HISTORY

Harappa Civilization
Concepts

GLOBAL MANIA
Concepts
Introduction

Discovery of Harappa
Artifacts
Subsistence Strategies
Mohenjodaro
Religion
Decline
Introduction
Continuous efforts of archaeologists help us to know
Letabout ancient people. They brought to surface the
us ...
Discovery of Harappa
Initial Discovery
By Cunningham
Text and inscriptions used as guide
to investigations
Accounts left by Chinese
Buddhist pi...
Harappa Discovered

• In 1924 by John Marshall (Director-General of the
ASI)
• Formally announced to the world
John Marshall

• Stint as Director General of ASI
• First professional archaeologist to
work in India
• Brought his experi...
Style of Working

•
•
•
•
•

Excavated along different horizontal units
Measured uniformly throughout the mound
Ignored st...
R.E.M. Wheeler

• Became Director of ASI in 1944
• Rectified the problem of stratigraphy
• Brought a military-like precisi...
Phases of the Civilisation
•
•
•
•
•

Civilisation dated between c. 2600 and 1900 BCE
Called the Mature Harappan Culture
E...
Effects of Partition
• Resulted in major sites being located
in Pakistan
• Spurred Indian archaeologists to
locate Indian ...
Growing Interest
• International interest in
Harappan archaeology
• Specialists working on the
subcontinent
• Use of moder...
Discovered Evidence

Found fairly early in
nineteenth century
Reached Cunningham
Importance not realised
Missed significan...
Significance Realised

Harappa Seals

•
•
•
•

Mohenjo-Daro Seals

By discovery of more seals
Recovered by Daya Ram Sahni
...
Subsistence Strategies
Dietary Habits
•
•
•
•
•

Wide range of plants and animals (including fish) eaten
Charred grains found, reconstruct dietar...
Use of Animals

• Animal bones found (include those of cattle, sheep, goat,
buffalo and pig)
• Were domesticated
• Bones o...
Agriculture

• Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate
that bull was known
• Oxen used to plough field
...
Using Water

•
•
•
•

Harappan sites located in semi-arid lands.
Irrigation was probably required for agriculture.
Traces ...
Mohenjodaro
Mohenjo-Daro

• Most well known site
• A planned urban centre
• Better preserved than Harappa (which was destroyed
uninten...
Layout
• Settlement divided
into two sections:

Layout of Mohenjo-Daro
Citadel

• Walled citadel

• Was higher and
smaller
• Physically separated from
lower town
• Buildings constructed on mud brick platforms
• Reason for unusual height
• Had prominent structures like Warehouse,
Gran...
Warehouse

•
•
•
•
•

Massive structure
Probably used for special public purposes
Lower brick portions remain
Upper portio...
Great Bath

•
•
•
•
•

Large rectangular tank
Surrounded by corridor on all sides
Two flights of steps leading to water
Ta...
Length – 54 mts
Breadth – 33 mts
Thickness of outer wall – 3 mts
Situated in rectangular
verandah
Surrounded by gallery an...
Distinctive Structure

•
•
•
•

To the north lay a smaller building with eight bathrooms.
Four on each side
Drains from ea...
Lower Town
Features : Lower Town

•
•
•
•

Was fortified
Several buildings built on platforms
Building activity restricted to a fixed...
Houses

• Rooms centred around a courtyard
• Centre of activity like cooking and weaving
Construction materials were used in Harappan houses.

Grass and husk

Door

Mud plaster
Window
Reeds

Bricks
Layout of Harappan House
No windows in the walls along ground level.
Main entrance did not give view of inner courtyard.
Other Rooms

•
•
•
•

Bathrooms were paved with bricks in every house.
Staircases were used to go to next floor.
Evidence ...
Waste Water
• Eliminated through well planned drainage system
• Drains were laid alongside streets in grid like
arrangemen...
Artifacts
Classification of Artifacts

Two Simple Methods
• First: In terms of materials such as stone, clay, metal, bone and
ivory
...
Function of the Artifact

• Often shaped by its resemblance to present-day things
• Beads, querns, stone blades and pots
•...
Classifying Artifacts

• As (a) Utilitarian
(b) Luxury
• Utilitarian includes objects of daily use made of stone and
clay....
Artifacts of Luxury

• If found rarely, classified by archaeologists as luxury
• Pots of faience considered rare
• Found o...
Design of Beads
• Some made of two or more stones cemented
together
• Some of stone with gold caps

• Some decorated by in...
Material for Beads

Copper and Bronze
Carnelian
Jasper
Steatite
Quartz
Crystal
Material for Production

