  of  study;   • how   can   Information   Literacy   be   inserted   into   the   Bologna   process?   A   first   step   should   be   promoting   awareness   of   the   importance   of   IL   amongst   academics   and   policy   makers;   a   second   step   could   be   to   insert   IL   among   the   learning   outcomes   of   European   universities,   particularly,  among  the  so-­‐called  “generic  instrumental  competencies”.      3.3     SUMMARY  FINDINGS  –  INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  VOCATIONAL   EDUCATION  AND  TRAINING  SECTOR    Through   EMPATIC’s   validation   process,   the   functions   of   Information   Literacy   in   the   Vocational  Education  and  Training  sector  have  been  determined:   • IL  is  essential  for  productivity  and  efficiency  at  work;   • IL  is  a  main  provision  for  personal  and  institutional  development;   • IL  is  related  to  the  concepts  of  ongoing  education,  lifelong  learning  and  self-­‐education;   • IL  facilitates  the  adaptation  of  changes  and/or  development  at  work;   • IL  provides  a  work  force  of  high  quality;     • IL  supports  economic  growth.  Challenges  and  recommendations  to  the  sector  have  been  identified  and  include:   • lack   of   awareness   of   the   importance   of   Information   Literacy   by   decision   makers   and   politicians.  It  is  not  yet  fully  recognised  that  people  outside  formal  education  can  gain  the   competence  of  Information  Literacy  via  VET;   • lack   of   awareness   on   the   level   of   Society;   they   do   not   understand   that   many   of   the   problems   they   face   in   utilizing   information   and   communication   technologies   (ICTs)   in   social  life  are  caused  by  a  lack  of  Information  Literacy;   • lack   of   recognition   of   the   relationship   between   Vocational   Education   and   Information   Literacy.  Information  Literacy  is  or  should  be  a  key  component  of  vocational  education;   • lack   of   sufficient   coordination   and   cooperation   within   and   between   related   formal   and   civil   institutions   working   in   VET.   This   leads   to   unproductiveness   and   wastage   in   resources   in  VET  activities;   • lack  of  national  policies  in  the  subject  of  Vocational  Education  means  that  VET  activities   cannot  be  determined  at  a  national  level;  activities  are  often  ad  hoc  and  their  consistency   cannot  be  realized  or  maintained.     9    
  10. 10.    3.4     SUMMARY  FINDINGS  –  INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  ADULT  EDUCATION  /   LIFELONG  LEARNING  SECTOR    Through  EMPATIC’s  validation  process,  the  important  issues  for  Information  Literacy  (IL)  in  the  adult  education/lifelong  learning  sector  have  been  identified  to  include:   •     IL  is  essential  for  the  development,  prosperity  and  freedom  of  society;   •     IL   contributes   to   the   personal,   social,   occupational   and   educational   level   of   society   and   individuals;   •     IL  is  related  to  the  concepts  of  ongoing  education,  self-­‐education,  vocational  training;   •     IL  facilitates  the  adaptation  of  changes  and  development  at  work;   •     IL   effects   productivity   and   work   efficiency,   and   contributes   to   the   improvement   of   the   quality;   •     IL  is  essential  for  people  and  organisations  to  survive  and  develop  themselves;   •     IL  supports  economic  growth;   •     IL  is,  therefore,  a  basic  human  right  that  promotes  social  inclusion  in  all  nations  (IFAP  mid-­‐ term  strategy  2008-­‐2013       10    
  11. 11.  It  has  been  perceived  that:   • there   is   a   low   level   of   awareness   of   Information   Literacy   at   the   level   of   Society:   society   is   not  yet  persuaded  of  its  importance;   • IL   channels   face   difficulties   in   spreading   knowledge   of   the   role   and   the   necessity   of   Information   Literacy   in   politics   as   well   as   in   real   life   (school,   higher   education,   jobs,   employees  etc.);   • politicians   and   decision   makers   should   pay   attention   to   the   potential   of   IL   in   social   coherence.   National   governments   have   a   specific   responsibility   as   they   determine   the   form   and   content   of   educational   systems   in   which   pupils   are   prepared   for   their   future   lives   as   responsible   and   participative   citizens.   