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  1. 1. MODULE 5 SHOCK
  2. 2. <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>DANGERS OF SHOCK </li></ul><ul><li>SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST AID </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES </li></ul>Scope of Presentation
  3. 3. <ul><li>- is a depressed condition of many body functions due to the failure of enough blood to circulate throughout the body following serious injury . </li></ul>shock
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. PUMP FAILURE </li></ul><ul><li> occurs when the heart is damaged . </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: Heart attack, trauma </li></ul><ul><li>to the heart. </li></ul>BASIC CAUSES:
  5. 5. <ul><li>2. HYPOVOLEMIA - blood or fluid loss from blood vessels decreases blood volume, usually a result of bleeding, and results in adequate perfusion. </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES: Trauma to vessels or tissues, </li></ul><ul><li>fluid loss from GI tract </li></ul><ul><li>(vomiting/diarrhea) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>3. BLOOD VESSELS DILATE </li></ul><ul><li>( RELATIVE HYPOVOLEMIA) - the blood vessels can dilate enough that the blood within them, even though it is of normal value, is inadequate to fill the system and provide efficient perfusion. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSES: Infection, drug overdose (narcotic), and spinal cord injury . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. CAUSES: <ul><li>1. Severe bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>2. Crushing injury </li></ul><ul><li>3. Infection </li></ul><ul><li>4. Heart Attack </li></ul><ul><li>5. Perforation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Anaphylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>7. Shell bomb and bullet wound </li></ul><ul><li>8. Rupture of tubal pregnancies </li></ul><ul><li>9. Starvation and disease </li></ul>
  8. 8. FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO SHOCK <ul><li>1. Pain </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rough handling </li></ul><ul><li>3. Improper transfer </li></ul><ul><li>4. Continuous bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>5. Exposure to extreme </li></ul><ul><li>cold or excessive heat </li></ul><ul><li>6. Fatigue </li></ul>
  9. 9. DANGERS OF SHOCK <ul><li>1. Lead to death </li></ul><ul><li>2. Predisposes body to infection </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lead to loss of body part </li></ul>
  10. 10. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SHOCK <ul><li>1. EARLY STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Face - pale or cyanotic in color </li></ul><ul><li>Skin - cold and clammy </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing – irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse – rapid and weak </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Thirsty </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>2 . LATE STAGE </li></ul><ul><li> Apathetic or relatively unresponsive </li></ul><ul><li> Eyes will be sunken with vacant expression </li></ul><ul><li> Pupils are dilated </li></ul><ul><li> Blood vessels may be congested producing mottled appearances </li></ul><ul><li> Blood pressure level  </li></ul><ul><li> Unconsciousness may occur, body temperature falls </li></ul>
  12. 12. Heat Stroke, Drug Overdose Lack of O2 supply to the brain, brain damage Stroke, Head Injury Different Sizes of Pupils
  13. 13. OBJECTIVES OF FIRST AID <ul><li>1. To improve circulation of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>2. To ensure an adequate supply of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To maintain normal body </li></ul><ul><li>temperature </li></ul>
  14. 14. First Aid and Preventive Management of Shock <ul><li>1. Proper Position </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the victim lying down flat </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate the lower part of the body a foot or so if injury is severe, from eight to twelve inches high </li></ul><ul><li>Place the victim who is having difficulty in breathing on his back, with his head and shoulder raised </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Head injury - apply pressure on the injury and keep the victim lying flat. Do not elevate head or lower extremities. When the color of the face return to normal, elevate head and shoulder and continue giving care to the injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Chest injury - raise the head and shoulder slightly. </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting or unconsciousness - keep the victim lying on one side (known </li></ul><ul><li>as recovery, coma or lateral position) </li></ul><ul><li>preferably opposite from his injury except for sucking wound and stroke. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>2. Proper Body Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain body temperature and victim must not be neither perspiring nor chilling </li></ul><ul><li>If the weather is warm, the victim need not to be covered </li></ul><ul><li>If the victim is cold, inspite of the weather, a blanket may be placed underneath him and cover the body </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>3. Proper Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Proper handling of patient would prevent further injury to the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Refer proper techniques on transfer method on Patient handling </li></ul><ul><li>*DO NOT give anything by mouth including water. If medical care is delayed and patient is complaining of intense thirst, you may wet his/her lips. </li></ul>
  19. 19. TYPES OF SHOCK Position comfortably, assist ventilation, transport promptly Chest pains, irregular pulse, weak pulse, low blood pressure, cyanosis (lips, under nails), anxiety Inadequate heart function, disease of muscle tissue, impaired electrical system, disease or injury Cardiogenic Supply respiratory support, assist ventilation, determine cause, transport promptly Can develop within seconds. Mild itching, burning skin, vascular dilation, generalized edema, profound coma, rapid death Allergic reaction (most severe form) Anaphylactic TREATMENT S & S CAUSES NAME
  20. 20. Secure airway, assist ventilation, determine illness, transport promptly Rapid, weak pulse, low Bp, change in mental status, cyanosis ( lips, under nails), Cool, clammy skin Excessive loss of fluid & Electrolytes due to vomiting, urination or diarrhea Metabolic Secure airway, assist ventilation, control external bleeding, elevate legs, prevent aspiration, transport promptly Rapid, weak pulse, low blood pressure, change in mental status, cyanotic (lips, under nails), Cool, clammy skin Loss of blood or fluid Hypovolemic TREATMENT S & S CAUSES NAME
  21. 21. Transport promptly, provide full ventilatory support, elevate legs, keep patient warm Warm skin, tachycardia, low Bp Severe bacterial infection Septic Determine duration of unconsciousness, record initial vital signs & mental status, suspect head injury if patient is confused or slow to regain consciousness, transport promptly Rapid pulse, normal or low Bp Temporary, generalized vascular dilatation, anxiety, bad news, sight of injury/ blood, prospect of medical Psychogenic (Fainting) Secure airway, assist ventilation, conserve body heat, maximize circulation, transport promptly Bradycardia (slow pulse ), low Bp, signs of neck injury Damaged cervical spine, which causes blood to dilate widely Neurogenic TREATMENT S&S CAUSES NAME
  22. 22. Thank you! ….. Have A Nice Day!