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Learning Objectives of this topic <ul><li>Know  the meaning of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to identify individual di...
<ul><li>1.. Can you say ‘no’ to friends and colleagues?  </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Are you organized? </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Ca...
YES OR NO <ul><li>8.    Are you able to be definite in your thinking and avoid uncertainties?  </li></ul><ul><li>9.Do you ...
<ul><li>13.   Are you aware of what stress is all about and what causes stress?  </li></ul><ul><li>14.   Are you a positiv...
<ul><li>18.  Are you in a good state of health?  </li></ul><ul><li>19.  Do you feel secure and value yourself? </li></ul>
  STRESS  The response to events that are threatening or challenging   <ul><li>Stress is a general term that includes all ...
. <ul><li>Stress is a part of being alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress becomes a problem for us when we have too much stress ...
Should WE Eliminate Stress from OUR Lives? <ul><li>Our goal is not to eliminate stress but, </li></ul><ul><li>to learn how...
Kinds of effects associated with the stressed state <ul><li>Psychologists have argued that there are four major kinds of e...
<ul><li>2.  Physiological effects </li></ul><ul><li>Release of adrenaline and noradrenalin </li></ul><ul><li>shut-down of ...
<ul><li>3.  Cognitive effects </li></ul><ul><li>Poor concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Increased distractibility </li></ul><...
What determines our stress level? <ul><li>Stress is uniquely personal. </li></ul><ul><li>Our response to stress is a uniqu...
<ul><li>External factors </li></ul><ul><li>Medical care </li></ul><ul><li>Finances </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and training <...
<ul><li>Mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Self confidence </li><...
Theories <ul><li>According to engineering model ,stress is something that happens to us when we are exposed to a stressor....
Psychology of stress <ul><li>There are various psychological processes or coping strategies which can be used to reduce st...
<ul><li>Emotion oriented strategies </li></ul><ul><li>,involves efforts to maintain hope and to control emotions. </li></u...
Causes of stress <ul><li>Stressful life events </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Technologi...
How Can we Manage Stress Better?   <ul><li>1. Become aware of your stressors and your emotional and physical reactions.   ...
<ul><li>Determine how your body responds to the stress. Do you become nervous or physically upset? If so, in what specific...
Recognize what you can change.  <ul><li>Can you change your stressors by avoiding or eliminating them completely?  </li></...
<ul><li>Can you shorten your exposure to stress (take a break, leave the physical premises)? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you dev...
Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress <ul><li>The stress reaction is triggered by your perception of ...
<ul><li>Are you overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent? Do you feel you must always prevail in ...
Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress.  <ul><li>Slow, deep breathing will bring your heart rate and respirat...
Build your physical reserves.  <ul><li>Exercise for cardiovascular fitness three to four times a week (moderate, prolonged...
<ul><li>Avoid nicotine, excessive caffeine, and other stimulants.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mix leisure with work. Take breaks an...
Maintain your emotional reserves.  <ul><li>Develop some mutually supportive friendships/relationships.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Expect some frustrations, failures, and sorrows. </li></ul><ul><li>Always be kind and gentle with yourself -- be a...
10 stress busters <ul><li>Exercise three to five times for at least 30 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Work off your anger by d...
<ul><li>5. Maintain a regular sleep schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Don’t procrastinate. </li></ul><ul><li>7.Avoid caffeine...
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Session 14 stress ( SMS )

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Session 14 stress ( SMS )