If   IL   could   be   linked   through   to   employment,  decision  makers  will  be  persuaded  to  accept  it;   • there   is   poor   visibility   of   IL   courses   in   both   formal   and   informal   educational   sectors.   IL   starts   in   schools   and   continues   through   to   higher   education   but   the   IL   process   is   problematic  outside  formal  education;   • there  is  the  lack  of  coordination  and  cooperation  amongst  different  IL  stakeholders;  and,     • there  is  a  lack  of  recognition  for  libraries’  innovative  role  in  the  IL  development  and  the   central  role  librarians  can  and  do  play.    SECTION  4:  RECOMMENDATIONS  TO  POLICY  MAKERS    In   Section   4   we   formulate   a   set   of   Information   Literacy   development   recommendation   to   policy  makers  in  Europe.      Information  Literacy  is  understood  here  as  the  important  social  objective,  what  means  it  is  seen  as  a   prerequisite   for   the   Information   Society,   the   objective   of   educational   policy,   it   also   implies   a  massive  operation  and  requires  changes  in  the  education  systems.  Of  course,  Information  Literacy  as   social   objective   is   inevitably   connected   with   the   IL   as   cognitive   acquisition   of   individuals,   a  competence  of  general  character  or  “liberal  art”  (see  Deliverable  1.1,  p.  64-­‐68).  Our  recommendations  are  addressed  to  all  and  different  IL  stakeholders  in  Europe,  but  the  main  ones   might   be   the   national   bodies   responsible   for   the   Lifelong   Learning   (LLL)   and   National  Qualifications   Frameworks   (NQR)   development1.   The   other   important   groups   of   addressees   are  educators  and  the  education  authorities  as  well  as  library  and  information  professionals.    All  recommendations  offered  here  are  based  on  the  entire  EMPATIC  project  findings  and  products  up   to   date,   including   the   previous   Deliverables,   in   particular   of   numbers   1.1,   4.1,   4.2,   5.1,   5.2,   5.3,  5.4  and  6.1,  the  discussions  during  the  four  validation  workshops  and  two  final  conferences,  that  is  “Literacy  and  Society,  Culture,  Media  and  Education”  in  Ghent,  Belgium  (9-­‐11  February  2012)  and  “EMMILE   European   Meeting   on   Media   and   Information   Literacy”   in   Milan,   Italy   (27-­‐29   February  2012).    The  main  purpose  of  the  EMPATIC  recommendations  is  to  stimulate  action.                                                                                                                  1 See the Lifelong Learning Programme National Agencies at­‐learning-­‐programme/doc1208_en.htm, and the EQF National Coordination Points at 11    
  12. 12.  4.1     CONTEXT    The  European  Area  of  Lifelong  Learning    The  main  context  for  the  recommendations  is/should  be  the   E u r o p e a n   A r e a   o f   L i f e l o n g  L e a r n i n g   (Europa,   Summaries   of   EU   Legislation   2011b,,  and  the  commitments  and  responsibilities  involved  by  that  enterprise.    The   policy   of   European   Union   (EU),   despite   the   impression   of   a   huge   impact   on   the   status   of  individual  countries,  the  steps  undertaken  to  create  the  Information  Society,  and  involvement  in  the  promotion  of  Information  Literacy,  is  actually  not  coherent,  lacks  accumulation  and  relevant  linking  between  various  aspects  of  the  IL  area.    Among   the   main   and   important   long-­‐term   strategic   objectives   of   the   EU   education   and   training  policies,   where   the   Information   Literacy   strategy   needs   to   be   transparently   and   openly  implemented,  are:   •     Making  lifelong  learning  and  mobility  a  reality;     •     Improving  the  quality  and  efficiency  of  education  and  training;     •     Promoting  equity,  social  cohesion  and  active  citizenship;     •     Enhancing   creativity   and   innovation,   including   entrepreneurship,   at   all   levels   of   education   and   training   (European   Commission,   Education   and   Training­‐learning-­‐policy/doc28_en.htm).    At  the  same  time,  the  European  Union  points  to  the  key  competences,  relevant  to  the  objectives  and   tasks   within   Lifelong   Learning   (LLL).   As   the   combination   of   knowledge,   skills   and   attitudes  appropriate  to  the  context,  the  key  competences  are  particularly  necessary  for  personal  fulfilment  and   development,   social   inclusion,   active   citizenship   and   employment.   Among   the   eight   key  competencies,  contained  also  in  the  Information  Literacy  area,  forming  the  basis  for  the  essential  knowledge,   skills   and   attitudes   related   to   each   of   these   there   are:   communication   in   mother  tongue,  communication  in  foreign  languages,  mathematical  competence  and  basic  competences  in  science  and  technology,  digital  competence,  learning  to  learn,  social  and  civic  competences,  sense  of   initiative   and   entrepreneurship,   cultural   awareness   and   expression   (Europa,   Summaries   of   EU  Legislation  2011a,     12    
