Migration to the UK 2010


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An overview of migration to the UK

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  • Note to speaker – picture Mazraq refugee centre North Yemen taken from IRIN and is copyright free for non commercial purposes. Fighting between Yemeni government forces and northern Shia rebels, known as Houthis, has driven 150,000 from their homes, according to UN groups. More than 6,000 people have found their way to al-Mazraq refugee camp - two thirds of whom are children. This conflict is separate from the struggle against al-Qaeda and southern separatists.
  • This figure (215 million) has been updated as at July 2010 and is based on U.N. estimates- please note that the figure is approximate (it could be a few million either way!)
  • Net migration, the difference between immigration and emigration, decreased from 233,000 in 2007 to 163,000 as a result of increased emigration. The number of people leaving the UK reached a record high in 2008, with an estimated 427,000 people emigrating. Many (255,000) were non British citizens - in particular the A8 Accession countries which joined the EU in 2004.
  • This is based on OECD Annual Report ‘International Migration Outlook’, 2008
  • Sources: Pie chart is based on ONS data year ending september 2009 table title: ‘ Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by country of birth ’ Foreign Born residents of other countries – Australia etc OECD Annual Report ‘International Migration Outlook’, 2008 The A8 refer to the 8 east European countries who joined the European Union in 2004. The largest of these was Poland. The other seven are: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia. The A 13 refers to the original 13 countries of the European Union who were members before 2004. Although not mentioned in this slide, the A2 refers to Romania ande Bulgaria who joined the European Union in 2007
  • Sources: Pie chart is based on ONS data year ending september 2009 table title: ‘ Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by country of birth ’
  • A8 nationals are Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia, Czech Republic and Slovakia. The A2 nationals are Romania and Bulgaria
  • This applies not just to the main refugee communities who are Muslim but also to new African-Christian churches. In many cases, this combination of values helps create support networks that people call upon in time of need; for example Immigration and adjustment to a new and very different life can be a daunting and stressful experience. Support networks based around a church or place of prayer can be a source of help as well as practical information and assistance to new arrivals.
  • Less than two per cent of all social housing residents have moved to Britain in the last five years and nine out of ten social housing residents were born in the UK.- this is from research undertaken by the Institute of Public Policy Research. There is no evidence of abuse of the housing allocation such as ‘queue jumping’ or providing false information- research finding by Institute of Public Policy Research. analysis of the Labour Force Survey highlights the fact that migrants who have arrived in the UK during the last five years are overwhelmingly housed in the private rental sector – 64 per cent. Only 11 per cent live in social housing. Arguably, a debate over the relationship between migration and housing actually serves to obscure the urgent need to boost the supply of both social housing and affordable private housing to meet demand.
  • Migrant workers who are part of the European Community can only apply to go on the waiting list if they are in paid employment which is registered with the Home Office under the Workers Registration Scheme. If they lose their job they may lose their place on the list. They are treated the same as all other applicants and awarded points accordingly. Like other applicants, they are awarded additional points for the length of time they are on the waiting list which increases the chances of a successful bid. While there is evidence of homelessness, this is not due to the size of homeless numbers which remain very small; It is to do with the fact that many migrants do not qualify for any public assistance whatsoever- including assistance from the Council- because they have not lived in the UK long enough.
  • It’s important to remember that shortage of social housing preceded the arrival of migrant workers. Although the Right to Buy scheme benefited many at the time, the unintended consequence some decades later is a shortage of family sized social housing.
  • There is a perception that migrants have placed significant demands on local health service resources, but we need to take a balanced assessment of the facts. According to the All party Migration Parliamentary Group, some regions have experienced specific, sudden, short-term pressures on health services which can be attributed to migrants. However, some of these pressures are the result of migrants failing to understand how to access services and the responsiveness of services in the short term. The Local Government Association, the representative body for local councils, said of the impact in a report that: ‘ the impact [of migration] is increasing albeit from a low base, particularly in relation to inappropriate use of A&E instead of GPs and increased use of maternity services, often late, making planning difficult’. These impacts are therefore likely to be short term as services have time to adapt and communities have time to learn how to access services appropriately. Also of importance, in the same report The Local Government Association, noted that: ‘ New economic migrants are generally young and fit and do not make major demands on health services.’
  • The contribution made by migrants to our NHS and frontline services is often overlooked. Without the benefits of migration, the NHS would face a staffing shortage as it benefits from the invaluable contribution of people born outside the UK.