  1. 2. Learning Objectives of this topic <ul><li>Know the meaning of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to identify individual dispositions of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the effects of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Know some strategies for managing stress </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>1.. Can you say ‘no’ to friends and colleagues?  </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Are you organized? </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Can you priorities?  </li></ul><ul><li>5. Do you enjoy a healthy balanced diet?  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Can you seek help when you need it? </li></ul><ul><li>  7.Do you have a low caffeine and alcohol /tea consumption?  </li></ul><ul><li>8.     Can you manage your time well? uncertainties?     </li></ul>
  3. 4. YES OR NO <ul><li>8.    Are you able to be definite in your thinking and avoid uncertainties?  </li></ul><ul><li>9.Do you smoke?     </li></ul><ul><li>10.Do you exercise regularly?  </li></ul><ul><li>11. Are you doing the most suitable job?  </li></ul><ul><li>12. Do you smile and laugh regularly? </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>13.   Are you aware of what stress is all about and what causes stress?  </li></ul><ul><li>14.   Are you a positive thinker?  </li></ul><ul><li>15.   Can you recognize the signs and symptoms of stress?  </li></ul><ul><li>  16.   Are you able to relax your mind and body regularly?  </li></ul><ul><li>17.  Are you able to talk to people freely about your feelings? </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>18.  Are you in a good state of health?  </li></ul><ul><li>19.  Do you feel secure and value yourself? </li></ul>
  6. 7. STRESS The response to events that are threatening or challenging <ul><li>Stress is a general term that includes all the , </li></ul><ul><li>physical, </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral, </li></ul><ul><li>emotional, and </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive responses we make to a disruptive internal or external event. </li></ul>
  7. 8. . <ul><li>Stress is a part of being alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress becomes a problem for us when we have too much stress and not enough resources to cope with it. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Should WE Eliminate Stress from OUR Lives? <ul><li>Our goal is not to eliminate stress but, </li></ul><ul><li>to learn how to manage it and how to use it to help us </li></ul><ul><li>What we need to do is find the optimal level of stress which will individually motivate but not overwhelm each of us </li></ul>
  9. 10. Kinds of effects associated with the stressed state <ul><li>Psychologists have argued that there are four major kinds of effects associated with the stressed state, </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional effects </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of anxiety and depression </li></ul><ul><li>Increased physical tension </li></ul><ul><li>Increased psychological tension </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>2. Physiological effects </li></ul><ul><li>Release of adrenaline and noradrenalin </li></ul><ul><li>shut-down of digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of air passages In lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Constriction of blood vessels </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>3. Cognitive effects </li></ul><ul><li>Poor concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Increased distractibility </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced short term memory capacity </li></ul><ul><li>4. Behavioral effects </li></ul><ul><li>Increased absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupted sleep patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced work performance </li></ul>
  12. 13. What determines our stress level? <ul><li>Stress is uniquely personal. </li></ul><ul><li>Our response to stress is a unique combination of bodily reactions, thoughts feelings and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors Affecting our personal stress level </li></ul><ul><li>Internal factors </li></ul><ul><li>Physical health </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>External factors </li></ul><ul><li>Medical care </li></ul><ul><li>Finances </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and training </li></ul><ul><li>Support systems </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of stressors occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of stress's occurrence </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural definitions </li></ul>
  15. 16. Theories <ul><li>According to engineering model ,stress is something that happens to us when we are exposed to a stressor. </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional model says stress occurs when, </li></ul><ul><li>the perceived demands of a situation exceed the individuals perceived ability to handle those demands. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Psychology of stress <ul><li>There are various psychological processes or coping strategies which can be used to reduce stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Task oriented strategies ,involves obtaining information about the stressful situation and about alternative course of action and their probable outcomes. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Emotion oriented strategies </li></ul><ul><li>,involves efforts to maintain hope and to control emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance oriented strategies , involves denying or minimizing the seriousness of situation . </li></ul>
  18. 19. Causes of stress <ul><li>Stressful life events </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Technological threats </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven distribution of life facilities </li></ul>
  19. 20. How Can we Manage Stress Better? <ul><li>1. Become aware of your stressors and your emotional and physical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice your distress. Don't ignore it. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't cover or hide your problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what events distress you. What are you telling yourself about meaning of these events? </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Determine how your body responds to the stress. Do you become nervous or physically upset? If so, in what specific ways? </li></ul>
  21. 22. Recognize what you can change. <ul><li>Can you change your stressors by avoiding or eliminating them completely? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you reduce their intensity (manage them over a period of time instead of on a daily or weekly basis)? </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Can you shorten your exposure to stress (take a break, leave the physical premises)? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you devote the time and energy necessary to making a change (goal setting, time management techniques, and delayed gratification strategies may be helpful here)? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress <ul><li>The stress reaction is triggered by your perception of danger...physical danger and/or emotional danger. </li></ul><ul><li>Are you viewing your stressors in exaggerated terms and/or taking a difficult situation and making it a disaster? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you expecting to please everyone? </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Are you overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent? Do you feel you must always prevail in every situation? </li></ul><ul><li>Work at adopting more moderate views; try to see the stress as something you can cope with rather than something that overpowers you. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to temper your excess emotions. Put the situation in perspective. Do not labor on the negative aspects and the &quot;what if's.&quot; </li></ul>
  25. 26. Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress. <ul><li>Slow, deep breathing will bring your heart rate and respiration back to normal. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Build your physical reserves. <ul><li>Exercise for cardiovascular fitness three to four times a week (moderate, prolonged rhythmic exercise is best, such as walking, swimming, cycling, or jogging). </li></ul><ul><li>Eat well-balanced, nutritious meals. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain your ideal weight. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Avoid nicotine, excessive caffeine, and other stimulants. </li></ul><ul><li>Mix leisure with work. Take breaks and get away when you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Get enough sleep. Be as consistent with your sleep schedule as possible. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Maintain your emotional reserves. <ul><li>Develop some mutually supportive friendships/relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Pursue realistic goals which are meaningful to you, rather than goals others have for you that you do not share. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Expect some frustrations, failures, and sorrows. </li></ul><ul><li>Always be kind and gentle with yourself -- be a friend to yourself. </li></ul>
  30. 31. 10 stress busters <ul><li>Exercise three to five times for at least 30 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Work off your anger by doing something physical. </li></ul><ul><li>Use relaxation techniques ,yoga meditation or deep breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out funny movie a week, more during stressful times. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>5. Maintain a regular sleep schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Don’t procrastinate. </li></ul><ul><li>7.Avoid caffeine,sugar,and tobacco when you are stressed </li></ul><ul><li>8. Volunteer once a month, ,helping others is an incredible stress reliever. </li></ul><ul><li>9.Set priorities weekly and make sure to schedule in leisure time. </li></ul><ul><li>10.Talk with others. A support system is one of the greatest stress busters. </li></ul>

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