  13. 13.  Evaluation  of  the  key  competences,  and  also  Information  Literacy,  should  be  a  reference  tool  for  EU  countries  and  their  education  and  training  policies.  The  EU  countries  try  to  ensure:   •     That   initial   education   and   training   offer   all   young   people   the   means   to   develop   the   key   competences  to  a  level  that  equips  them  for  adult  and  working  life,  thus  also  providing  a   basis  for  future  learning;   •     That   appropriate   provision   is   made   for   young   people   who   are   disadvantaged   in   their   training  so  that  they  can  fulfil  their  educational  potential;   •     That  adults  can  develop  and  update  key  competences  throughout  their  lives,  particularly   priority  target  groups  such  as  persons  who  need  to  update  their  competences;   •     That   appropriate   infrastructure   is   in   place   for   continuing   education   and   training   of   adults,   that  there  are  measures  to  ensure  access  to  education  and  training  and  the  labour  market   and  that  there  is  support  for  learners  depending  on  their  specific  needs  and  competences;   •     The  coherence  of  adult  education  and  training  provision  through  close  links  between  the   policies   concerned   (Europa,   Summaries   of   EU   Legislation   2011 090_en.htm).  The  next  important  enterprise  in  this  area,  the  one  applying  to  four  learning  sectors  and  all  levels  of  education  is  EQF  –  the  European  Qualification  Framework  for  Lifelong  Learning.  In  the  European  Commission  document  we  read:  As  an  instrument  for  the  promotion  of  lifelong  learning,  the  EQF  encompasses   all   levels   of   qualifications   acquired   in   general,   vocational   as   well   as   academic  education  and  training.  Additionally,  the  framework  addresses  qualifications  acquired  in  initial  and  continuing   education   and   training.   The   eight   reference   levels   are   described   in   terms   of   learning  outcomes.  (…)  In  the  EQF  a  learning  outcome  is  defined  as  a  statement  of  what  a  learner  knows,  understands  and  is  able  to  do  on  completion  of  a  learning  process.  The  EQF  therefore  emphasizes  the  results  of  learning  rather  than  focusing  on  inputs  such  as  length  of  study.  Learning  outcomes  are   specified   in   three   categories   –   as   knowledge,   skills   and   competence   (European   Commission  2008,   p.   3).   And   also:   The   EQF   aims   to   relate   different   countries   national   qualifications   systems   to  a  common  European  reference  framework.  Individuals  and  employers  will  be  able  to  use  the  EQF  to  better   understand   and   compare   the   qualifications   levels   of   different   countries   and   different  education  and  training  systems.  Agreed  upon  by  the  European  institutions  in  2008,  the  EQF  is  being  put  in  practice  across  Europe.  It  encourages  countries  to  relate  their  national  qualifications  systems  to   the   EQF   so   that   all   new   qualifications   issued   from   2012   carry   a   reference   to   an   appropriate   EQF  level  (European  Commission,  European  Qualifications  Framework  2011.   It   should   be   also   mentioned   that   the   EQF   framework   is  intended  for  policy  makers,  education  and  training  providers,  employers  and  learners.   13    