•
•
•
•

Materials like clay available locally
Stone, timber and metal procured from alluvial pla...
Procuring Material
• Shells from Nageshwar and
Balakot
• Lapis lazuli, a blue stone
from Shortughai in
Afghanistan
• Carne...
Burials

•
•
•
•
•

Dead laid out in pits
Hollowed out burial pits lined with bricks
Belief in afterlife prevalent
Proved ...
Identifying Centres of Production

• By archaeologists
• Looked for raw materials such as stone nodules, whole
shells, cop...
Balakot

• Harappan settlement near sea coast
• Specialised centre for making shell objects including
bangles, ladles and ...
Chanhudaro
• Small settlement (7
hectares)
• Mohenjo-Daro (125
hectares)
• Exclusively devoted to
craft production like
be...
Contact with Distant Lands
• Copper probably brought from Oman.
• Omani copper and Harappan artifacts
have traces of nicke...
Sealings in Harappa

•
•
•
•

Facilitated long distance communication
Seals pressed on bags of goods
Bag reaching intact m...
Process of Sealing
•
•
•
•

Goods were packed properly.
Wet clay applied on it
Impression of seal made on it
Left it to be...
Harappan Script

•
•
•
•
•

Writing present on seals
Most inscriptions short, longest with 26 signs
Script not deciphered ...
Style of Writing

Cramping

Wider
spacing

Cramping

Wider
spacing

• Scripts were probably written right to left.
• It is...
Script Found

• On a variety of objects
• On copper tools, rims of jars, copper and
terracotta tablets, jewellery and bone...
Harappan Weights

•
•
•
•

Very precise stones called Chert
Usually cubical
Had no markings
Used to regulate exchanges
• Lower denominations were Binary (1, 2, 4, 8,16, 32 etc.
up to 12,800)
• Higher denominations followed decimal system
• S...
Authority in Harappa
• Indications of complex decisions
taken by higher authority
• Uniformity in pottery, seals and
weigh...
Differing Opinions on Authority

•
•
•
•
•

As understood by some archaeologists
Harappan society had no rulers.
Equal sta...
Religion in Harappa
• Seen by structures that may have been
assigned ritual significance
• Includes the Great Bath
• Also ...
Religious Beliefs and Practices

•
•
•
•

Reconstructed by examining seals
Some depict ritualistic scenes
Some with plant ...
Proto Shiva Seal

• Shows a figure seated cross-legged in a “yogic”
posture surrounded by animals
• Regarded as depiction ...
Decline of the Civilisation
Signs of Decline

Seen around c.1800 BCE
Mature Harappan sites abandoned
Transformation of material culture witnessed whil...
• Sites located in Gujarat, Haryana, Western Uttar
Pradesh witnessed simultaneous increase in population
• House construct...
Factors for Decline
• Historians not unanimous over causes of decline
• Propounded many theories for decline
 Ecological ...
Listing the Factors
• Ecological imbalance: Increased human interference led to
ecological changes and subsequent decline ...
• Frequent flooding: It has been opined by historians that many
Harappan sites were destroyed due to frequent flooding.
•M...
Now, on your FINGER TIPS…
• Citadel: It was a fortress for protecting a town in the
Harappan civilisation. This was built ...
Continuing slides are supportive
slides, need not to be seen
individually.
Excavation of Harappa Civilisation

Charles
Masson

John Marshall
R.D Banerjee

1853-56

1828
Alexander
Cunningham

1946

...
Charles Masson

• A deserter of EEIC’s Bengal artillery

• 1827 – Left regiment at Agra, reached Indus lands
• Territory n...
Alexander Cunningham
• Regarded as father of Indian Archaeology
• Influenced by James Princep
• His collection of rare Ind...
John Marshall
• Director General of ASI from
1902 to 1928
• Involved native Indians to
contribute in excavation of
their o...
D. R Sahni
• Discovered and excavated
Harappa
• Aware of presence of
ancient monument but
never assumed of a city
• Found ...
R.D Bannerjee

• Discovered and excavated
Mohenjodaro
• Adopted stratigraphy method
for excavating the site

Back to Timel...
Mortimer Wheeler
• Became Director General of
ASI in 1943

• Explored details of Indus Valley
Civilisation at Mohenjodaro
...
Amazing Facts
• Harappans were the first cotton producers of the world.
• Chnahudaro was the only site that had no citadel...
Global Mania
Mesopotamia
Geography of Mesopotamia
Unpredictable rivers (Tigris and Euphrates)
Flat land open to invasion
Situated in semi-arid clim...
In the north,
lies a stretch of upland
called a steppe where the north-east lies
In
animal herding is done. undulating pla...
• Mesopotamia was a succession of societies.
Sumerian (Sumer)
Akkad
First Babylon
Assyria
Second Babylon
Sumerian Society
•
•
•
•
•

