SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 26
NUMERICAL APERTURE OF
OPTICAL FIBRE
INTRODUCTION
 Optical fiber (fiber optic) refers to the medium and
the technology associated with the transmission of
information as light pulses along a glass or plastic
strand or fiber. Optical fiber carries much more
information than conventional copper wire and is in
general not subject to electromagnetic interference
and the need to retransmit signals.
ACCEPTANCE ANGLE
 Acceptance angle is the maximum angle with the
axis of the optical fiber at which light may enter. The
fiber in order to be propagated through it.
NUMERICAL APERTURE
DEFINATION
 The numerical aperture is also defined as the sine of
the acceptance angle .
ca nAN  sinsin. 1
21
1 )2(N.A  n
212
2
2
1 )(. nnAN 
SIGNIFICANCE OF NA
 The significance of NA is that light entering in the
cone of semi vertical angle a only propagate through
the fibre. The higher the value of a or NA more is the
light collected for propagation in the fibre. Numerical
aperture is thus considered as a light gathering
capacity of an optical fibre.
STRATEGY
&
PREPARATION
OF PBL
MATERIALS USED
 Optical fiber
 Wooden Plank
 Laser
 Nails
 Saw
 Arduino
 Hammer
DAY 1
ASSISTANCE FROM WORKSHOP
 Under the guidance of Prof. B.S. Rathod we did all
the wood work related to carpentry . We were
assisted by Mr. V. M Phakatkar who were designated
for carpentry , the wood was cut and shaped
according to our requirements with the help of saw .
The holes were made on the wooden planks with the
help of drill and the holes being drilled according to
the approximate value from the model.
DAY 2
SET-UP
 The whole project was organized with the help of 4
wooden planks with one plank being the base of the
project and the rest three planks placed erect
according to the measurements of the model
separated by approx. distance . The optical fiber was
laid between the planks and the project was tested
with the help of laser being emitted from one end .
SET UP
RESULT
LM358
AURDINO CODE
INTENSITY VS DISTANCE GRAPH
-4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
Chart Title
CALCULATIONS OF NA
 MAXIMUM INTENSITY=88.65 W/m2
 10% OF MAXIMUM INTENSITY= 8.865 W/m2
 DIAMETER=5.6 Cm
 RADIUS(r)= 2.8Cm
 LENGTH=6.5CM
 TAN(Ø)= r/l
=2.8/6.5=0.4307
 Ø= 23.300
 NA= Sin(Ø)=0.395
INFERENCE
 WORK INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY – working in
groups can achieve much more than individuals
working on their own. Planning for a project on
individual basis is much lengthy process, which can
be tackled by working in groups. Discussing and
designing the optical stand was done in a group
which gave a successful outcome.
 SKILLS DEVELOPMENT - being part of a group
helped develop interpersonal skills such as speaking
and listening as well as team work skills such as
leadership an working with and motivating others.
Being a part of workshop and working together was
exciting and fun. We also learnt many things working
together.
 KNOWING MORE ABOUT YOURSELF –
collaborating with others helped us identify our
strengths and weaknesses. We came to know much
about our areas of interests. Some people took
interest in designing the model while some were
active in workshop, some were busy understanding
theory and some were preparing for the result by
paying major attention to the details of the project.
TECHNICAL ASPECTS
 What is numerical aperture of an optical fibre?
The numerical aperture is a measure of how much
light can be collected by an optical system such as an
optical fibre or microscopic lens. The numerical
aperture is related to the acceptance angle a, which
indicates the size of the cone that can be accepted by
the fibre.
 On what factors does NA depend?
The numerical aperture depends upon the half angle
of the maximum cone of light that can enter or exit the
lens and also depends upon the index of refraction.
 What is the maximum value of numerical aperture?
Sine of the angle is known as numerical aperture,
hence has the maximum value 1, which is theoretically
maximum. Practically its value depends upon the type
of the optical fibre and its refractive indices.
 What is physical significance of numerical aperture?
The significance of NA is that light entering in the cone
of semi vertical angle only propagate through the fibre.
Higher the value of NA more is the light collected for
propagation of the fibre. It is thus considered as light
gathering capacity of an optical fibre.
DRAWBACKS
1. Precision:
 Stands.
 Insufficient experience in workshop.
 Material.
2. Design:
 Size.
 Aesthetic Appeal.
3. Failure of Theoretical logic in
measuring the diameter.
4. User-Friendliness.
IMPROVEMENTS
1. Precision
 BPW34 Sensor
2. Size
3. Material
HOW TO MAKE THE SETUP MORE
COMPACT
Also the estimated cost of our project.
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Dispersion Compensation Techniques for Optical Fiber Communication
Dispersion Compensation Techniques for Optical Fiber CommunicationDispersion Compensation Techniques for Optical Fiber Communication
Dispersion Compensation Techniques for Optical Fiber CommunicationAmit Raikar
 