  14. 14.  Advice   from   the   International   Federation   of   Library   Associations   and  Institutions  (IFLA)    In  the  Guidelines  on  Information  Literacy  for  Lifelong  Learning  (Lau,  2006),  published  by  the  Information   Literacy   Section   of   IFLA   with   the   aim   of   providing   a   pragmatic   framework   for  those   professionals   who   are   interested   in   starting   an   Information   Literacy   program,   Jesus  Lau   identified   the   list   of   actions   to   be   undertaken.   He   writes:   The   complete   success   of   an  information  literacy  program  depends  on  the  commitment  at  the  institutional  level.  However,  a   commitment   is   not   always   present   or   clear   at   top   management   levels.   Therefore,  information  professionals  must  devote  time  to  create  the  relevant  strategies  to  convince  and  sell   the   benefits   of   information   literacy   to   institutional   leaders   to   get   their   support.   The   basic  steps  to  market  information  literacy  programs  (…)  are:   •     Adapt  or  adopt  international  information  literacy  standards  and  practices   •     Identify   the   information   literacy   program   that   works   best   for   you   and   your   institution   •     Adopt  or  design  a  program  based  on  national  and  international  experiences   •     Identify  what  is  required  to  implement  the  program   •     Regard   the   information   literacy   process   as   non-­‐linear,   you   may   skip   steps   and   change  their  order   •     Work   on   a   strategic   plan   to   chart   the   course   of   your   goals   and   actions   –See   Chapter   5  for  specifics   •     Involve   all   relevant   parties   in   the   planning   process:   your   library   team,   faculty/teachers,   administrators,   and   the   final   decision-­‐maker   for   the   project   (Lau,   2006,  p.  20).  Advice  from  the  UNESCO’s  Information  for  All  Programme  (IFAP)    The   Information   for   All   Programme   (IFAP)   is   intended   to   help   UNESCO   Member   States  develop   and   implement   national   information   policies   and   knowledge   strategies   using  information  and  communication  technologies  (ICT).  As  the  other  goals,  also  the  Information  Literacy   commitment   should   be   developed   and   implemented   by   IFAP   worldwide,   through  the  activities  that  should:   •     promote   international   reflection   and   debate   on   the   ethical,   legal   and   societal   challenges  of  the  information  society;   •     promote   and   widen   access   to   information   in   the   public   domain   through   the   organization,  digitization  and  preservation  of  information;   •     support   training,   continuing   education   and   lifelong   learning   in   the   fields   of   communication,  information  and  informatics;   •     support   the   production   of   local   content   and   foster   the   availability   of   indigenous   knowledge  through  basic  literacy  and  ICT  literacy  training;   •     promote   the   use   of   international   standards   and   best   practices   in   communication,   information  and  informatics  in  UNESCOs  fields  of  competence;  and   •     promote   information   and   knowledge   networking   at   local,   national,   regional   and   international  levels  (UNESCO  2011,­‐and-­‐information/intergovernmental-­‐ programmes/information-­‐for-­‐all-­‐programme-­‐ifap/about-­‐ifap/objectives/).     14    
  15. 15.    4.2     INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  SCHOOL  LEARNING  SECTOR  – Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  (the  Comenius  programme  area)    Through   EMPATIC’s   validation   workshops,   a   process   of   consultation   and   the   Final  Conferences,   the   following   recommendations   to   policy   makers   in   the   schools’   sector   have  been  identified:     1. Information   Literacy   and   its   specialized   fields   must   be   promoted   to   society,   decision  makers,  politicians  and  users.     2. Clearly  formulated  national  IL  policy  assumptions  are  required;  some  elements  of   IL   development   strategies   are   present   in   European   countries   but   are   “taken-­‐for-­‐ granted”.   3. National   IL   development   strategies   should   be   flexible   and   built   on   an   all-­‐European   scheme   of   IL   standards,   and   those   in   turn   should   be   formulated   in   terms   of   learning  outcomes.  Consequently  there  is  a  strong  recommendation  to  prepare  IL   standards.   o Detailed   Information   Literacy   strategies   are   needed.   However,   educational   systems,  information  cultures,  and  experiences  with  IL  development  in  every   EU  country  are  different,  so  what  works  in  one  part  of  Europe  may  not  work   in  another.  As  a  result  it  would  be  better  to  formulate  European  Information   Literacy  standards  in  terms  of  learning  outcomes;  these  would  identify  a  set   of   IL   goals   to   be   achieved   in   different   appropriate   ways   and   by   various   means   within   formal,   informal   and   non-­‐formal   learning   environments.   