# measurement and scaling

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### measurement and scaling

1. 1. Chapter 8 Presented by : Ashraf Hatem Hlouh Course name: Marketing Research course Measurement and scaling: Fundamentals and Comparative Scaling
2. 2. Review Figure1.7
3. 3. Objective 1. Introduce the concepts of measurement and scaling and show how scaling may be considered an extension of measurement. 2. Explain the characteristics of description, order, distance, origin and who they define the level of measurement of scale. 3. Discuss the primary scale of measurement of differentiate nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales. 4. Classify and discuss scaling technique as comparative and Noncomparative, and describe the comparative techniques of paired comparison, rank order , constant sum, and Q-sort scaling
4. 4. 5. Discuss the considerations involved in implementation the primary scales of measurements in an international setting. 6. Understand the ethical issue involved in selecting scale of measurement. 7. Discuss the use of the internet and computers in implementation the primary scales of measurement.
5. 5. Measurement and Scaling Measurement: the assignment of numbers of other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules. In marketing research, numbers are usually assigned for one of two reasons. 1. Numbers permit statistical analysis of resulting data 1. Numbers facilitate the communication rules and result.
6. 6. Scaling: the generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located, also involves creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located.  Is process of placing the respondent on continuum with respect to their attitude toward department store.  1 = extremely unfavorable , 100 = extremely favorable
7. 7. Scale Characteristics and Levels of Measurement These characteristics are description, order, distance, and origin, and together they define the level of measurement of a scale. Description: the unique labels or descriptors that are used to designate each value of scale .all scale process description..  We mean the unique labels or descriptors that are used to designate each value of scale.  Ex: 1 = Male , 2 = Female  All scales have unique labels or descriptors that are used to define the scale value or response options.
8. 8. Order: the relative size or positions of descriptors, order is denoted by descriptors such as great than, less than, and equal to.  By order we mean the relative size or position of the descriptors.  Ex: greater than, less than, equal than. Distance: the characteristics of distance mean that absolute differences between the scale descriptors are known and may be expressed in units.  Distance mean that absolute differences between the scale descriptors are known and may be expressed in units.  Notice that a scale that has distance also has order.
9. 9. Origin: the origin characteristic means that the scales has a unique or fixed beginning or true zero point.  A scale that has origin also has distance (and order and description).  Many scale used in marketing research do not have a fixed origin or true zero point, as disagree-agree scale considered earlier under description.  This scale could just as easily have been defined as 0 = strongly disagree, 1 = disagree, 2 = neither agree nor disagree, 3 = agree, and 4 = strongly, with 0 as origin.  Description is the most basic characteristics that is present in all scales.
10. 10. Primary Scales Measurement There are four primary scales of measurements: 1. Nominal 2. Ordinal 3. Interval 4. Ratio pdfmeaslev2.pdf
11. 11. 1. Nominal  A scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. When used for identification, there is strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects.  Is figurative labeling scheme in which the numbers serve only labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects.  In marketing research , nominal scale are used.  The numbers on a nominal scale do .
12. 12.  The only permissible operation on the numbers in a nominal scale is counting only a limited number of statistics , all of which are based on frequency counts, are permissible these include percentages, mode, chi-square, and binomial tests.  Figure8.1  Table 8.1
13. 13. 2. Ordinal:  Ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristics is possessed. Thus it is possible to determine whether an object has more or less of characteristics than some other object.  An ordinal scale indicates .  Common example of ordinal scale include , and .  In marketing research ordinal scale used to measure relative attitude, opinions , and . Ordinal
14. 14. 3. Interval  A scale in which the numbers are used to rate objects such that numerically  There is a or interval between scale values.  An interval scale, the location of the zero point is not fixed( any positive linear transformation of the form (y=a+bx)  Interval
15. 15. 4. Ratio  The , it allows the researcher to identify or classify objects, and compare intervals or differences. It is also to compute ratios of scale values.  Is a possesses all the properties of the nominal, ordinal, and interval scale and , in addition an absolute zero point.  It is also meaningful to compute ratios of scale values.  In the marketing, , , , and are available measure on ratio scale.  Ratio scales allow only proportionate transformation of the form y=bx . . These include specialized statistics as geometric mean, harmonic mean, and coefficient of variation.  Figure8.2
16. 16. Comparison of Scaling Techniques The scaling techniques commonly employee in marketing research can be classified into: 1.Comparative scales i. Paired comparison scaling ii. Rank order scaling iii. Constant sum scaling 2. Noncomparative scales: i. Continuous rating scales ii. Itemized rating scales likert scale semantic differential stapel scales question types
17. 17. 1.Comparative scales  Is one of two types of scaling techniques in which there is direct comparison of stimulus objects with one others.  Involve of stimulus objects.  Comparison scales include , , , , and .  Advantages  Comparative scales are and can be applied easily.  They involve . or carryover effects from one judgment to another.  Disadvantage  The ordinal nature of the data and the beyond the comparative scales.