Based on city-states
Geography influenced development
Theocratic form of government
Divided in...
Ziggurats – stepped towers topped by temples
Ziggurats were the focal point of the city-state.
Cuneiform – First system of writing
Cuneiform tablet with envelope
Cuneiform – Developed
to keep record of business
transactions and taxes
Later used for literature
The first work of litera...
Deciphered letters in Cuneiform and their
equivalent English Alphabets
Writing was reserved for the wealthy classes
Sumerian Trade
• Trade links with Egypt and Harappa
• Sumerian mathematics based on 60 (clock and circle)
• Sumerian astro...
Akkad

Conquered Sumer – Akkad first empire
Attempted to centralise power
Sargon I – First emperor
Absorbed Sumerian cultu...
Babylon
Conquered Akkad
Continued Sumerian
culture
Code of Hammurabi
 282 laws
 Based on Lex Talonis
(eye for an eye) an...
Assyria

Conquered
Babylon
Highly organised
military
Ruthless and
hated
Largest of
Mesopotamian
empires
Neo Babylon

Founded by king
Nebuchadnezzar
Introduced
hanging gardens
Continued
Sumerian culture
Conquered by
Persians

B...
Egyptian Civilisation
• Developed along river Nile
• Also known as ‘Gift of Nile’
• Geography – Natural barriers
 Desert
...
The Old Kingdom
Unification of Upper and
Lower Egypt – King
Menes (Narmer)
Pharaoh (a God) –
separated from population
Era...
The first pyramid

Construction of Pyramids began
Slavery not existed or was on less scale

Kingdom fell due to power stru...
The pyramids at Giza
Contrary to popular belief, the pyramids were not
built with slave labor but by the Egyptian people.
How was it done?
The Middle Kingdom
• Pharaohs were more accessible.
• They derived support from middle class.
• Extensive trade links with...
The New Kingdom

Egyptians gained knowledge
of war from Hyksos.
Era of war and expansion
Large slave population
First fema...
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton)
Established monotheism
Aton: Sun God
Shifted capital from Thebes to el-Amarna
Akhenaton and hi...
Tutankhamen
Succeeded throne at the age of 9 yrs
Polytheism restored by Tutankhamen
Restored traditional privileges to
pri...
Tomb of Tutankhamen
Ramses II
Prolific ruler, fought to reclaim
territories in Africa and West
Asia
5th year of reign fought battle of
Kadesh
...
The Treaty of Kadesh
Ramses the Great today

Back to List

Back to Map
The Chinese Civilisation
Geography of the Civilisation
Flourished on banks of river Huang He
River popularly known as “China‟s Sorrow” because
of i...
People and Rulers
• Yangshao/Longshan People
• Xia Dynasty – mythical?
• Shang Dynasty:

3,000 states – Fragmented
King ...
Writing and Script

Writing found on:
Oracle Bones
Prominently
ideographic symbols
Primarily for religious
purpose
Bronze Craft

Bronze
Sophisticated
metallurgy skills
Controlled by
elites
Used for
religious rituals
and weapons

Back ...
Learning through Maps
Four Great Civilisations

Mesopotamian
Civilisation

Egyptian Civilisation

Harappan
Civilisation

Chinese
Civilisation
Early Harappan Settlements

Damb Sadaat

Siswal culture

Kot Diji
Amri-Nal cultures
Mature Harappan Settlements
Sites located in India
Manda
Harappa
Mitathal

Ganeriwala

Mohenjodaro
Chanhudaro

Banawali
Ka...
Harappa Trade

Silver

Harappa

Copper & Steatite
Copper
Carnelian

Gold
Amri-Nal Culture
Situated in Sindh province of
modern Pakistan
Excavated by N.G Majumdar
First site to provide evidence of...
Kot Diji Culture

Situated on the left bank of river Indus in the
Sindh province of Pakistan
Excavated by Fazl Ahmad Khan ...
Damb Sadaat Culture
Located in Baluchistan,
outside Indus Valley
Similarities evident in
ceramic form and design

Shows – ...
Siswal Culture

•
•
•

Located in Hissar district of Haryana
Three stages of Harappan culture revealed
Brought to light ea...
Mix „n‟ Match
Identify the Site
Group these archaeological sites on the basis
of their distribution in India and Pakistan.
Ganeriwala

Manda

Harappa

Mit...
Identify the Site

• Located in Khadir Byet of Rann of Kutch
• Stone slab having largest letters of
Harappan script found
...
• Situated on left bank of river Ravi
• First description provided by Charles Masson
• Railway contractors used bricks of ...
• Situated on bank of River Bhogava
• One of the production centres of the civilisation
• A bead factory discovered from t...
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Harapa Civilization
Harapa Civilization
Harapa Civilization
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Harapa Civilization

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This presentation provide information about Harappa Civilization. Its discovery, town planning, subsistence strategies of the people, major findings and theories of decline.