  • Lengthening lifespans and slumping birthrates mean that Europe’s population of working age will drop by 38 million by 2050. At the same time, numbers aged 65 and over will rise by 40 million.  That will swell the EU’s pensioner population to more than 100 million. The number of workers for every individual of 65-plus will fall from more than three to fewer than two. Within this context inward migration is a positive thing: we need young working people to help support the costs of older members of the population, given that our birth rate has fallen. By 2050 more than half of Britons will be 50 or older. Today this elder generation controles four-fifths of the country’s wealth. This mismatch of wealth between old and young has the potential to develop into intergenerational conflict and may become one of the big political issues in this century. Sources The Times: http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/columnists/article1980413.ece June 25th 2007 Guardian Factfile on population 24-04-2010
  • There are an estimated 1.5 million workers in the adult social care workforce in the UK. The care sector historically has had high staff turnover and low rates of pay. As a result, increasing numbers of agencies are looking to employ migrant workers in care work. Moreover, the care sector is set to undergo a significant expansion in the near future, due to the UK’s ageing population: it is estimated that the number of people aged 80 years and above will double to around eight per cent of the population by 2030. The number of care workers, including migrant workers, is therefore likely to increase over the next two decades. The Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS) recently found that migrant workers accounted for nearly one-fifth of all care workers looking after older people. Crucially, there has been a significant rise in the number of new migrants (those who have arrived since 1998) employed in care work, with migrants constituting 28 per cent of care workers hired in 2007 Source: Oxfam report ‘Who Cares?’ published 2009 http://www.oxfam.org.uk/applications/blogs/pressoffice/?p=8655
  • This graph is taken from a report by the DWP published in June 2008 entitled The impact of migration from the new European Union Member States on native workers (see page 18) .
  • Speaker Notes: The claim that migrants take local jobs can be a red herring. Go to any local website advertising jobs and you will see hundreds of jobs advertised any day of the week. Yes, there are fewer jobs available- but vacancies can remain unfilled from week to week.   Why is this? The reasons are complex and to point the finger at migrant workers ignores problems that were present before their arrival. A key issue is skills: in many areas of the UK as many as one in ten of the working age population have no qualifications at all . This means if local employers cannot find qualified staff , they have to look elsewhere. In a globalised economy there is greater freedom for both employers to move jobs to other parts of the world where labour is cheaper (and that’s usually the reason behind transferring jobs) and for workers to move to where the jobs are located. For example many A8 migrants returned to their home nation when recession hit the UK.
  • Source: taken from NOMIS The proportion of those claiming out of work benefits remains stubbornly high. The arrival of Polish and other east European workers from April 2004 onwards appears to have made little difference to the total claiming such benefits- in fact the total figure was going down prior to the recession. There are various factors which may account for this: The lack of skills including IT skills may keep people out of the job market. Such skills are no longer confined to office work but to an ever wider range of occupations. The change in recruitment practices towards using the internet to advertise jobs, assess applications and conduct job related skills tests over the internet. This means that those who have been out of work for a while have difficulties in adopting these new practices. Employability also includes attitude and motivation to do the job. Migrant workers often bring to their work an energy and willingness to work hard and do the dirty, difficult and dangerous jobs that local people don’t want to do.   People are understandably worried about jobs, especially in a recession. However It is important to look at employment needs in the round, and not assume that lack of jobs is all down to migrant workers.
  • Two studies have been done which examine the fiscal contribution of migrant workers compared to the demand for public services. The first report was done by the Home Office in 2002 The Migrant Population in the UK: Fiscal Effects (Gott and Johnston 2002). The second was done by the IPPR in 2007 ‘Paying their way’. In 1999–2000, immigrants accounted for 8.8 per cent of government tax receipts and 8.4 per cent of government spending. By 2003–04, immigrants accounted for 10.0 per cent of government tax receipts and 9.1 per cent of government spending. Total revenue from immigrants grew in real terms from £33.8 billion in 1999-00 to £41.2 billion in 2003–04. This 22 per cent increase compares favourably to the six per cent increase for the UK-born. (source: IPPR report page 12)
  • Taken from the IPPR report Britain’s Immigrants: An Economic Profile published September 2007
  • Migration to the UK 2010

    1. 1. MIGRATION TO THE UK <ul><li>What are the current trends? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact on jobs and services? </li></ul>
    2. 2. What’s the difference between a refugee and an asylum seeker? <ul><li>An asylum seeker is a person who has arrived in the country and has applied to the Home Office to stay here because they fear persecution in their country of origin </li></ul><ul><li>A refugee is someone whose asylum application has been accepted as genuine by the Home Office. Those with refugee status can stay in the UK and have the right to work and other benefits. </li></ul>Terms and definitions often distract from the fundamental issue of war and human rights abuses
    3. 3. An economic migrant is someone who moves to another country for work or a better life <ul><li>Migration movements are worldwide and not just something that Britain experiences </li></ul><ul><li>5.5million British opt to live abroad </li></ul>There are around 215 million migrants. They form roughly 3% of the worlds population
    4. 4. There was a net migration to the UK of 163,000 in 2008 590,000 came to UK 427,000 left the UK
    5. 5. Foreign born residents form 11.3% of the UK population <ul><li>Other countries have a higher proportion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia has 24% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switzerland has 23% </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Roughly two thirds of the foreign born residents come from outside Europe (thousands)
