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Industrial hydraulics

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Industrial hydraulics

1. 1. nfi Training on Industrial Hydraulics NFI – Industrial Automation Training Academy
2. 2. www.nfiautomation.org What Does Hydraulics means? Consist of two words Hydro – Water Aulus - Pipe Work done by fluid in pipes nfi
3. 3. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulics in Day to Day Life
4. 4. www.nfiautomation.org
5. 5. www.nfiautomation.org Father of Hydraulics? Joseph Bramah (1748 - 1814) Invented Power Press Bramah Press William George Armstrong (1810 – 1900) “First Barron Armstrong”
6. 6. Law of Hydraulics – Pascal’s Law - Bernoulli Principle www.nfiautomation.org
7. 7. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY MOVING THE SMALL PISTON 10 Cm DISPLACES 1 Cm2 x 10 Cm = 10 Cm3 OF LIQUID 10 Cm 100 kg 10 Cm2 1Cm2 1 Cm Q=Axh 10 kg 10 Cm OF LIQUID WILL MOVE LARGER PISTON ONLY 1Cm. 10 Cm2 x 1 Cm = 10 Cm3 WORK DONE = FORCE x DISTANCE MOVED W=Fxd W=Fxd W=Fxd = 10 Kg x 10 Cm = 100 Kg x 1 Cm = 100 Kg-Cm = 100 Kg-Cm  ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED.  WHAT IS GAINED BY FORCE IS SACRIFICED IN THE DISTANCE MOVED.
8. 8. www.nfiautomation.org Typical Units of Pressure The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa), equal to one newton per square meter (N/m2 or kg·m−1·s−2). 1 Bar = 14.69 psi = 100 kilo pascal
9. 9. www.nfiautomation.org Typical Units of Flow CFM = Cubic feet per minute Cubic meter per hour = M*M*M/Hour Litres per minutes = l/min
10. 10. Types of Flow Laminar Turbulent Laminar flow is preferred in fluid power systems over turbulent flow because it is more efficient and loses less energy.
11. 11. Types of Flow Fluids that are thick and flow with difficulty have high viscosity, while liquids that are thin and flow easily have low viscosity.
12. 12. Viscosity of Fluid A Saybolt viscometer is a test instrument used to measure fluid viscosity.
13. 13. Flow of Fluid A flow meter is a meter that is used to measure the flow of fluid (in gpm) within a system.
14. 14. Fluid Losses Resistance to fluid flow generates friction and the resulting energy is converted into heat.
15. 15. www.nfiautomation.org Basic Hydraulic System
16. 16. www.nfiautomation.org Example: Hydraulic Jack
17. 17. www.nfiautomation.org Example: Motor Reversing System b. Motor-Reversing System. A power-driven pump operating a reversible rotary motor. A reversing valve directs fluid to either side of the motor and back to the reservoir. A relief valve protects the system against excess pressure and can bypass pump output to the reservoir, if pressure rises too high.
18. 18. www.nfiautomation.org Example: Motor Reversing System
19. 19. www.nfiautomation.org Example: Cylinder in Series
20. 20. www.nfiautomation.org Example: Cylinder in Parallel
21. 21. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Pumps Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical energy from a prime mover (engine or electric motor) into hydraulic (pressure) energy. The pressure energy is used then to operate an actuator. Pumps push on a hydraulic fluid and create flow. 1. 2. 3. 4. Single Stage Centrifugal Pump Lobe Pump Internal/External Gear Pump Axial Piston Pump
22. 22. Pump www.nfiautomation.org Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy 1. Single Stage Centrifugal Pump
23. 23. Pump www.nfiautomation.org Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy 1. Lobe Pump
24. 24. Pump www.nfiautomation.org Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy 1. External Gear Pump For constant flow/pressure application 4000 psi = 275 bar Low Cost & Dirt Tolerance Used to charged pump to pressurize the lnlet of vane & axial pump
25. 25. Pump www.nfiautomation.org Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy 1. Internal Gear Pump
26. 26. Pump Vane Pump www.nfiautomation.org Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy
27. 27. Pump www.nfiautomation.org Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy 1. Axial Piston Pump For high Pressure Application 7250 psi ~ 10000 psi Good Service Life Variable Displacement Capability
28. 28. www.nfiautomation.org Pump Ratings Typical factors determining nature of Pumps Displaced Volume or Displacement = Q (l /min) or (l/rev) Nominal Speed = in rpm Maximum Pressure = in Bar or psi Tank Capacity = in litres Maximum Flow = l/min or l/sec Fixed Type Variable Type
29. 29. www.nfiautomation.org Comparing Pumps Typical factors determining nature of Pumps Parameter Piston/ Axial Pump Vane Pump Gear Pump Pressure 10000 psi 4000 psi 4000 psi Power Density Highest medium Lowest Efficiency Highest medium Lowest Dirt Tolerance Lowest medium Highest Noise & Vibration Moderate behaviour Quietest & vibration free Noisy & high vibration Size & weight Very Heavy Heavy Lightest Life Expectancy Long life & repairable Long life & repairable Short life
30. 30. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Fluid Conditioning Elements Cooler Filter Fluid Cooler Air Filter
31. 31. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Fluid Conditioning Elements Cooler Fluid Cooler
32. 32. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Fluid Conditioning Elements Filter Full Flow Type Filter Proportional Type Filter Air Filter
33. 33. Accumulator Gas Loaded Accumulator Filter www.nfiautomation.org
34. 34. Accumulator Piston Type Accumulator Filter www.nfiautomation.org
35. 35. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Fluid Conditioning Elements Filter
36. 36. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Elements of Actuation System 1. Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders 2. Valves – Directional Control Valves (DCV)
37. 37. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Single Acting Cylinder
38. 38. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Single Acting Cylinder Single-Acting Cylinder With Spring Return Single-Acting Cylinder With Spring Extend
39. 39. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Double Acting Cylinder
40. 40. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Double Acting Cylinder
41. 41. Double-Acting 2-Cushion www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Double Acting Cylinder with Cushion
42. 42. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Double Acting Double Rod Cylinder Double-Acting Double-Rod Cylinder A double ended piston rod makes a cylinder stronger against side load, as it has two bearings at the widest distance possible. This type of cylinder is often mounted with rods fixed and the cylinder itself moving to displace a part.