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Harapa Civilization

  1. 1. HISTORY Harappa Civilization
  2. 2. Concepts GLOBAL MANIA
  3. 3. Concepts Introduction Discovery of Harappa Artifacts Subsistence Strategies Mohenjodaro Religion Decline
  4. 4. Introduction Continuous efforts of archaeologists help us to know Letabout ancient people. They brought to surface the us study about one such river valley civilisation that flourished in Indian subcontinent. The civilisation that achievements of these people. has dated back Indian history for almost 5000 years, i.e., Harappa Civilisation. Fertile river valleys hadthese ancient of human The traces of been the cradle civilisation since time immemorial. cultures have been explored by the archaeologists across the world.
  5. 5. Discovery of Harappa
  6. 6. Initial Discovery By Cunningham Text and inscriptions used as guide to investigations Accounts left by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims used as reference Recovering artifacts of cultural value
  7. 7. Harappa Discovered • In 1924 by John Marshall (Director-General of the ASI) • Formally announced to the world
  8. 8. John Marshall • Stint as Director General of ASI • First professional archaeologist to work in India • Brought his experience of working in Greece and Crete to the field • Keen to excavate patterns of everyday life
  9. 9. Style of Working • • • • • Excavated along different horizontal units Measured uniformly throughout the mound Ignored stratigraphy of the site Artifacts found from same unit grouped together Belonged to different strata of soil
  10. 10. R.E.M. Wheeler • Became Director of ASI in 1944 • Rectified the problem of stratigraphy • Brought a military-like precision to excavation • Did not dig along uniform horizontal lines
  11. 11. Phases of the Civilisation • • • • • Civilisation dated between c. 2600 and 1900 BCE Called the Mature Harappan Culture Earlier and later cultures existed Called Early Harappan and Late Harappan Existed in the same area
  12. 12. Effects of Partition • Resulted in major sites being located in Pakistan • Spurred Indian archaeologists to locate Indian sites • Settlements recovered in Kutch and Punjab • Kalibangan, Lothal, Rakhi Garhi and Dholavira added to list
  13. 13. Growing Interest • International interest in Harappan archaeology • Specialists working on the subcontinent • Use of modern scientific techniques including surface exploration • Trying to recover traces of clay, stone, metal and plant and animal remains • Available evidence minutely analysed
  14. 14. Discovered Evidence Found fairly early in nineteenth century Reached Cunningham Importance not realised Missed significance of Harappa Sketch of seal given to Cunningham
  15. 15. Significance Realised Harappa Seals • • • • Mohenjo-Daro Seals By discovery of more seals Recovered by Daya Ram Sahni More found at Mohenjodaro by R D Banerji Led to the decision that they belonged to a common culture
  16. 16. Subsistence Strategies
  17. 17. Dietary Habits • • • • • Wide range of plants and animals (including fish) eaten Charred grains found, reconstruct dietary habits Grains found include lentils, chickpeas and sesame Millets found from sites in Gujarat Finds of rice relatively rare
  18. 18. Use of Animals • Animal bones found (include those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig) • Were domesticated • Bones of wild species (like boar, deer and gharial) also found • Were probably hunted
  19. 19. Agriculture • Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate that bull was known • Oxen used to plough field • Models of plough found – Cholistan and Banawali (Haryana) sites • Evidence of a ploughed field at Kalibangan (Rajasthan)
  20. 20. Using Water • • • • Harappan sites located in semi-arid lands. Irrigation was probably required for agriculture. Traces of canals found at Shortughai in Afghanistan. Water reservoirs were found in Dholavira (Gujarat).
  21. 21. Mohenjodaro
  22. 22. Mohenjo-Daro • Most well known site • A planned urban centre • Better preserved than Harappa (which was destroyed unintentionally by brick robbers)
  23. 23. Layout • Settlement divided into two sections: Layout of Mohenjo-Daro
  24. 24. Citadel • Walled citadel • Was higher and smaller • Physically separated from lower town
  25. 25. • Buildings constructed on mud brick platforms • Reason for unusual height • Had prominent structures like Warehouse, Granary and the Great bath
  26. 26. Warehouse • • • • • Massive structure Probably used for special public purposes Lower brick portions remain Upper portions probably of wood Decayed now