In   other   words,   the   aims   of   IL   should   be   the   same   across   Europe   in   general,   but   IL   development  strategies  need  to  be  national  in  specifics.   4. Ministries  of  education,  departments  of  Library  and  Information  Science  at  higher   educational  institutions  and  relevant  libraries  should  cooperate  with  each  other.   5. Identification   of   roles   for   multi-­‐dimensional   cooperation   of   different   IL   stakeholders   is   crucial   (for   example,   local   authorities   and   other   local   figures,   parents,  school  authorities,  students,  teachers).   o It  is  not  simple  to  indicate  who  is  to  be  responsible  for  the  introduction  and   development  of  Information  Literacy,  but  surely  it  could  be  national,  central   units.   Generally,   central   bodies   are   appropriate   to   set   goals   but   the   cooperative   work   of   all   interested   parties   and   stakeholders   at   local   level,   in   local  communities,  is  where  real  work  is  or  can  be  achieved.   6. School   management   and   teachers   are   the   most   important   stakeholders   in   the   schools   sector,   they   must   be   aware   of   what   Information   Literacy   is,   why   it   is   so   important  and  how  to  learn/teach  IL  in  schools.   o All   the   changes   related   to   Information   Literacy   development   in   the   school   (formal   education)   learning   sector   should   start   with   the   involvement   of   teachers;   they   need   to   be   convinced   and   trained   in   the   IL   didactics.   School   teachers   are   the   basis   of   educational   systems   and   send   the   most   influential   messages  to  their  students/children  in  schools.   7. School  libraries  are  important  and  the  impact  of  the  school  library  function  must   be  shown.   15    
  16. 16.   8. Librarians/information   professionals,   who   are   traditionally   engaged   in   IL-­‐related   matters  everywhere,  must  cooperate  with  all  other  parties/stakeholders  involved   in  the  educational  processes,  to  include:  headmasters,  teachers,  parents,  students,   local  authorities,  and  other  people  having  important  social  functions  in  their  local   communities  (police  officers,  fire-­‐fighters,  priests,  etc.).   9. Real   work   at   the   local   level   is   the   most   important   factor   for   IL   development   in   the   school  sector  in  Europe,  and  as  a  result  it  has  to  be  strongly  supported  by  national   and  European  law  and  policy  makers.   10. The   young   generation,   so-­‐called   “digital   natives”,   do   not   necessarily   have   an   “inherent”  culture  of  information;  they  also  must  undergo  education  and  training   in  the  field  of  Information  Literacy.   11. National   education   policies   are   the   power   of   national   governments;   it   is   imperative   to   implement   IL   in   all   school   policies   that   recommend   output-­‐based   learning.    4.3     INFORMTIOAN  LITERACY  IN  THE  HIGHER  EDUCATION  LEARNING  SECTOR  (HE)   Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  (the  Erasmus  programme  area)    Through   EMPATIC’s   validation   workshops,   a   process   of   consultation   and   the   Final  Conference,   the   following   set   of   recommendations   has   been   drafted   to   address   different  levels   of   government,   from   the   European   Union,   through   National   and   National   Academic  Systems,  to  the  individual  university  level.   1. Information   Literacy   and   its   specialized   fields   must   be   promoted   to   society,   decision  makers,  politicians  and  users.     2. Ministries  of  education,  departments  of  Library  and  Information  Science  at  higher   educational  institutions  and  relevant  libraries  should  cooperate  with  each  other.     3. European   Higher   Education   Area:   Information   Literacy   should   be   embedded   into   the   Bologna   process   as   a   new   learning   outcome,   in   order   to   fully   legitimise   Information   Literacy   within   and   at   the   level   of   European   Higher   Education   Area   (European  Commission  policy  level).   4. Support  a  European  Information  Literacy  Model:  the  diffusion  of  the  revised  2011   SCONUL  Information  Literacy  model  for  Higher  Education  should  be  supported  as   it   is   a   European   model,   widely   accepted   in   Europe   and   translated   into   various   European  languages.  Originally  (1999)  conceived  for  the  Higher  Education  sector,   its  successful  diffusion  in  European  countries,  led  to  the  definition  of  a  core  model   and   a   number   of   so-­‐called   “lenses”,   each   for   a   different   group   of   learners   (European  Commission  -­‐  Supranational  policy  level).   5. Information  Literacy  must  be  implemented  within  a  curricular  integration  process   in  Higher  Education  courses  of  study,  similar  to  the  process  already  established  for   Computer  Literacy  (University  policy  level).   16    
