Guttman scaling is also sometimes known as cumulative scaling or scalogram analysis. The purpose of Guttman scaling is to establish a one-dimensional continuum for a concept you wish to measure. What does that mean? Essentially, we would like a set of items or statements so that a respondent who agrees with any specific question in the list will also agree with all previous questions. Put more formally, we would like to be able to predict item responses perfectly knowing only the total score for the respondent. For example, imagine a ten-item cumulative scale. If the respondent scores a four, it should mean that he/she agreed with the first four statements. If the respondent scores an eight, it should mean they agreed with the first eight. The object is to find a set of items that perfectly matches this pattern. In practice, we would seldom expect to find this cumulative pattern perfectly. So, we use scalogram analysis to examine how closely a set of items corresponds with this idea of cumulativeness. Here, I'll explain how we develop a Guttman scale.
Scale construction babita
16th May 2013
What is scale ?
Rating and attitude scale
Process of attitude scale construction
Used to measure the
Used to measure socio
communities and HH
A group of statements
to respondents and
measure attitude more
A single statement is
provided to respondents
and their reaction is
(Ravilochanan P., 2005)
Steps for constructing attitude scale
Step 1 :Definition of universe
Step 2 :Collection of statements
Step 3 :Editing of statements
Step 4 :Selection of scalable statements
Step 5 :Treating the statements with available
techniques of attitude scale construction
Step 6:Testing the Reliability and validity of the
(Chandrakandan, Venkatapirabu, Sekar, & Anandakumar, 2001)
First formal method to measure attitude
Developed by Louis Leon Thurstone in 1928
Made up of statements about the particular
Each statement has a numerical value indicating
how favorable or unfavorable it to be judge
Check each statement agree or disagree
Mean score is computed indicating their attitude
A popular means for measuring attitudes
Developed by Rensis Likert in 1932
Set of attitude items, all of which are considered
of approx. equal attitude value
Respondents are asked to indicate their level of
agreement with a given statement by way of an
Example: It is more fund to play football than
The score of items of such a scale are summed
and averaged to yield the individual attitude score
One item is the same as any other item in attitude
Any subset of universe is theoretically the same
as any other subset of universe
Allow for the intensity of attitude expression,
subject can agree or they can agree strongly
Developed by Louis Guttmane in 1950
Also known as cumulative scaling or
scalogram analysis; One-dimensional
From a set of statements in which respondent
who agrees with any specific statement in the list
will also agree with all previous statements.
For example, imagine a ten-item cumulative
scale. If the respondent scores a four, it should
mean that he/she agreed with the first four
Dissertation #1 Principal’s competencies: Perception
and practices in the secondary schools of Lalitpur
district; MA; Chandrayan Pradhan Shrestha, 2011
Dissertation #2 Influence of leadership style of
principals on school climate and commitment of teacher
;Mphil; John M. Vanlalhrita, 2009
Both Dissertation used Likert scale. In Disertation 1,
1-5 level of performance of competencies exhibited
by the school principal and in Dissertation 2 on
student perception 4 point likert scale was used.
Likert scale for both dissertation looks fine to find
out the competency and attitude
But , few statements in the scale s is quite lengthy
for the audiences.
Babbie, E. (2007). Research Method in Sociology.
New Delhi: Cengage Learning India Private
Chandrakandan, K., Venkatapirabu, J., Sekar, V., &
Anandakumar, V. (2001). Tests and
measurements in social research. New Delhi:
A.P.H. Publishing Cooperation.
Kerlinger, F. N. (2008). Foundations of Behavioral
Research. Delhi: Surjeet Publications.
Ravilochanan, P. (2005). Research Methodology.
Chennai: Margham Publications.