Optical fibers 2 ppt
Optical fibers 2 pptOptical fibers 2 ppt
Optical fibers 2 pptshubham patel
 
Metamaterial loaded microstrip patch antenna for quad band operation
Metamaterial loaded microstrip patch antenna for quad band operationMetamaterial loaded microstrip patch antenna for quad band operation
Metamaterial loaded microstrip patch antenna for quad band operationeSAT Journals
 
Lecture22 non linear fiber optics
Lecture22 non linear fiber opticsLecture22 non linear fiber optics
Lecture22 non linear fiber opticsnadia abd
 
Design of a rectangular patch antenna
Design of a rectangular patch antennaDesign of a rectangular patch antenna
Design of a rectangular patch antennaAzlin lolin
 
Optical fibre transmission
Optical fibre transmissionOptical fibre transmission
Optical fibre transmissionAnkit Srivastava
 
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Unit 5
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Unit 5OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Unit 5
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Unit 5Asif Iqbal
 
Optical Communication unit 1 (part 1)
Optical Communication unit 1 (part 1)Optical Communication unit 1 (part 1)
Optical Communication unit 1 (part 1)SeshaVidhyaS
 
ppt on dispersion
ppt on dispersionppt on dispersion
ppt on dispersionAvni Jain
 
Signal degradation
Signal degradationSignal degradation
Signal degradationanitasjadhav
 
Dispersion compensation in an optical fiber by using
Dispersion compensation in an optical fiber by usingDispersion compensation in an optical fiber by using
Dispersion compensation in an optical fiber by usingeSAT Publishing House
 
What is Mode Field Diameter?
What is Mode Field Diameter?What is Mode Field Diameter?
What is Mode Field Diameter?Caroline Connolly
 
Dispersion Modified Optical Fiber
Dispersion Modified Optical FiberDispersion Modified Optical Fiber
Dispersion Modified Optical Fiberhassaanashraf1
 

What's hot (20)

Dispersion Compensation Techniques for Optical Fiber Communication
Dispersion Compensation Techniques for Optical Fiber CommunicationDispersion Compensation Techniques for Optical Fiber Communication
Dispersion Compensation Techniques for Optical Fiber Communication
 
Fibre optics
Fibre opticsFibre optics
Fibre optics
 
Optical fibers 2 ppt
Optical fibers 2 pptOptical fibers 2 ppt
Optical fibers 2 ppt
 
Ep notes
Ep notesEp notes
Ep notes
 
Metamaterial loaded microstrip patch antenna for quad band operation
Metamaterial loaded microstrip patch antenna for quad band operationMetamaterial loaded microstrip patch antenna for quad band operation
Metamaterial loaded microstrip patch antenna for quad band operation
 
Lecture22 non linear fiber optics
Lecture22 non linear fiber opticsLecture22 non linear fiber optics
Lecture22 non linear fiber optics
 
Design of a rectangular patch antenna
Design of a rectangular patch antennaDesign of a rectangular patch antenna
Design of a rectangular patch antenna
 
Optical fibre transmission
Optical fibre transmissionOptical fibre transmission
Optical fibre transmission
 
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Unit 5
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Unit 5OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Unit 5
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Unit 5
 
FOC
FOCFOC
FOC
 
Optical Communication unit 1 (part 1)
Optical Communication unit 1 (part 1)Optical Communication unit 1 (part 1)
Optical Communication unit 1 (part 1)
 
ppt on dispersion
ppt on dispersionppt on dispersion
ppt on dispersion
 
Signal degradation
Signal degradationSignal degradation
Signal degradation
 
Dispersion compensation in an optical fiber by using
Dispersion compensation in an optical fiber by usingDispersion compensation in an optical fiber by using
Dispersion compensation in an optical fiber by using
 
Final ofc ppt
Final ofc pptFinal ofc ppt
Final ofc ppt
 
What is Mode Field Diameter?
What is Mode Field Diameter?What is Mode Field Diameter?
What is Mode Field Diameter?
 