  17. 17.     6. Legitimatise   a   curricular   configuration   for   Information   Literacy   to   be   diffused   in   European   universities   (Academic   system   policy   level).   Three   different   levels,   together  with  number  of  credits,  were  suggested:   o Library  delivered  (2-­‐4  credits)   o Academic  delivered  (4  credits)   o Embedded  (credits  included  within  the  subject  credit  amount)   7. Educational   continuum:   in   the   long   term,   Higher   Education   educational   policies   will  take  large  benefit  from  the  full  integration  of  Information  Literacy  into  school   curricula  (National  policy  level).   8. Syllabus   definition:   syllabi   should   be   tailored   according   to   the   context   of   the   specific   information   habit   of   the   discipline/subject   involved   (University   policy   level).   9. Institutionalisation   of   approach:   a   governance   approach   should   be   supportive   of   the  overall  process  of  Information  Literacy  institutionalisation  in  Higher  Education,   since   it   is   an   issue   crossing   the   domains   of   information   and   education   policies   (Academic  system  policy  level).  Targeting   central   policy   makers   may   have   greater   potential   for   change   than   working   at   local  levels,  through  slow  research  and  similar  processes.    4.4     INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  VOCATIONAL  EDUCATION  AND  TRAINING   SECTOR  (VET)   Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  (the  Leonardo  da  Vinci  programme   area)    Through   EMPATIC’s   validation   workshops,   a   process   of   consultation   and   the   Final  Conference   the   following   recommendations   to   policy   makers   in   the   VET   sector   have   been  identified:     1. National  VET  policies  should  be  developed  and  information  literacy  must  be  a  vital   part  of  these  policies.   2. Awareness   of   IL   should   be   created   for   society,   decision   makers,   politicians   and   users.  In  this  context,  ministries  of  education,  librarians’  associations,  departments   of   information   management   at   universities   and   all   relevant   institutions   should   cooperate  with  each  other.   3. Information   literacy   should   be   integrated   into   the   official   lifelong   learning   programs  of  ministries  of  education.   4. Information   literacy   should   be   integrated   into   the   VET   activities   arranged   by   municipalities,   ministries,   universities   and   the   other   institutions.   In   this   framework,  IL  should  be  connected  to  municipalities  and  ministries.   5. Social  awareness  of  literacy  should  be  included  within  work  culture  and  the  way   employers   view   it;   VET   provides   a   mobile   work   force   and   innovative   economy   within  Europe.     17    
  18. 18.   6. In  cooperation  with  library  associations,  Departments  of  Information  Management   and  other  relevant  parties  at  universities  should  organize  projects  and  curriculum   about  information  literacy-­‐VET  to  fulfil  the  holistic  education  of  trainers.   7. Educational   content   and   appropriate   materials   related   to   information   literacy   in   VET  should  be  prepared.   8. Courses  should  be  organized  through  cooperation  with  public  libraries  to  provide   people  with  competence  in  information  literacy.   9. Ministries   should   give   appropriate   consideration   and   recognition   to   the   attendance   and   experience   in   education   on   information   literacy   and   VET   when   considering  workers’  careers.   10. Awareness   of   IL   is   necessary   at   all   levels;   national,   local   and   institutional   bodies   must  work  together.     11. Lobbying   for   IL   in   VET   (and   indeed   all   sectors   of   education)   should   be   made   to   national  government  and  EU  politicians.   12. International   projects   and   cooperation   concerning   VET   and   information   literacy   should  be  developed.     13. Distance  education  possibilities  for  IL  in  VET  must  be  explored  and  fully  utilized.      