  27. 27. Great Bath • • • • • Large rectangular tank Surrounded by corridor on all sides Two flights of steps leading to water Tank made water-tight using mortar of gypsum Water flowed into large drain
  28. 28. Length – 54 mts Breadth – 33 mts Thickness of outer wall – 3 mts Situated in rectangular verandah Surrounded by gallery and rooms Great bath centrally situated
  29. 29. Distinctive Structure • • • • To the north lay a smaller building with eight bathrooms. Four on each side Drains from each bathroom connected to a drain. Scholars suggest that it was meant for some kind of a special ritual bath.
  30. 30. Lower Town
  31. 31. Features : Lower Town • • • • Was fortified Several buildings built on platforms Building activity restricted to a fixed area on the platforms. Settlement planned and implemented accordingly
  32. 32. Houses • Rooms centred around a courtyard • Centre of activity like cooking and weaving
  33. 33. Construction materials were used in Harappan houses. Grass and husk Door Mud plaster Window Reeds Bricks
  34. 34. Layout of Harappan House No windows in the walls along ground level. Main entrance did not give view of inner courtyard.
  35. 35. Other Rooms • • • • Bathrooms were paved with bricks in every house. Staircases were used to go to next floor. Evidence of wells discovered from some houses. Every house had one wall on the street.
  36. 36. Waste Water • Eliminated through well planned drainage system • Drains were laid alongside streets in grid like arrangement. • Domestic waste water flowed into street drains. • Larger drains were lined in the centre of streets.
  37. 37. Artifacts
  38. 38. Classification of Artifacts Two Simple Methods • First: In terms of materials such as stone, clay, metal, bone and ivory • Second: In terms of function (more complicated ) – whether tool or ornament or both or meant for ritual use
  39. 39. Function of the Artifact • Often shaped by its resemblance to present-day things • Beads, querns, stone blades and pots • Functions also identified by investigating the context in which it was found. • Artifacts found in a house, drain, grave or in a kiln.
  40. 40. Classifying Artifacts • As (a) Utilitarian (b) Luxury • Utilitarian includes objects of daily use made of stone and clay. • Also includes querns, pottery, needles, flesh-rubbers (body scrubbers) • Found distributed throughout the settlement
  41. 41. Artifacts of Luxury • If found rarely, classified by archaeologists as luxury • Pots of faience considered rare • Found only in large settlements • Artifacts made by raw material not available locally, considered luxury item
  42. 42. Design of Beads • Some made of two or more stones cemented together • Some of stone with gold caps • Some decorated by incising or painting • Some had designs etched onto them • Shapes numerous – disc shaped, cylindrical, spherical, barrel-shaped, segmented
  43. 43. Material for Beads Copper and Bronze Carnelian Jasper Steatite Quartz Crystal
  44. 44. Material for Production • • • • Materials like clay available locally Stone, timber and metal procured from alluvial plains Models of bullock cart suggest transportation of material Riverine routes along Indus used for transportation
  45. 45. Procuring Material • Shells from Nageshwar and Balakot • Lapis lazuli, a blue stone from Shortughai in Afghanistan • Carnelian from Lothal • Steatite from Gujarat and Rajasthan • Copper from Rajasthan • Gold from South India
  46. 46. Burials • • • • • Dead laid out in pits Hollowed out burial pits lined with bricks Belief in afterlife prevalent Proved by existence of pottery and ornaments in graves Some dead buried with copper mirrors
  47. 47. Identifying Centres of Production • By archaeologists • Looked for raw materials such as stone nodules, whole shells, copper ore, tools, unfinished objects, rejects and waste material • Waste best indicator of craft work at site
  48. 48. Balakot • Harappan settlement near sea coast • Specialised centre for making shell objects including bangles, ladles and inlays • Taken to other settlements
  49. 49. Chanhudaro • Small settlement (7 hectares) • Mohenjo-Daro (125 hectares) • Exclusively devoted to craft production like bead-making, shellcutting, metal-working, seal-making and weightmaking
  50. 50. Contact with Distant Lands • Copper probably brought from Oman. • Omani copper and Harappan artifacts have traces of nickel suggesting a common origin. • Sea contact with Bahrain • Mentioned in Mesopotamian texts
  51. 51. Sealings in Harappa • • • • Facilitated long distance communication Seals pressed on bags of goods Bag reaching intact meant not tampered with Sealing conveyed identity of sender
  52. 52. Process of Sealing • • • • Goods were packed properly. Wet clay applied on it Impression of seal made on it Left it to become dry