Fibre optics
Fibre opticsFibre optics
Fibre optics
 
Dispersion Modified Optical Fiber
Dispersion Modified Optical FiberDispersion Modified Optical Fiber
Dispersion Modified Optical Fiber
 
Signal degradation in optical fibers
Signal degradation in optical fibersSignal degradation in optical fibers
Signal degradation in optical fibers
 
Hfc h fiber optic testing
Hfc h fiber optic testingHfc h fiber optic testing
Hfc h fiber optic testing
 

Similar to Pbl itb1 phy

Similar to Pbl itb1 phy (20)

Fiber
FiberFiber
Fiber
 
experiment to determine the numerical aperture of an optical fibre..
experiment to determine the numerical aperture  of an optical fibre..experiment to determine the numerical aperture  of an optical fibre..
experiment to determine the numerical aperture of an optical fibre..
 
Fibre optics.pptx
Fibre optics.pptxFibre optics.pptx
Fibre optics.pptx
 
Optical fibers
Optical fibersOptical fibers
Optical fibers
 
Foc unit no.01
Foc unit no.01Foc unit no.01
Foc unit no.01
 
Optical Communications Systems Lecture 1(1).pptx
Optical Communications Systems Lecture 1(1).pptxOptical Communications Systems Lecture 1(1).pptx
Optical Communications Systems Lecture 1(1).pptx
 
Optical fiber
Optical fiberOptical fiber
Optical fiber
 
Macro Bending Losses in Single Mode Step Index Fiber
Macro Bending Losses in Single Mode Step Index FiberMacro Bending Losses in Single Mode Step Index Fiber
Macro Bending Losses in Single Mode Step Index Fiber
 
Ofc
OfcOfc
Ofc
 
Optical Fiber Communication
Optical Fiber CommunicationOptical Fiber Communication
Optical Fiber Communication
 
227Y1A66D1.PPT.pptx
227Y1A66D1.PPT.pptx227Y1A66D1.PPT.pptx
227Y1A66D1.PPT.pptx
 
FIBER OPTICS .ppt
FIBER OPTICS .pptFIBER OPTICS .ppt
FIBER OPTICS .ppt
 
Fiber optics
Fiber optics Fiber optics
Fiber optics
 
Optical fibres by Raveendra Bagade
Optical fibres by Raveendra BagadeOptical fibres by Raveendra Bagade
Optical fibres by Raveendra Bagade
 
opticle fiber
opticle fiberopticle fiber
opticle fiber
 
optical fibers.pptx
optical fibers.pptxoptical fibers.pptx
optical fibers.pptx
 
Fiber optic communication
Fiber optic communicationFiber optic communication
Fiber optic communication
 
Numerical ray tracing through a modified cladding fiber optic segment sensors
Numerical ray tracing through a modified cladding fiber optic segment sensorsNumerical ray tracing through a modified cladding fiber optic segment sensors
Numerical ray tracing through a modified cladding fiber optic segment sensors
 
Fiber Optics Pt1 (1).pptx
Fiber Optics  Pt1 (1).pptxFiber Optics  Pt1 (1).pptx
Fiber Optics Pt1 (1).pptx
 
Fibre opitcs
Fibre opitcsFibre opitcs
Fibre opitcs
 

More from amangupta919

More from amangupta919 (6)

Panchayat raj system
Panchayat raj systemPanchayat raj system
Panchayat raj system
 
Smoke indicator
Smoke indicatorSmoke indicator
Smoke indicator
 
Optical fibre 2
Optical fibre 2Optical fibre 2
Optical fibre 2
 
5g wireless
5g wireless5g wireless
5g wireless
 
Water purification
Water purificationWater purification
Water purification
 
Music
MusicMusic
Music
 

Recently uploaded

DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsDevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsSergiu Bodiu
 
Vertex AI Gemini Prompt Engineering Tips
Vertex AI Gemini Prompt Engineering TipsVertex AI Gemini Prompt Engineering Tips
Vertex AI Gemini Prompt Engineering TipsMiki Katsuragi
 
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii SoldatenkoFwdays
 
Artificial intelligence in cctv survelliance.pptx
Artificial intelligence in cctv survelliance.pptxArtificial intelligence in cctv survelliance.pptx
Artificial intelligence in cctv survelliance.pptxhariprasad279825
 
Advanced Test Driven-Development @ php[tek] 2024
Advanced Test Driven-Development @ php[tek] 2024Advanced Test Driven-Development @ php[tek] 2024
Advanced Test Driven-Development @ php[tek] 2024Scott Keck-Warren
 
