Biochem fluid and electrolyte (may.14.2010)


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Biochem fluid and electrolyte (may.14.2010)

  1. 1. FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES<br />May.14.2010<br />
  2. 2. 2e<br /> 2e<br />105˚<br />WATER[H2O]<br /><ul><li>97% - Seawater.
  3. 3. 2.7% - Ice.
  4. 4. 0.3 -Fresh water.
  5. 5. A water molecule is an irregular , slightly skewed tetrahedron with oxygen at its center.</li></ul>O<br />H<br />H<br />
  6. 6. (3 or 2 also)<br />
  7. 7. LEWIS STRUCTURE OF <br />A WATER MOLECULE<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />O<br />H<br />•<br />H<br />H<br />•<br />•<br />+<br />+<br />H<br />Covalent bond<br />A covalent bond is a chemical bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms. <br />•<br />O<br />O<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />•<br />H<br />H<br />The approximate shape and charge distribution of water.<br />
  9. 9. HYDROGEN BONDS BETWEEN WATER MOLECULES<br />Hydrogen bonds<br />Hydrogen bonds between water molecules. The oxygen atoms are shown in blue.<br />
  10. 10. RELATIVE BOND ENERTY<br />(ionic)<br />Bond strength increases left to right.<br />
  11. 11. WATER’S FUNCTIONS<br /><ul><li>Carries nutrients and waste products.
  12. 12. Actively participates in chemical reactions.
  13. 13. Serves as a solvent for minerals, vitamins, amino acids glucose, and other small molecules.
  14. 14. Serves as a lubricant and cushion around joints.
  15. 15. Acts as a shock absorber(eyes, spinal column, amniotic sac)
  16. 16. Aids in maintaining body’s temperature.</li></li></ul><li>BODY WATER CONTENT<br />Its about 75% in the newborn.<br />Total water content declines throughout life.<br />Healthy males are about 60% water; healthy females are <br /> around 50%<br />This difference reflects females’:<br />Higher body fat <br />Smaller amount of skeletal muscle<br />Less than 50% in older individual.<br />Water content is greatest in brain tissue (about 90%) and <br /> least in adipose tissue (10%).<br />
  17. 17. DAILY WATER BALANCE<br />Daily Balance of Water Intake and Production in Sedentary Healthy Adults In a Temperate Climate<br />At least 500 ml of urine per day is required just to excrete urea, creatinine, and other Solutes. <br />Insensible losses from the skin and from the lungs can occur even when resting at normal room temperature. <br />
  18. 18. FLUIDS COMPARTMENTS<br />Fluid between the cells <br />(intercellular or interstitial)<br />Cell<br />membrane<br />Nucleus<br />ICF<br />Blood vessel<br />
  19. 19. FLUIDS COMPARTMENTS<br />Water occupies two main fluid compartments.<br />Intracellular fluid (ICF) – about two thirds by volume, contained in cells<br />Extracellular fluid (ECF) – consists of two major subdivisions<br />Plasma – the fluid portion of the blood<br />Interstitial fluid (IF) – fluid in spaces between cells<br />Other ECF – lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, eye humors, synovial fluid, serous fluid, and gastrointestinal secretions.<br />
  20. 20. ECF AND ICF FLUID<br /><ul><li>Each fluid compartment of the body has a distinctive pattern of electrolytes
  21. 21. Extracellular fluids are similar (except for the high protein content of plasma)
  22. 22. Sodium is the chief cation
  23. 23. Chloride is the major anion
  24. 24. Intracellular fluids have low sodium and chloride
  25. 25. Potassium is the chief cation
  26. 26. Phosphate is the chief anion</li></li></ul><li>COMPOSITION OF BODY FLUIDS<br />Solutes are broadly classified into:<br />Electrolytes – inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins<br />Nonelectrolytes – examples include glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea<br />Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes<br />Water moves according to osmotic gradients<br />
  27. 27. ELECTROLYTES<br />Nucleus<br />The major components of plasma, intestitial fluid, and intracellular fluid. Crosshatching refers to other or minor components. Pr- , anionic proteins.<br />
  28. 28. WATER DISORDERS<br />Dehydration (loss of water)<br />Edema(accumulation of water)<br />Atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space, leading to tissue swelling.<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. DEHYDRATION<br />Cells lose H2O to ECF by osmosis; cells shrink<br />3<br />ECF osmotic pressure rises<br />2<br />Excessive loss of H2O from ECF<br />1<br />Mechanism of dehydration<br />