  53. 53. Harappan Script • • • • • Writing present on seals Most inscriptions short, longest with 26 signs Script not deciphered till date Not alphabetical, had too many signs – 375 to 400 Written from right to left
  54. 54. Style of Writing Cramping Wider spacing Cramping Wider spacing • Scripts were probably written right to left. • It is proved by seals that show wider spacing on right and cramping on left. • The writer ran out of space while writing right to left.
  55. 55. Script Found • On a variety of objects • On copper tools, rims of jars, copper and terracotta tablets, jewellery and bone rods
  56. 56. Harappan Weights • • • • Very precise stones called Chert Usually cubical Had no markings Used to regulate exchanges
  57. 57. • Lower denominations were Binary (1, 2, 4, 8,16, 32 etc. up to 12,800) • Higher denominations followed decimal system • Smaller weights used for weighing jewellery • Metal pans also found
  58. 58. Authority in Harappa • Indications of complex decisions taken by higher authority • Uniformity in pottery, seals and weights across settlements • Uniformity in ratio of bricks • Settlements in specific locations Priest King
  59. 59. Differing Opinions on Authority • • • • • As understood by some archaeologists Harappan society had no rulers. Equal status enjoyed by all citizens. Others feel that Mohenjo-Daro had a separate ruler. Some feel that there was a common state.
  60. 60. Religion in Harappa • Seen by structures that may have been assigned ritual significance • Includes the Great Bath • Also fire altars found at Kalibangan and Lothal • Terracotta figurines of women who are heavily jewelled have been found. • Some had elaborate head-dresses. • Names like Mother Goddess signify a religious bent. Mother Goddess?
  61. 61. Religious Beliefs and Practices • • • • Reconstructed by examining seals Some depict ritualistic scenes Some with plant motifs indicate nature worship Others with the ‘Unicorn’ indicate mythical creatures.
  62. 62. Proto Shiva Seal • Shows a figure seated cross-legged in a “yogic” posture surrounded by animals • Regarded as depiction of “proto-Shiva”
  63. 63. Decline of the Civilisation
  64. 64. Signs of Decline Seen around c.1800 BCE Mature Harappan sites abandoned Transformation of material culture witnessed while distinctive artifacts disappeared
  65. 65. • Sites located in Gujarat, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh witnessed simultaneous increase in population • House construction techniques show decline
  66. 66. Factors for Decline • Historians not unanimous over causes of decline • Propounded many theories for decline  Ecological imbalance  Shifting of river beds  Frequent flooding  Aryan invasion
  67. 67. Listing the Factors • Ecological imbalance: Increased human interference led to ecological changes and subsequent decline in land and agriculture. Shifts in monsoon pattern and changes in temperature left the area more arid. • Shifting of river beds: Changes in the drainage patterns and correspondent widespread flooding would have disrupted agricultural base. •Harappa: River Indus is at present flowing 4 km away from the present site.
  68. 68. • Frequent flooding: It has been opined by historians that many Harappan sites were destroyed due to frequent flooding. •Mohenjodaro: Evidence has been found that it was devastated 7 times by floods. • Aryan invasion: Mortimer Wheeler presented the view that Aryans invasion may have led to the decline of Harappan civilisation. •Discovery of skeletons at Mohenjodaro without proper cremation. (Mohenjodaro = Mound of dead) Back to List Go to Map
  69. 69. Now, on your FINGER TIPS… • Citadel: It was a fortress for protecting a town in the Harappan civilisation. This was built on a higher level in comparison to the town. Citadel was located on the western side of the settlement. • ASI: It stands for the Archaeological Survey of India. The department works under the Ministry of Culture. It is a premier organisation for archaeological research and protection of cultural heritage sites in India. • Stratigraphy: It is the study of strata or layers. It refers to the application of the Law of Superposition to soil and geological strata containing archaeological materials in order to determine the relative ages of layers.
  70. 70. Continuing slides are supportive slides, need not to be seen individually.
  71. 71. Excavation of Harappa Civilisation Charles Masson John Marshall R.D Banerjee 1853-56 1828 Alexander Cunningham 1946 1921 1920 1922 Mortimer Wheeler D.R Sahni
  72. 72. Charles Masson • A deserter of EEIC’s Bengal artillery • 1827 – Left regiment at Agra, reached Indus lands • Territory not the part of EEIC’s Indian possession • First European to narrate about Harappan ruins • Wrote – “Narratives of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Punjab” Back to Timeline
