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# Scale construction babita

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### Scale construction babita

1. 1. Scale construction (Class presentation) Babita Thapa KU, Nepal 16th May 2013
2. 2. Contents What is scale ? Rating and attitude scale Process of attitude scale construction Types Dissertation review Conclusion
3. 3. Scale is….. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/scalge n.php
4. 4. Attitude scale Rating scale  Used to measure the  Used to measure socio morale, character, social participation, frustration economic status, communities and HH condition  A group of statements to respondents and measure attitude more comprehensively  A single statement is provided to respondents and their reaction is noted (Ravilochanan P., 2005)
5. 5. Steps for constructing attitude scale  Step 1 :Definition of universe  Step 2 :Collection of statements  Step 3 :Editing of statements  Step 4 :Selection of scalable statements  Step 5 :Treating the statements with available techniques of attitude scale construction  Step 6:Testing the Reliability and validity of the scale (Chandrakandan, Venkatapirabu, Sekar, & Anandakumar, 2001)
6. 6. Techniques • Thustone scale • Likert scale • Guttman’s Scale • Semantic Differential • Bogardus Social Distance Scale (Babbie, 2007)
7. 7. Thurstone Scale  First formal method to measure attitude  Developed by Louis Leon Thurstone in 1928  Made up of statements about the particular issues  Each statement has a numerical value indicating how favorable or unfavorable it to be judge  Check each statement agree or disagree  Mean score is computed indicating their attitude
8. 8. Likert Scale  A popular means for measuring attitudes  Developed by Rensis Likert in 1932  Set of attitude items, all of which are considered of approx. equal attitude value  Respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement with a given statement by way of an ordinal scale Example: It is more fund to play football than Cricket
9. 9. Likert(contd.)  The score of items of such a scale are summed and averaged to yield the individual attitude score Characteristics:  One item is the same as any other item in attitude value  Any subset of universe is theoretically the same as any other subset of universe  Allow for the intensity of attitude expression, subject can agree or they can agree strongly
10. 10. Guttmane Scaling  Developed by Louis Guttmane in 1950  Also known as cumulative scaling or scalogram analysis; One-dimensional  From a set of statements in which respondent who agrees with any specific statement in the list will also agree with all previous statements.  For example, imagine a ten-item cumulative scale. If the respondent scores a four, it should mean that he/she agreed with the first four statements
11. 11. Dissertations Review Dissertation #1 Principal’s competencies: Perception and practices in the secondary schools of Lalitpur district; MA; Chandrayan Pradhan Shrestha, 2011 Dissertation #2 Influence of leadership style of principals on school climate and commitment of teacher ;Mphil; John M. Vanlalhrita, 2009    Both Dissertation used Likert scale. In Disertation 1, 1-5 level of performance of competencies exhibited by the school principal and in Dissertation 2 on student perception 4 point likert scale was used. Likert scale for both dissertation looks fine to find out the competency and attitude But , few statements in the scale s is quite lengthy for the audiences.
12. 12. References Babbie, E. (2007). Research Method in Sociology. New Delhi: Cengage Learning India Private Limited. Chandrakandan, K., Venkatapirabu, J., Sekar, V., & Anandakumar, V. (2001). Tests and measurements in social research. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Cooperation. Kerlinger, F. N. (2008). Foundations of Behavioral Research. Delhi: Surjeet Publications. Ravilochanan, P. (2005). Research Methodology. Chennai: Margham Publications. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/scalgen.p hp