  31. 31. BODY FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES<br />Electrolytes are substances that become ions in solution and acquire the<br /> capacity to conduct electricity.<br /> Sodium.<br />Potassium<br />Chloride<br />Bicarbonate<br />Help keep fluids in proper compartments. <br /> -Intracellular water<br /> -Extracellular water<br />
  32. 32. NORMAL VALUE<br />mmol/L<br />
  33. 33. SODIUM IN FLUID ANDELECTROLYTE BALANCE <br /><ul><li>Sodium holds a central position in fluid and electrolyte balance
  34. 34. Sodium salts:
  35. 35. Account for 90-95% of all solutes in the ECF
  36. 36. Sodium is the single most abundant cation in the ECF
  37. 37. Sodium is the only cation exerting significant osmotic pressure
  38. 38. Changes in plasma sodium levels affect:
  39. 39. Plasma volume, blood pressure
  40. 40. ICF and interstitial fluid volumes</li></li></ul><li>SODIUM - FUNCTIONS<br /><ul><li>Membrane potentials
  41. 41. Accounts for 90 - 95% of osmolarity of ECF
  42. 42. Na+- K+ pump
  43. 43. exchanges intracellular Na+ for extracellular K+
  44. 44. creates gradient for co-transport of other solutes (glucose)
  45. 45. generates heat
  46. 46. NaHCO3 has major role in buffering pH</li></li></ul><li>SODIUM - IMBALANCE<br /><ul><li>Hypernatremia
  47. 47. plasma sodium > 145 mmol/L
  48. 48. from IV saline
  49. 49. water retension, hypertension and edema
  50. 50. Hyponatremia
  51. 51. plasma sodium < 136 mmol/L
  52. 52. result of excess body water, quickly corrected by excretion of excess water</li></li></ul><li>POTASSIUM - FUNCTIONS<br /><ul><li>Most abundant cation of ICF
  53. 53. Determines intracellular osmolarity
  54. 54. Membrane potentials (with sodium)
  55. 55. Na+-K+ pump</li></li></ul><li>POTASSIUMHOMEOSTASIS<br /><ul><li>90% of K+ in glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the PCT
  56. 56. DCT and cortical portion of collecting duct secrete K+ in response to blood levels
  57. 57. Aldosterone stimulates renal secretion of K+</li></li></ul><li>POTASSIUM AND MEMBRANE<br />
  58. 58. CHLORIDE FUNCTIONS<br /><ul><li>ECF osmolarity
  59. 59. most abundant anions in ECF
  60. 60. Stomach acid
  61. 61. required in formation of HCl
  62. 62. Chloride shift
  63. 63. CO2 loading and unloading in RBC’s
  64. 64. pH
  65. 65. major role in regulating pH</li></li></ul><li>OSMOSIS AND WATER BALANCE<br /><ul><li>OSMOSIS
  66. 66. Is the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane
  67. 67. Is affected by the concentration gradient of dissolved substances</li></li></ul><li>OSMOSIS<br />Water can flow both ways<br />across the divider, but has a<br />greater tendency to move from<br />side A to side B, where there<br />is a greater concentration of<br />solute. The volume of water<br />becomes greater on side B,<br />and the concentrations on<br />side A and B become equal.<br />With equal numbers of solute<br />particles on both sides, the<br />concentrations are equal,<br />and the tendency of water to<br />move in either direction is<br />about the same.<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />Now additional solute is<br />added to side B. Solute cannot<br />flow across the divider (in the<br />case of a cell, its membrane).23<br />
  68. 68. OSMOSIS<br />When immersed in water, raisins get plump because water moves<br />toward the higher concentration of sugar inside the raisins.<br />
  69. 69. When sprinkled with salt, vegetables “sweat” because water moves<br />toward the higher concentration of salt outside the eggplant.<br />
  70. 70. TONICITY<br /><ul><li>TONICITY
  71. 71. Is the ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
  73. 73. The concentration of solutes is the same as it is inside the cell, and water will move in and out of the cell at the same rate
  75. 75. The concentration of solutes is greater than it is inside the cell, and the cell will lose water
  77. 77. The concentration of solutes is less than it is inside the cell, and the cell will gain water</li></li></ul><li>Hypertonic solution<br />Hypotonic solution<br />Isotonic solution<br />Animal cell. An<br />animal cell fares best<br />in an isotonic environ-<br />ment unless it has<br />special adaptations to<br />offset the osmotic<br />uptake or loss of<br />water.<br />(a)<br />H2O<br />H2O<br />H2O<br />H2O<br />Normal<br />Shriveled<br />Lysed<br />H2O<br />H2O<br />H2O<br />Plant cell. Plant cells <br />are turgid (firm) and <br />generally healthiest in<br />a hypotonic environ-<br />ment, where the<br />uptake of water is<br />eventually balanced<br />by the elastic wall<br />pushing back on the<br />cell.<br />(b)<br />H2O<br />Turgid (normal)<br />Flaccid<br />Plasmolyzed<br />THE WATER BALANCE OF LIVING CELLS <br />
  78. 78. 有難う御座ます。<br />