  73. 73. Alexander Cunningham • Regarded as father of Indian Archaeology • Influenced by James Princep • His collection of rare Indian coins is on display at British Museum. • His most important contribution lies in identifying the lost cities of India. • He actively contributed in the excavation of Sarnath, Sanchi and Mahabodhi temple. Back to Timeline
  74. 74. John Marshall • Director General of ASI from 1902 to 1928 • Involved native Indians to contribute in excavation of their own country • 1913: Excavated Taxila • Revealed Harappan civilisation to the world Back to Timeline
  75. 75. D. R Sahni • Discovered and excavated Harappa • Aware of presence of ancient monument but never assumed of a city • Found some seals and considered it to be of pre- Aryan period • Excavation of 50 mts depth made Back to Timeline
  76. 76. R.D Bannerjee • Discovered and excavated Mohenjodaro • Adopted stratigraphy method for excavating the site Back to Timeline
  77. 77. Mortimer Wheeler • Became Director General of ASI in 1943 • Explored details of Indus Valley Civilisation at Mohenjodaro • Returned in 1948, became professor of Archaeology • 1949-50 – Archaeological Adviser to the Government of Pakistan Back to Timeline
  78. 78. Amazing Facts • Harappans were the first cotton producers of the world. • Chnahudaro was the only site that had no citadel. • A weighing scale made up of ivory has been found from Lothal and Mohenjodaro. • The doors of houses in Lothal opened on main street. • The evidence of fortification of lower town found in Kalibangan. • The evidence of mummy found in Lothal testifies relations with Egypt.
  79. 79. Global Mania
  80. 80. Mesopotamia
  81. 81. Geography of Mesopotamia Unpredictable rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) Flat land open to invasion Situated in semi-arid climatic zone Centre of the civilisation Steppes Plains Mountain of Iran Desert Inhabitable region Desert Desert
  82. 82. In the north, lies a stretch of upland called a steppe where the north-east lies In animal herding is done. undulating plains green, with enough rainfall to grow crops. To the east, Locating Mesopotamia tributaries of the Tigris provide routes of communication into the mountains of Iran. The south is a desert - the first cities and writing emerged here. The Rivers Euphrates and Tigris Land of Diverse Environments made the regions fertile.
  83. 83. • Mesopotamia was a succession of societies. Sumerian (Sumer) Akkad First Babylon Assyria Second Babylon
  84. 84. Sumerian Society • • • • • Based on city-states Geography influenced development Theocratic form of government Divided into classes Class System Monarch/nobility Priests/scribes Commoners Slaves
  85. 85. Ziggurats – stepped towers topped by temples
  86. 86. Ziggurats were the focal point of the city-state.
  87. 87. Cuneiform – First system of writing
  88. 88. Cuneiform tablet with envelope
  89. 89. Cuneiform – Developed to keep record of business transactions and taxes Later used for literature The first work of literature was the Epic of Gilgamesh – a Sumerian flood story
  90. 90. Deciphered letters in Cuneiform and their equivalent English Alphabets Writing was reserved for the wealthy classes
  91. 91. Sumerian Trade • Trade links with Egypt and Harappa • Sumerian mathematics based on 60 (clock and circle) • Sumerian astronomical charts basis for modern astronomy • Sumerians invented quadratic expressions
  92. 92. Akkad Conquered Sumer – Akkad first empire Attempted to centralise power Sargon I – First emperor Absorbed Sumerian culture
  93. 93. Babylon Conquered Akkad Continued Sumerian culture Code of Hammurabi  282 laws  Based on Lex Talonis (eye for an eye) and social class
  94. 94. Assyria Conquered Babylon Highly organised military Ruthless and hated Largest of Mesopotamian empires
  95. 95. Neo Babylon Founded by king Nebuchadnezzar Introduced hanging gardens Continued Sumerian culture Conquered by Persians Back to List Back to Map
  96. 96. Egyptian Civilisation • Developed along river Nile • Also known as ‘Gift of Nile’ • Geography – Natural barriers  Desert  Mediterranean and Red seas • Form of government – Theocracy • Bureaucracy – vizier • Three major periods – Old, Middle and New Kingdoms
  97. 97. The Old Kingdom Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt – King Menes (Narmer) Pharaoh (a God) – separated from population Era of peace Some trade with Mesopotamia/Africa
  98. 98. The first pyramid Construction of Pyramids began Slavery not existed or was on less scale Kingdom fell due to power struggles with nobility