4.5     INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  ADULT  LEARNING  SECTOR  –   Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  (the  grundtvig  programme  area)    Through   EMPATIC’s   validation   workshops,   a   process   of   consultation   and   the   Final  Conference,  the  following  recommendations  to  policy  makers  in  the  adult  education/lifelong  learning  sector  have  been  identified:     1.     Information   Literacy   and   its   specialized   fields   must   be   promoted   to   society,   decision  makers,  politicians,  communities  and  users.     2.     Ministries   of   education   and   lifelong   learning,   departments   at   higher   educational   institutions,   all   relevant   institutions   and   libraries   should   cooperate   with   each   other.     3.     National   strategies   should   follow   from   development   of   a   European   scheme   of   IL   standards,  assessment  types  and  learning  outcomes.   4.     Lobbying  for  the  integration  of  IL  into  Adult  Education  &  Lifelong  Learning  must  be   undertaken   to   the   EU,   national   politicians,   public   libraries   and   all   relevant   institutions.   5.     Departments   of   Library   and   Information   Science,   information   literacy   professionals   and   all   relevant   bodies   should   work   together   to   prepare   educational   content  and  materials  related  to  Information  Literacy.     6.     The  learner  must  be  more  active  and  become  a  partner  in  the  process.   7.     The  media  are  very  important;  these  can  include  music,  radio,  local  newspapers,   and  popular  activities  such  as  drama  and  local  associations.   8.     IL  should  be  integrated  into  all  Lifelong  Learning  activities  that  are  run  by  various   organizations  in  a  practical  way,  this  could  be  through  financial  information,  health   education,  cultural  information,  etc.   18    
  19. 19.   9.     International   cooperation   concerning   Adult   Education   and   Information   Literacy   should  be  developed.     10.     Consequently,   advocating   IL   must   be   undertaken   on   national,   local,   community   and  institutional  levels  simultaneously.   11.   Modern   technologies   to   apply   IL   in   Adult   Education   &   Life   Long   Learning   (e.g.   Web2.0,  e-­‐conferences)  must  be  utilized.   12.  Public  Libraries  have  a  very  important  role  to  play  in  the  application  of  IL  in  Adult   Education   and   Lifelong   Learning   and   therefore   have   to   be   helped   in   order   to   succeed  in  it.    4.6.     INFORMATION  LITERACY  IN  THE  FOUR  LEARNING  SECTORS  (SCHOOL,   HIGHER  EDUCATION,  VOCATIONAL  EDUCATION  AND  TRAINING,  AND   ADULT/LIFELONG  LEARNING)  –  GENERAL,  NON-­‐SECTOR  SPECIFIC   Recommendations  to  Policy  Makers  made  by  the  final  conferences   participants    As  a  result  the  following  general  recommendations  of  both  strategic  and  tactical  nature  have  been  formulated:   1. Information  Literacy  is  vital  for  the  today’s  society  in  Europe  and  as  such  should  be   developed  and  promoted  in  different  contexts  and  by  various  means.     2. The   importance   of   Information   Literacy   needs   to   be   publicized   not   only   to   governments,   ministries   and   policy   makers   at   national   and   EU   levels   but   also   to   local  authorities,  businesses,  small  social  groups  and  all  citizens.     3. The  strategy  of  IL  development  should  encompass  two  main  lines  of  action:     o IL   awareness   building   among   authorities   and   governments   at   national   and   European  levels   o Substantial,  real  work,  “step  by  step”,  “project  by  project”  on  the  local  level   by  individual  schools,  universities,  libraries,  etc.   4. Most   participants   expressed   the   feeling   that   “slow”   strategy,   based   on   “small   projects”   addressed   to   different   target   groups,   communities,   professions,   etc.   would   be   more   effective   than   having   a   central   EU   body   responsible   for   the   IL   development  or  the  formal  European  IL  policy  directives.  Thus,  the  “IL  awareness   building”   and   “central   goals”   approach   clearly   prevailed   over   the   “central   steering”   one.   Also,   having   clearly   stated   Information   Literacy   goals   (national,   European)   may   help   to   convince/influence   local   authorities   to   support   IL   development  programmes.     5. “Incentives  work  better  than  orders”,  meaning  that  IL  development  policy  based   on   incentives   for   those   who   introduce   IL   (teachers,   librarians,   businesses,   local   authorities)  would  be  an  effective  strategy.  EMPATIC  had  started  a  process  for  the   identification  of  past  experience  and  development  of  case  studies  of  good  practice   through   EC-­‐funded   programmes.   However,   this   approach   should   be   extended   to   all   known   IL   and   Information   Competencies   projects.   This   is   important   for   policy   makers.     19    