18. 18. 2.Noncomparative scales:  one of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is of other objects in the stimulus set.  Also referred to as or .  Each object is scaled of the others in the stimulus set.  The rating scales can be further classified as likert, semantic differential, or stapel scales.  It is the most widely used scaling technique in marketing research.
19. 19. Comparative Scaling Techniques 1. Paired comparison scaling 2. Rank order scaling 3. Constant sum scaling 4. Q-Sort and Other Scaling
20. 20. 1.Paired comparison scaling:  Is a comparative scaling technique in which a at a time and asked to select on object in pair according to some criterion. The data obtained are in nature.  Advantage  Its name , a respondent is presented with two objects and asked to select one according to some criterion.  Paired comparison scale are the stimulus objects are .  Figure8.3
21. 21.  Paired comparison data . The researcher can calculate the percentage of respondent who prefer one stimulus to another by summing the matrices, for all respondents, dividing the sum by number of respondent and multiplying by 100.  Paired comparison scaling is when the  Disadvantage  With number of brands it will be . of the assumption of may occurs. to the marketplace situation that involves selection from multiple alternatives.  The respondent may prefer one object to certain others.
22. 22. 2.Rank order scaling  comparative scaling technique in which respondents are presented with simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion.  Advantage  The respondent are presented with several objects simultaneously and .  Figure8.4  Rank order scaling is commonly used to measured .  Rank order data are obtained from respondents in .
23. 23.  If there is n stimulus objects, only (n-1) scaling decisions need be made in rank order scaling, in paired comparison scaling {n(n-1)/2} decision would be required .  Rank order data can be , and .  It is using the Thurston case V procedure  Disadvantage  This technique produces only .
24. 24. 3.Constant sum scaling:  Is a comparative scaling technique in which respondents are required to of its as points, dollars, chits, stickers, or chips, among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion.  Advantage  Respondents , such as points, dollars, or chips, among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion.  Figure8.5
25. 25.  The respondents may be asked to to attributes of a product in a way that reflect the importance they attach to each attribute.  Constant sum scale it allows for fine among stimulus objects .  Disadvantage  Respondent may .  Potential problem is if too few units, use large number of units may be too taxing on respondent cause confusion and fatigue
26. 26. 4. Q-Sort and Other Scaling A comparative scaling technique that uses a rank order procedure to .  Q-Sort scaling was developed to among a relatively large number of objects.  This technique in which objects are sorted into bills based on similarity with respect some criterion.  The of objects to be sorted
27. 27.  It is estimation.  They assign a number between 0 to 100 to each statement to indicate the of their or .  Finally , mention must be made of Guttman scaling, or scalogram analysis, which is procedure into an internally consistent, unidimensional scale.
28. 28. International Marketing Research  Respondent in many , due to higher education and consumer sophistication levels, are quite used to providing response on and .  Hence, these respondents experience in expressing the required by and . can therefore, be best measured by using .  The advantage of selecting the primary scale to match the profile of the target respondent is well illustrated by the .  It should be noted that comparative scale, except for paired comparisons, , required comparisons of multiple stimulus objects and therefore, .
29. 29. Ethics in Marketing Research  Information on might best be obtained by giving respondent (reader and nonreader) several cards, each listing one personality characteristics.  The respondents asked to sort the cards and to rank-order the personality characteristic listing, in order, those they believe describe their personality best first and those that do not describe themselves last.  It is of the researcher to obtain the data that are most appropriate, given the research question.
30. 30.  If, after collection, client wishes to know how the reader and the nonreaders differed, the and use  Ethical considerations require that the be used in order to get the data needed to answer the research questions and test hypotheses.  The internet, as well as several specialized computer programs, are available to implement the different types of scale  Figure8.7