WordPress Websites for Engineers: Elevate Your Brand
WordPress Websites for Engineers: Elevate Your BrandWordPress Websites for Engineers: Elevate Your Brand
WordPress Websites for Engineers: Elevate Your Brandgvaughan
 
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!Commit University
 
Unraveling Multimodality with Large Language Models.pdf
Unraveling Multimodality with Large Language Models.pdfUnraveling Multimodality with Large Language Models.pdf
Unraveling Multimodality with Large Language Models.pdfAlex Barbosa Coqueiro
 
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLDeveloper Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLScyllaDB
 
Human Factors of XR: Using Human Factors to Design XR Systems
Human Factors of XR: Using Human Factors to Design XR SystemsHuman Factors of XR: Using Human Factors to Design XR Systems
Human Factors of XR: Using Human Factors to Design XR SystemsMark Billinghurst
 
Are Multi-Cloud and Serverless Good or Bad?
Are Multi-Cloud and Serverless Good or Bad?Are Multi-Cloud and Serverless Good or Bad?
Are Multi-Cloud and Serverless Good or Bad?Mattias Andersson
 
Unleash Your Potential - Namagunga Girls Coding Club
Unleash Your Potential - Namagunga Girls Coding ClubUnleash Your Potential - Namagunga Girls Coding Club
Unleash Your Potential - Namagunga Girls Coding ClubKalema Edgar
 
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 3652toLead Limited
 
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.Curtis Poe
 
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningDSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningLars Bell
 
Commit 2024 - Secret Management made easy
Commit 2024 - Secret Management made easyCommit 2024 - Secret Management made easy
Commit 2024 - Secret Management made easyAlfredo García Lavilla
 
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteTake control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteDianaGray10
 
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxMerck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 

Recently uploaded (20)

DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsDevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
 
Vertex AI Gemini Prompt Engineering Tips
Vertex AI Gemini Prompt Engineering TipsVertex AI Gemini Prompt Engineering Tips
Vertex AI Gemini Prompt Engineering Tips
 
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
 
Artificial intelligence in cctv survelliance.pptx
Artificial intelligence in cctv survelliance.pptxArtificial intelligence in cctv survelliance.pptx
Artificial intelligence in cctv survelliance.pptx
 
Advanced Test Driven-Development @ php[tek] 2024
Advanced Test Driven-Development @ php[tek] 2024Advanced Test Driven-Development @ php[tek] 2024
Advanced Test Driven-Development @ php[tek] 2024
 
WordPress Websites for Engineers: Elevate Your Brand
WordPress Websites for Engineers: Elevate Your BrandWordPress Websites for Engineers: Elevate Your Brand
WordPress Websites for Engineers: Elevate Your Brand
 
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
 
Unraveling Multimodality with Large Language Models.pdf
Unraveling Multimodality with Large Language Models.pdfUnraveling Multimodality with Large Language Models.pdf
Unraveling Multimodality with Large Language Models.pdf
 
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLDeveloper Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
 
E-Vehicle_Hacking_by_Parul Sharma_null_owasp.pptx
E-Vehicle_Hacking_by_Parul Sharma_null_owasp.pptxE-Vehicle_Hacking_by_Parul Sharma_null_owasp.pptx
E-Vehicle_Hacking_by_Parul Sharma_null_owasp.pptx
 
Human Factors of XR: Using Human Factors to Design XR Systems
Human Factors of XR: Using Human Factors to Design XR SystemsHuman Factors of XR: Using Human Factors to Design XR Systems
Human Factors of XR: Using Human Factors to Design XR Systems
 
Are Multi-Cloud and Serverless Good or Bad?
Are Multi-Cloud and Serverless Good or Bad?Are Multi-Cloud and Serverless Good or Bad?
Are Multi-Cloud and Serverless Good or Bad?
 
