Components of a Hydraulic
Consist of three main components
◦ Electric motor
Through hydraulic reservoir the hydraulic system is
supply with fluid means that the reservoir stores the
required quantity of fluid.
The reservoir performs important functions such:
• Dissipating heat through its walls
• Conditioning the fluid by helping settle the
• Relief of air from the systems
• Providing mounting support for the pump and other
A proper tank has the following:
• Baffle plate for preventing the return fluid from
entering the pump inlet
• For maintenance purposes a reservoir should
have an inspection cover
• A filter breather for air exchange
• Level indicator for checking the fluid level
• Connections for suction discharge and drain
Mechanical device that converts mechanical
power into hydraulic energy.
Generates flow with enough power to overcome
pressure induced by the load.
Its mechanical action creates a vacuum at the
pump inlet which allows atmospheric pressure to
force liquid from the reservoir into the inlet line to
Delivers this liquid to the pump outlet and forces it
into the hydraulic system.
The control of hydraulic power in hydraulic power
systems is carried out by means of control valves.
Types of hydraulics valve
◦ Pressure control valves (PCVs)
◦ Directional control valves (DCVs; direct- and pilot-
◦ Flow control valves (FCVs)
◦ Check valves
To drive loads by converting the hydraulic power
into mechanical power.
The mechanical power delivered to the load is
managed by controlling the fluid pressure and flow
rate, by using various hydraulic control valves.
The hydraulic actuators are classified into three
main groups according to motion type:
◦ Hydraulic cylinders, performing linear motion
◦ Hydraulic motors, performing continuous rotary motion
◦ Hydraulic rotary actuators, performing limited angular
The elements of the hydraulic system are interconnected by
hydraulic transmission lines, through which the hydraulic
These lines are either rigid tubing or flexible hoses. The rigid
tubing lines connect fixed nonvibrating elements, and the
flexible hose lines connect moving parts.
Regardless of their simple design, the hydraulic tubes have
an important effect on the steady state and transient behavior
of the system.
Transmission lines affect system performance in the following
◦ • Hydraulic friction losses; hydraulic resistance of lines
◦ • Hydraulic local, or secondary, pressure losses
◦ • Oil compressibility and elasticity of pipe material