  99. 99. The pyramids at Giza
  100. 100. Contrary to popular belief, the pyramids were not built with slave labor but by the Egyptian people. How was it done?
  101. 101. The Middle Kingdom • Pharaohs were more accessible. • They derived support from middle class. • Extensive trade links with Mesopotamia, Mediterranean, and Africa • Fell to Hyksos, supposed to be of Asiatic origin
  102. 102. The New Kingdom Egyptians gained knowledge of war from Hyksos. Era of war and expansion Large slave population First female ruler: Hatshepsut
  103. 103. Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) Established monotheism Aton: Sun God Shifted capital from Thebes to el-Amarna Akhenaton and his wife, Nefertiti Queen Nefertiti Had very short reign
  104. 104. Tutankhamen Succeeded throne at the age of 9 yrs Polytheism restored by Tutankhamen Restored traditional privileges to priesthood Tried to restore relations with neighbours Quite successful, suggested by gifts recovered from his tomb Forensic experts have created the real Tutankhamen
  105. 105. Tomb of Tutankhamen
  106. 106. Ramses II Prolific ruler, fought to reclaim territories in Africa and West Asia 5th year of reign fought battle of Kadesh Won territories, later lost to Hittites Conquered by nomadic sea people Last real independent kingdom
  107. 107. The Treaty of Kadesh
  108. 108. Ramses the Great today Back to List Back to Map
  109. 109. The Chinese Civilisation
  110. 110. Geography of the Civilisation Flourished on banks of river Huang He River popularly known as “China‟s Sorrow” because of its devastating floods Northern borders vulnerable Western borders mostly covered by desert South-west frontier: Mighty Himalayas Eastern frontier: Pacific Ocean Civilisation centred around Arable land
  111. 111. People and Rulers • Yangshao/Longshan People • Xia Dynasty – mythical? • Shang Dynasty: 3,000 states – Fragmented King – Head shaman Dynasty based on divine rule Technologically advanced Bureaucracy increasingly sophisticated
  112. 112. Writing and Script Writing found on: Oracle Bones Prominently ideographic symbols Primarily for religious purpose
  113. 113. Bronze Craft Bronze Sophisticated metallurgy skills Controlled by elites Used for religious rituals and weapons Back to List Back to Map
  114. 114. Learning through Maps
  115. 115. Four Great Civilisations Mesopotamian Civilisation Egyptian Civilisation Harappan Civilisation Chinese Civilisation
  116. 116. Early Harappan Settlements Damb Sadaat Siswal culture Kot Diji Amri-Nal cultures
  117. 117. Mature Harappan Settlements Sites located in India Manda Harappa Mitathal Ganeriwala Mohenjodaro Chanhudaro Banawali Kalibangan Dholavira Lothal Rangpur Sites located in Pakistan Back to List
  118. 118. Harappa Trade Silver Harappa Copper & Steatite Copper Carnelian Gold
  119. 119. Amri-Nal Culture Situated in Sindh province of modern Pakistan Excavated by N.G Majumdar First site to provide evidence of pre-Harappan artifacts No evidence of fortification Created artificial gulf for defence Evidence of reindeer found Back to List Back to Map
  120. 120. Kot Diji Culture Situated on the left bank of river Indus in the Sindh province of Pakistan Excavated by Fazl Ahmad Khan (1955) Major discovery: Arrows made of stone Back to List Back to Map
  121. 121. Damb Sadaat Culture Located in Baluchistan, outside Indus Valley Similarities evident in ceramic form and design Shows – these areas were in contact during middle and late third millennium B.C. Back to List Back to Map
  122. 122. Siswal Culture • • • Located in Hissar district of Haryana Three stages of Harappan culture revealed Brought to light early Harappan ceramic culture with super imposition of late Siswal ceramic culture Back to List Back to Map
  123. 123. Mix „n‟ Match Identify the Site
  124. 124. Group these archaeological sites on the basis of their distribution in India and Pakistan. Ganeriwala Manda Harappa Mitathal Dholavira Banawali Mohenjodaro Chanhudaro Rangpur Lothal Back to List Solution
  125. 125. Identify the Site • Located in Khadir Byet of Rann of Kutch • Stone slab having largest letters of Harappan script found • Located in Gujarat • Only site having three lines of fortifications Ans: Dholavira
  126. 126. • Situated on left bank of river Ravi • First description provided by Charles Masson • Railway contractors used bricks of this settlement • Excavation began in 1921 under D.R Sahni Ans: Harappa
  127. 127. • Situated on bank of River Bhogava • One of the production centres of the civilisation • A bead factory discovered from the site • Contributed in Harappan trade with distant lands Ans: Lothal
  128. 128. Thanks for watching…

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