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Kyoto protocol and cdm presentation


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Kyoto protocol and cdm presentation

  1. 1. 1 Kyoto Protocol and the CDM Mohit Kumar Gauttam EEE, 5th Sem. UE104034
  2. 2. 2 Introduction to Climate Change Some basic facts • Human activities are releasing greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere • Climate change is a global issue • Rising levels of greenhouse gases are already changing the climate • Climate models predict the global temperature will rise by about 2 degrees by 2030. • Climate change is likely to have a significant impact on the global environment, economy and society
  3. 3. 3 Introduction to Climate Change The greenhouse effect 4 4) Infra-red radiations emitted from Earth 1 1) Solar radiation 2 2) Reflected back to space 3 3) Absorbed by atmosphere 5 5) Some of the IR passes through the atmosphere 6 6) Some is absorbed and re-emitted by greenhouse gas molecules The effect is increasing temperatures on Earth
  4. 4. 4 Introduction to Climate Change 1 oC increase since 1986
  5. 5. 5 Introduction to Climate Change The greenhouse gases
  6. 6. 6 Introduction to Climate Change Greenhouses are rising
  7. 7. 7 Introduction to Climate Change température increases
  8. 8. 8 Major impacts > Temperature increase > Sea level rise > More rain Agriculture and food security Crop yields, irrigation demands... Forest Composition, health and productivity... Water resources Water supply, water quality... Coastal areas Erosion, inundation, cost of prevention... Species and natural areas Biodiversity, modification of ecosystems... Human health Infectious diseases, human settlements... Consequences of climate change:
  9. 9. 9 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) • A global legal instrument (international agreement) to protect the climate system and stabilize GHG emissions • Adopted in 1992, entered into force in 1994 • Status of participation: 189 Parties • Contains 2 annexes: – Annex 1: countries with obligations to take measures to mitigate the effects of climate change – Annex 2: countries with obligations to provide financing to developing countries for their obligations under UNFCCC
  10. 10. 10 Kyoto Protocol – Key points • Adopted at third Conference of Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC in Kyoto in 1997 • Required ratification of > 55 countries representing > 55% of GHG emissions • Entered into force on February 16th, 2005 after ratification of the Russian Federation • Now 163 countries covering 61.6% of global emissions have ratified the protocol
  11. 11. 11 Kyoto Protocol – Key points • Six emissions: CO2, CH4, N2O, PFCs, HFCs, SF6 • Binding emission reduction targets for Annex I countries of 5.2% below 1990 over 2008-2012 • Non-Annex I countries have no binding targets but must report on their actions • Annex I countries can achieve targets through domestic policies and three market mechanisms • Non-Annex I countries can participate through the Clean Development Mechanism to facilitate sustainable development • Rules for implementation worked out at annual COP meetings
  12. 12. 12 Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Rep Denmark EC Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine UK USA * Countries with economies in transition to a market economy. * Countries which did not ratify Kyoto protocol. Annex B countries (= Annex I under UNFCCC)
  13. 13. 13 Flexible Mechanisms ET - Emissions Trading AAU (Assigned Amount Units) are exchanged between Annex I countries JI - Joint Implementation Annex I investors receive ERUs (Emission Reduction Units) by investing in a project in another Annex I nation which reduces GHG emissions CDM - Clean Development Mechanism Annex I investors receive CERs (Certified Emission Reductions) by investing in a project in a non-Annex I nation which reduces GHG emissions
  14. 14. 14 What Annex I countries can do Limitations of CO2 emissions in developed countries (Annex I) 4 options for companies 1/ Pay expensive fines. 2/ Carry out carbon reduction through processes improvement. 3/ Buy emissions credits on the CO2 market (ETS). 4/ Carry out carbon reduction through technology transfers in CDM or JI project.
  15. 15. 15 Kyoto Protocol and CDM at a Glance Opportunities for industry • Technology transfer to improve process and energy efficiency • Co-finance investments by selling emission credits • Prepare for future commitments (after 2012) • Achieve sustainable development
  16. 16. 16 Need of CDM • Emission reductions more expensive in developed than developing countries • Two objectives: – Help Annex 1 countries meet their objectives in a cost-effective way – Contribute to sustainable development of the host country
  17. 17. 17 How the CDM Works • Annex I country invests in GHG reduction project in non-Annex I country • Annex I country receives CERs • Non-Annex I country receives revenues from CERs
  18. 18. References • • ms/clean_development_mechanism/items /2718.php • • ol • • • ment_Mechanism 18
  19. 19. Any Queries? 19