  20. 20.  5.    CONCLUSIONS      To   sum   up,   the   recommendations   related   to   Information   Literacy   development   on   the  national  and  international  scale  are  as  follows:     •     initiating   and   promoting   activities   associated   with   the   provision   of   access   to   information  and  the  reducing  of  barriers  in  the  use  of  it  –  creating  and  maintaining   the  infrastructure  to  meet  information  needs  (e.g.  digitisation);   •     including   Information   Literacy   in   the   national   strategies   for   Lifelong   Learning,   the   development  of  IL  competences  should  be  a  part  of  the  national  LLL  projects;     •     assessing  the  existing  “starting”  level  of  IL  competences  in  various  social  groups;     •     creating   national   policies   to   involve   various   IL   stakeholders,   i.e.   business,   educational,   governmental   and   labour   market   institutions,   libraries,   NGOs,   in   the   training  of  information  competences;   •     determining   a   set   of   indicators   of   the   IL   development   at   the   national   level,   to   be   able  to  verify  the  extent  to  which  national  IL  policies  are  realized  (compare  Towards   Information  Literacy  Indicators  by  UNESCO,  Catts  and  Lau,  2008);   •     creating   the   working   networks   of   institutions   involved   in   the   IL   education   and   training   central   and   local   governments,   libraries,   educational   institutions,   labour   market  institutions,  NGOs,  etc.  ;   •     including  IL  to  curricula  of  general  and  specialized  education  at  all  levels;   •     introducing  IL  into  the  standards  of  teachers’  training.      All   EMPATIC   partners   and   stakeholder   communities   are   now   encouraged   to   take   up,  promote   and   implement   the   findings   and   recommendations   to   begin   the   process   of  influencing  policy  makers.   20    
  21. 21.    REFERENCES       1. Catts,  Ralph;  Lau,  Jesus  (2008).  Towards  Information  Literacy  Indicators.  [online].   Available  at:­‐literacy/publications/towards-­‐ information-­‐literacy_2008-­‐en.pdf  [Retrieved  29  December  2011]   2. Europa,  Summaries  of  EU  Legislation  (2011a).  Key  competences  for  lifelong   learning.  [online].  Available  at ng/c11090_en.htm  [Retrieved  15  January  2012]     3. Europa,  Summaries  of  EU  Legislation  (2011b).  European  area  of  lifelong  learning.   [online].  Available  at ng/c11054_en.htm  [Retrieved  16  January  2012]   4. European  Commission  (2008).  The  European  Qualifications  Framework  for  Lifelong   Learning  (EQF)  [online].  Available  at:  [Retrieved  2   January  2012]   5. European  Commission,  Directorate-­‐General  for  Education  and  Culture  (2004).   Common  European  principles  for  validation  of  non-­‐formal  and  informal  learning   [online].  Available  at: es_validation_20040303.pdf  [Retrieved  2  January  2012]   6. European  Commission,  Education  and  Training  (2011).  Strategic  framework  for   education  and  training.  [online].  Available  at:­‐learning-­‐policy/doc28_en.htm  [Retrieved   29  December  2011]   7. European  Commission,  Education,  Audiovisual  and  Culture  Executive  Agency   EACEA  (2009  –  ).  Lifelong  Learning.  [online].  Available  at:  [Retrieved  28  December  2011]   8. European  Commission,  European  Qualifications  Framework  (2011).  About  EQF.   [online].  Available  at  [Retrieved  15   January  2012]     9. Lau,  Jesus  (2006).  IFLA  Guidelines  on  Information  Literacy  for  Lifelong  Learning.  Final   Draft.  [online].  Available  at:­‐ literacy/publications/ifla-­‐guidelines-­‐en.pdf  [Retrieved  2  January  2012]   10. UNESCO,  Information  for  All  Programme  (IFAP)  (2011).  [online]  Available  at:­‐and-­‐ information/intergovernmental-­‐programmes/information-­‐for-­‐all-­‐programme-­‐ ifap/about-­‐ifap/objectives/  [Retrieved  2  January  2012]       21    
  22. 22.       http://empat-­‐   Project  funded  by  the  European  Commission   under  the  Lifelong  Learning  Programme           22