    7. 7. … . yet the top 5 countries of Birth include European countries (in thousands) South East Region United Kingdom     Estimate 1 India 660 2 Poland 503 3 Pakistan 433 4 Republic of Ireland 408 5   Germany 295 Estimate India 90 Poland 57 South Africa 54 Republic of Ireland 49 Germany 47
    8. 8. Formal study is the main reason for coming to the UK – worth £5.3bn to the UK economy Coming Leaving Thousands
    9. 9. The top countries for asylum applicants to the UK have all experienced war or widespread human rights abuses <ul><li>The list of countries from which people apply changes with the political landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq came top in 2002 but has dropped out of the top eight in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The numbers are small compared to the larger movements of international migrants to and from the UK </li></ul>No. of applications
    10. 10. The largest migrant community in recent years has been the A8 nationals <ul><li>8 new countries joined the European Union in 2004 (A8)- the largest being Poland </li></ul><ul><li>A further two countries joined in 2007: Romania and Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Some 1.5 million have travelled to the UK for work since </li></ul><ul><li>Around half have returned </li></ul>A8
    11. 11. Many new communities tend to have strong values around faith, family and community Faith Family Community Whether Filipino Christian or Somali Muslim, these values overlap and re-inforce each other
    12. 12. The impact of migration in the UK The negative impacts tend to be overstated while the positive impacts are ignored. This section looks at housing, health provision and work
    13. 13. Impact on housing
    14. 14. “ immigrants tend to demand less housing, on average, than UK born persons ”* <ul><li>Less than two per cent of all social housing residents have moved to Britain in the last five years </li></ul><ul><li>There is no evidence of abuse of the housing allocation such as ‘queue jumping’ or providing false information- research finding by IPPR </li></ul><ul><li>The overwhelming majority of immigrants are housed in the private rental sector </li></ul>Nine out of ten social housing residents were born in the UK. * House of Lords Select Committee on Economic Affairs April 2008
    15. 15. A8* nationals can apply to go on the waiting list for social housing only under certain conditions <ul><li>These conditions include the need to be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in paid employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>registered on the Workers Registration Scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If they lose their job, they may lose their place on the list </li></ul><ul><li>They may also lose the right to any welfare support </li></ul>Many areas have seen a small number of homeless migrants who are not entitled to any support *Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Czech Republic
    16. 16. The low stock of social housing is a long-standing problem which every local authority is striving to tackle <ul><li>Shortage of housing preceded the arrival of migrant workers </li></ul><ul><li>The Right To Buy scheme benefited many but … </li></ul><ul><li>It also led to a shortage of family sized social housing </li></ul>Many local authorities work with housing associations to provide low cost affordable housing
    17. 17. Impact on health and social care
    18. 18. The demands placed by migrants on our health services are not significant <ul><li>Some regions have experienced sudden short-term pressures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is partly the result of inappropriate use of A&E instead of GP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or late use of maternity services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In general they are young, fit, with fewer dependants </li></ul>82% of A8 migrants are aged 34 or under Age Age
    19. 19. But their contribution to health and other public services is significant. 38% The proportion of doctors working in hospitals in England who qualified outside of Britain The proportion of nurses who come from ethnic minority backgrounds 16% 40% The proportion of new dentists who were born abroad Govt stats 2007
    20. 20. Anxiety over migration obscures wider demographic trends Europe by year 2050: 38 Million Working age population will fall by The projected increase in those aged over 65 40 million New slide The number of workers for every individual of 65+ will fall from more than three to two 100 million age 65 plus
    21. 21. Policy makers will need to consider a combination of options: <ul><li>Fund medical advances to improve health care </li></ul><ul><li>Extend working lives </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in technology to improve work productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Recruit care workers from overseas </li></ul>Their number is set to rise because of increased numbers of elderly and inability to recruit locally UK: one in five care workers is a migrant
    22. 22. Impact on jobs
    23. 23. The rise in the employment rate for A8 migrants does not appear to have a significant adverse impact on the UK born employment rate UK born The employment rate is the % of working age population who are in work A8 Note: this period is prior to the recession
    24. 24. The issue of migration obscures long-standing problems over the employability and skills of local residents How do local employers find the right people when over one in ten of the working age population have no qualifications at all? In a globalised economy if we can’t fill jobs with trained and qualified people, either migrant workers come to the UK or the jobs end up overseas.
    25. 25. And the proportion of working age people claiming out of work benefits remains stubbornly high
    26. 26. We also need to attract highly qualified into the local workforce <ul><li>The unskilled and the highly skilled both pose challenges </li></ul><ul><li>While the former need training opportunities the latter need incentives to stay </li></ul><ul><li>Highly qualified students and professionals leave Southampton to seek work elsewhere in the UK or overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Yet there is an urgent need for such people in the local economy </li></ul>
    27. 27. Migrants contribute more to the public purse than they take out
    28. 28. But the employment rate varies considerably
    29. 29. Thankyou for viewing this presentation Immigration is a contentious and highly politicised issue and I appreciate that viewers may have a different perspective on migration to the UK. Feel free to comment but please try to be constructive. Thanks!