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Scales and Measures
in Research
By
Dr. Anamika Ray
Assistant Professor in Mass Communication
Gauhati University, Assam, India
THURSTONE SCALE
• Developed by L.L. Thurston.
• To measure direction and intensity or salience.
• Often used in psychology and education research.
GUTTMAN SCALE
• Developed by Louis Guttmann in 1950.
• To measure intensity or commitment to an opinion, cause,
person, organization or course of action in a hierarchical way.
FEELING THERMOMETERS
• Mainly used in political planning and research.
• Subjects more often than not find it preferable to
communicate to the thermometer and pick a number, but they
avoid very high and low ones.
RANKING SCALES
• A mean for comparing two or more reference on one or more
quality.
• Subjects are presented with a list and told to put items on it.
COMPOSITE MEASURES
• Simplifying data analysis by reducing the number of variables
relevant in a research work.
QUALITY CONTROL
• One of the quickest way of research.
• Involvement of the examination of both questions and
response options to make sure they are unbiased.
RELIABILITY
• Stable and dependable measure.
• Many times use helps to get similar result.
• Accuracy is easy to achieve.
Concurrent Reliability: The reliability of a measure is
most often assessed by checking the strength and statistical
significance of its correlation with some other measure.
Alternate Forms Reliability: It is a variant of the basic
correlation technique.
TYPES OF RELIABILITY
Split Half Reliability: Here the subjects are divided into two
groups then compares the scores on a measure for one group to
those for the other.
Test Retest Reliability: Here, we administer the same test to the
same subjects at two different times.
Crouchback's Alpha (Co-efficient Alpha): It is used
exclusively to check the reliability of a composite measures. It
can be laborious task with large sample.
Intra And Inter Coder Reliability: The easiest way to
determine whether a single observer is reliable to perform an
inter coder reliability check
VALIDITY
Validity depicts the concept of reliability, external validity-the
ability to generalize presumes internal validity.
• Content validity: It is a simplest form of research. It is
reasonable one. It appears to be measuring what is intended
to measure.
• Criterion Validity: using this method, concurrent validity can
be established by finding a statistically significant, positive co
relation between the measure or test in question for which
validity has previously been put.
• Predictive Validity: It can access whether scores on the test
are positively related to success of the college.
• Construct Validity: It is commonly used in academic
research. The common way to establish construct validity is
to test the measure in question against two other measures
known from previous work which are valid.
Thank you

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Scales and Measures in Research

  • 1. Scales and Measures in Research By Dr. Anamika Ray Assistant Professor in Mass Communication Gauhati University, Assam, India
  • 2. THURSTONE SCALE • Developed by L.L. Thurston. • To measure direction and intensity or salience. • Often used in psychology and education research.
  • 3. GUTTMAN SCALE • Developed by Louis Guttmann in 1950. • To measure intensity or commitment to an opinion, cause, person, organization or course of action in a hierarchical way.
  • 4. FEELING THERMOMETERS • Mainly used in political planning and research. • Subjects more often than not find it preferable to communicate to the thermometer and pick a number, but they avoid very high and low ones.
  • 5. RANKING SCALES • A mean for comparing two or more reference on one or more quality. • Subjects are presented with a list and told to put items on it.
  • 6. COMPOSITE MEASURES • Simplifying data analysis by reducing the number of variables relevant in a research work.
  • 7. QUALITY CONTROL • One of the quickest way of research. • Involvement of the examination of both questions and response options to make sure they are unbiased.
  • 8. RELIABILITY • Stable and dependable measure. • Many times use helps to get similar result. • Accuracy is easy to achieve.
  • 9. Concurrent Reliability: The reliability of a measure is most often assessed by checking the strength and statistical significance of its correlation with some other measure. Alternate Forms Reliability: It is a variant of the basic correlation technique. TYPES OF RELIABILITY
  • 10. Split Half Reliability: Here the subjects are divided into two groups then compares the scores on a measure for one group to those for the other. Test Retest Reliability: Here, we administer the same test to the same subjects at two different times. Crouchback's Alpha (Co-efficient Alpha): It is used exclusively to check the reliability of a composite measures. It can be laborious task with large sample. Intra And Inter Coder Reliability: The easiest way to determine whether a single observer is reliable to perform an inter coder reliability check
  • 11. VALIDITY Validity depicts the concept of reliability, external validity-the ability to generalize presumes internal validity. • Content validity: It is a simplest form of research. It is reasonable one. It appears to be measuring what is intended to measure. • Criterion Validity: using this method, concurrent validity can be established by finding a statistically significant, positive co relation between the measure or test in question for which validity has previously been put.
  • 12. • Predictive Validity: It can access whether scores on the test are positively related to success of the college. • Construct Validity: It is commonly used in academic research. The common way to establish construct validity is to test the measure in question against two other measures known from previous work which are valid.