43. 43. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Hydraulic Motors Gear type Motor Rodless Cylinder
44. 44. www.nfiautomation.org Piston Force Dependent on the air pressure, the cylinder diameter, and the frictional resistance of the sealing components. Single Acting Cyl. Fn = A. p – (FR+FF) Double Acting Cyl. Fn = A. p – FR Fth = A . p Fth = A = p = Fn = FR = Theoretical piston force in N. Useful piston area in cm². Operation pressure in kPa. Effective piston force in Newton (N) frictional force (3-20%) in Newton (N)
45. 45. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Elements of Actuation System 1. Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders 2. Valves –  Pressure-control  Flow- (volume-) Control,  Directional-control
46. 46. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Pressure Relief Valve Pres sure Re lief Valve
47. 47. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Pres sure Re lief Valve Pressure Relief Valve Simple, direct-acting relief valve has no adjusting screw and therefore opens at a fixed, pre-set pressure as controlled by setting of compression spring. Adjustable, direct-acting relief valve blocks flow through the valve until force of system pressure on the poppet overcomes the adjustable spring force and downstream pressure.
48. 48. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Pilot Operated Pressure Relief Valve Pres sure Re lief Valve
49. 49. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Pressure Regulating/Reducing Valve
50. 50. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Pressure Regulating/Reducing Valve
51. 51. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Sequence Valve Seque nce Valve
52. 52. www.nfiautomation.org Valves – Directional Control Valves (DCV) 1. Allowing the passage of fluid and directing it to particular lines 2. Canceling fluid as required by blocking their passage and / or 3. Relieving the fluid back to reservoir
53. 53. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Elements of Actuation System 1. Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders 2. Valves –  Pressure-control  Flow- (volume-) Control,  Directional-control
54. 54. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Flow Control Valve – Gate Valve (Throttle)
55. 55. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Flow Control Valve – Globe Valve (Throttle)
56. 56. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Needle Valve – (Throttle) Variable Throttle Valve
57. 57. www.nfiautomation.org Flow Control Valves: Check Valve The check valve allows oil flow in one direction and blocks it in the opposite direction. Check Valve Spring Loaded Check Valve Pilot to Open Check Valve Pilot to Close Check Valve
58. 58. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulic Actuation System Elements of Actuation System 1. Actuators – Hydraulic Cylinders 2. Valves –  Pressure-control  Flow- (volume-) Control,  Directional-control
59. 59. www.nfiautomation.org 2/2– Directional Control Valves (DCV) er w ith Spring Return 2/2 Spring return Valve with Lever 2/2 Spring return Valve with Lever Detent 2/2 Pilot Operated Valve
60. 60. www.nfiautomation.org 3/2– Directional Control Valves (DCV) 3/2-Way NC - External Pilot with Spring Retur 3/2 Spring return Valve 3/2 Spring return Pilot Valve
61. 61. www.nfiautomation.org 4/2– Directional Control Valves (DCV) y NO - External Pilot with Spring Return 4/2 Spring return Valve 4/2 Spring return Pilot Valve
62. 62. www.nfiautomation.org 4/3– Directional Control Valves (DCV) To stop the cylinder in between 4/3-Way NC - Double External Pilot Control 4/3 Lever with Detent 4/3 Double Pilot Valve
63. 63. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulics Exercises 1) Draw a hydraulic circuit to actuate two Single Acting Spring Return cylinder with one 3/2 Valve 2) Draw a hydraulic circuit to actuate Double acting Cylinder with 4/2 Valve ? ?
64. 64. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulics Flow Lines & Connections Hydraulic hoses Hydraulic Pressure Source Pneumatic T Connector Reservoir/ Sump Hydraulics other Fittings
65. 65. www.nfiautomation.org Electro- Hydraulics Rajvirsingh.43@gmail.com Including Electronics/Electrical Circuits in Hydraulic Circuit to control automatically – typically referred to DCV
66. 66. www.nfiautomation.org Electro- Hydraulics Including Electronics/Electrical Circuits in Pneumatics Circuit to control automatically – typically referred to DCV Solenoid S6 S7 Solenoid Ratings: 24 VDC, 220 VAC
67. 67. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulics Exercises 1) Draw an Electro- pneumatic circuit to actuate Single acting cylinder with 3/2 solenoid valve actuated by Toggle switch 2) Draw a pneumatic circuit to actuate & latch Double acting Cylinder with 4/3 Spring return Solenoid Valve 4/3-Way NC - Double Electrical Control S1 ? S2
68. 68. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulics Applications
69. 69. www.nfiautomation.org Hydraulics Applications
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72. 72. thank you nfi rajvir@nfiautomation.org