DMCC Future of Trade Web3 - Special Edition
DMCC Future of Trade Web3 - Special EditionDMCC Future of Trade Web3 - Special Edition
DMCC Future of Trade Web3 - Special Edition
 
Unleash Your Potential - Namagunga Girls Coding Club
Unleash Your Potential - Namagunga Girls Coding ClubUnleash Your Potential - Namagunga Girls Coding Club
Unleash Your Potential - Namagunga Girls Coding Club
 
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
Ensuring Technical Readiness For Copilot in Microsoft 365
 
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
 
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningDSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
 
Commit 2024 - Secret Management made easy
Commit 2024 - Secret Management made easyCommit 2024 - Secret Management made easy
Commit 2024 - Secret Management made easy
 
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteTake control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
 
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxMerck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 

Pbl itb1 phy

  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Optical fiber (fiber optic) refers to the medium and the technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic strand or fiber. Optical fiber carries much more information than conventional copper wire and is in general not subject to electromagnetic interference and the need to retransmit signals.
  • 3. ACCEPTANCE ANGLE  Acceptance angle is the maximum angle with the axis of the optical fiber at which light may enter. The fiber in order to be propagated through it.
  • 5. DEFINATION  The numerical aperture is also defined as the sine of the acceptance angle . ca nAN  sinsin. 1 21 1 )2(N.A  n 212 2 2 1 )(. nnAN 
  • 6. SIGNIFICANCE OF NA  The significance of NA is that light entering in the cone of semi vertical angle a only propagate through the fibre. The higher the value of a or NA more is the light collected for propagation in the fibre. Numerical aperture is thus considered as a light gathering capacity of an optical fibre.
  • 8. MATERIALS USED  Optical fiber  Wooden Plank  Laser  Nails  Saw  Arduino  Hammer
  • 9. DAY 1 ASSISTANCE FROM WORKSHOP  Under the guidance of Prof. B.S. Rathod we did all the wood work related to carpentry . We were assisted by Mr. V. M Phakatkar who were designated for carpentry , the wood was cut and shaped according to our requirements with the help of saw . The holes were made on the wooden planks with the help of drill and the holes being drilled according to the approximate value from the model.
  • 10. DAY 2 SET-UP  The whole project was organized with the help of 4 wooden planks with one plank being the base of the project and the rest three planks placed erect according to the measurements of the model separated by approx. distance . The optical fiber was laid between the planks and the project was tested with the help of laser being emitted from one end .
  • 13. LM358
  • 15. INTENSITY VS DISTANCE GRAPH -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Chart Title
  • 16. CALCULATIONS OF NA  MAXIMUM INTENSITY=88.65 W/m2  10% OF MAXIMUM INTENSITY= 8.865 W/m2  DIAMETER=5.6 Cm  RADIUS(r)= 2.8Cm  LENGTH=6.5CM  TAN(Ø)= r/l =2.8/6.5=0.4307  Ø= 23.300  NA= Sin(Ø)=0.395
  • 17. INFERENCE  WORK INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY – working in groups can achieve much more than individuals working on their own. Planning for a project on individual basis is much lengthy process, which can be tackled by working in groups. Discussing and designing the optical stand was done in a group which gave a successful outcome.  SKILLS DEVELOPMENT - being part of a group helped develop interpersonal skills such as speaking and listening as well as team work skills such as leadership an working with and motivating others. Being a part of workshop and working together was exciting and fun. We also learnt many things working together.
  • 18.  KNOWING MORE ABOUT YOURSELF – collaborating with others helped us identify our strengths and weaknesses. We came to know much about our areas of interests. Some people took interest in designing the model while some were active in workshop, some were busy understanding theory and some were preparing for the result by paying major attention to the details of the project.
  • 19. TECHNICAL ASPECTS  What is numerical aperture of an optical fibre? The numerical aperture is a measure of how much light can be collected by an optical system such as an optical fibre or microscopic lens. The numerical aperture is related to the acceptance angle a, which indicates the size of the cone that can be accepted by the fibre.
  • 20.  On what factors does NA depend? The numerical aperture depends upon the half angle of the maximum cone of light that can enter or exit the lens and also depends upon the index of refraction.  What is the maximum value of numerical aperture? Sine of the angle is known as numerical aperture, hence has the maximum value 1, which is theoretically maximum. Practically its value depends upon the type of the optical fibre and its refractive indices.
  • 21.  What is physical significance of numerical aperture? The significance of NA is that light entering in the cone of semi vertical angle only propagate through the fibre. Higher the value of NA more is the light collected for propagation of the fibre. It is thus considered as light gathering capacity of an optical fibre.
  • 22. DRAWBACKS 1. Precision:  Stands.  Insufficient experience in workshop.  Material. 2. Design:  Size.  Aesthetic Appeal.
  • 23. 3. Failure of Theoretical logic in measuring the diameter. 4. User-Friendliness.
  • 24. IMPROVEMENTS 1. Precision  BPW34 Sensor 2. Size 3. Material
  • 25. HOW TO MAKE THE SETUP MORE COMPACT Also the estimated cost of our project.